Period
to 23 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 23 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK > England
6 months to
23 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 18 23 15
Rank change year-on-year +5 -8 -4
Contract jobs citing Linux 2,528 4,424 7,654
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 7.33% 6.72% 8.38%
As % of the Operating Systems category 40.48% 32.42% 40.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,935 2,970 5,146
Median daily rate £500 £500 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -0.10% - +2.09%
10th Percentile £324 £315 £325
90th Percentile £650 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £495 £500
% change year-on-year +1.01% -1.00% +5.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 71 107 156
Median hourly rate £43.00 £45.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -4.44% - +10.69%
10th Percentile £25.00 £18.20 £27.25
90th Percentile £60.00 £55.00 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £43.00 £44.75 £44.50
% change year-on-year -3.91% +0.56% +11.25%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 6,245 13,647 19,085
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 18.10% 20.71% 20.90%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,022 8,770 12,212
Median daily rate £428 £413 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.82% -2.94% -
10th Percentile £163 £143 £160
90th Percentile £615 £600 £613
UK median daily rate £430 £405 £425
% change year-on-year +6.17% -4.71% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 362 1,009 1,190
Median hourly rate £17.75 £17.16 £17.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.44% +0.94% -
10th Percentile £11.17 £11.25 £11.17
90th Percentile £53.68 £48.75 £47.00
Median hourly rate £17.75 £17.50 £17.00
% change year-on-year +1.43% +2.94% -

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Daily rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 23 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 23 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the England region over the 6 months to 23 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +4 1,323 £525 - 446
South East +14 373 £450 -5.26% 236
North of England -12 211 £450 - 251
South West -1 184 £438 -4.89% 146
Midlands +11 171 £420 -5.62% 139
East of England +2 135 £425 -5.56% 145
West Midlands +13 119 £425 -6.08% 76
North West -7 112 £450 -1.10% 146
Yorkshire -24 73 £525 +16.67% 80
East Midlands +6 46 £395 -4.35% 61
North East -4 26 £450 +4.65% 25
Linux
UK

For the 6 months to 23 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Linux.

1 766 (30.30%) Python
2 754 (29.83%) DevOps
3 746 (29.51%) Windows
4 673 (26.62%) Java
5 639 (25.28%) Agile Software Development
6 592 (23.42%) Kubernetes
7 591 (23.38%) AWS
8 571 (22.59%) Docker
9 567 (22.43%) Security Cleared
10 550 (21.76%) Unix
11 520 (20.57%) Ansible
12 466 (18.43%) Azure
13 455 (18.00%) Terraform
14 432 (17.09%) SC Cleared
15 416 (16.46%) Jenkins
16 415 (16.42%) Git (software)
17 402 (15.90%) SQL
18 398 (15.74%) Oracle
19 368 (14.56%) Finance
20 342 (13.53%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
21 335 (13.25%) VMware
22 332 (13.13%) Red Hat
23 296 (11.71%) Bash Shell
24 295 (11.67%) C++
25 280 (11.08%) Puppet
26 262 (10.36%) Continuous Integration
27 259 (10.25%) Microsoft
28 254 (10.05%) Firewall
29 242 (9.57%) Banking
30 241 (9.53%) Microservices

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 134 (5.30%) Apache
2 120 (4.75%) Confluence
3 94 (3.72%) JBoss
4 81 (3.20%) Tomcat
5 79 (3.13%) Elasticsearch
6 72 (2.85%) Mule
7 61 (2.41%) WebLogic
8 56 (2.22%) WebSphere
9 54 (2.14%) SharePoint
10 49 (1.94%) Red Hat Fuse
11 44 (1.74%) nginx
12 40 (1.58%) Apache Spark
12 40 (1.58%) IIS
13 39 (1.54%) OpenStack
14 37 (1.46%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 25 (0.99%) MS Exchange
16 23 (0.91%) SAS
17 22 (0.87%) WebSphere Application Server
18 13 (0.51%) Jupyter
19 9 (0.36%) Skype for Business
Applications
1 39 (1.54%) Microsoft Excel
2 37 (1.46%) Microsoft Office
3 22 (0.87%) MS Visio
4 9 (0.36%) SOLIDWORKS
5 8 (0.32%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 3 (0.12%) Simulink
7 2 (0.079%) Microsoft Project
8 1 (0.040%) Adobe Illustrator
8 1 (0.040%) InVision
8 1 (0.040%) Notepad++
8 1 (0.040%) Photoshop
8 1 (0.040%) Sketch
8 1 (0.040%) SPSS
8 1 (0.040%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 35 (1.38%) Oracle Applications
2 28 (1.11%) Oracle EBS
3 14 (0.55%) Magento
3 14 (0.55%) Oracle EBS R12
4 12 (0.47%) ION MarketView
5 10 (0.40%) SAP FI-CA
6 5 (0.20%) Remedy ITSM
7 4 (0.16%) assyst
7 4 (0.16%) Oracle BPM
7 4 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
7 4 (0.16%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 3 (0.12%) Infor M3
8 3 (0.12%) SAP Hybris
8 3 (0.12%) SAP PSCD
8 3 (0.12%) SunGard Martini
9 2 (0.079%) BusinessWorks
9 2 (0.079%) Fredhopper
9 2 (0.079%) HFM
9 2 (0.079%) Kondor
9 2 (0.079%) Salerio
Cloud Services
1 591 (23.38%) AWS
2 466 (18.43%) Azure
3 134 (5.30%) GCP
4 133 (5.26%) GitHub
5 102 (4.03%) IaaS
5 102 (4.03%) PaaS
6 88 (3.48%) OpenShift
7 86 (3.40%) Serverless
8 76 (3.01%) AWS CloudFormation
9 75 (2.97%) Amazon EC2
10 69 (2.73%) Office 365
11 66 (2.61%) Amazon S3
11 66 (2.61%) Cloud Computing
12 61 (2.41%) AWS Lambda
13 52 (2.06%) SaaS
14 51 (2.02%) Amazon EKS
15 48 (1.90%) Virtual Private Cloud
16 45 (1.78%) Amazon ECS
17 33 (1.31%) Azure Active Directory
18 32 (1.27%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 254 (10.05%) Firewall
2 188 (7.44%) TCP/IP
3 187 (7.40%) DNS
4 112 (4.43%) DHCP
5 108 (4.27%) HTTP
6 90 (3.56%) WAN
7 76 (3.01%) VPN
8 67 (2.65%) LAN
9 66 (2.61%) VLAN
10 54 (2.14%) SSL
11 48 (1.90%) SAN
12 45 (1.78%) IPv6
13 41 (1.62%) Multicast
13 41 (1.62%) SMTP
13 41 (1.62%) VSAN
13 41 (1.62%) Wi-Fi
14 37 (1.46%) SNMP
15 36 (1.42%) Network Security
16 34 (1.34%) IPv4
17 33 (1.31%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 203 (8.03%) MySQL
2 199 (7.87%) SQL Server
3 196 (7.75%) Relational Database
4 112 (4.43%) PostgreSQL
5 108 (4.27%) Oracle Database
6 107 (4.23%) MongoDB
7 104 (4.11%) NoSQL
8 86 (3.40%) Big Data
9 63 (2.49%) Hadoop
10 52 (2.06%) Data Warehouse
11 48 (1.90%) Amazon RDS
12 44 (1.74%) RDBMS
13 39 (1.54%) DB2
14 33 (1.31%) Apache Cassandra
15 31 (1.23%) Oracle Database 11g
16 30 (1.19%) Apache Hive
16 30 (1.19%) Redis
17 29 (1.15%) HBase
18 24 (0.95%) Oracle Database 12c
19 23 (0.91%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 416 (16.46%) Jenkins
2 415 (16.42%) Git (software)
3 223 (8.82%) JIRA
4 154 (6.09%) GitLab
5 117 (4.63%) Maven
6 76 (3.01%) Bitbucket
7 73 (2.89%) Atlassian Bamboo
8 70 (2.77%) Cucumber
9 69 (2.73%) Artifactory
10 68 (2.69%) Subversion
11 53 (2.10%) TeamCity
12 52 (2.06%) JUnit
12 52 (2.06%) Selenium
13 51 (2.02%) JMeter
14 50 (1.98%) GDB
15 47 (1.86%) Sonatype Nexus
16 41 (1.62%) GCC
17 39 (1.54%) SonarQube
18 33 (1.31%) Toad
19 29 (1.15%) Visual Studio
General
1 368 (14.56%) Finance
2 242 (9.57%) Banking
3 139 (5.50%) Public Sector
4 119 (4.71%) Front Office
5 90 (3.56%) Investment Banking
6 74 (2.93%) Telecoms
7 53 (2.10%) Marketing
8 46 (1.82%) Manufacturing
9 44 (1.74%) Law
10 42 (1.66%) Electronics
11 31 (1.23%) Retail
12 23 (0.91%) Aerospace
13 17 (0.67%) Pharmaceutical
14 15 (0.59%) Financial Institution
15 13 (0.51%) Back Office
15 13 (0.51%) Military
16 12 (0.47%) Advertising
17 11 (0.44%) French Language
17 11 (0.44%) Games
17 11 (0.44%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 631 (24.96%) Developer
2 342 (13.53%) DevOps Engineer
3 206 (8.15%) Architect
4 204 (8.07%) Java Developer
5 159 (6.29%) Linux Engineer
6 112 (4.43%) Consultant
7 110 (4.35%) Administrator
8 108 (4.27%) Software Engineer
9 107 (4.23%) AWS DevOps
10 103 (4.07%) AWS Engineer
11 102 (4.03%) Analyst
11 102 (4.03%) C++ Developer
12 98 (3.88%) Cloud Engineer
13 97 (3.84%) Senior Developer
14 93 (3.68%) Infrastructure Engineer
15 75 (2.97%) AWS DevOps Engineer
16 67 (2.65%) Azure Engineer
17 64 (2.53%) DBA
18 62 (2.45%) Senior DevOps
19 58 (2.29%) Systems Administrator
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 199 (7.87%) Spring
2 194 (7.67%) REST
3 183 (7.24%) Middleware
4 169 (6.69%) Web Services
5 125 (4.94%) Kafka
6 119 (4.71%) HTML
7 110 (4.35%) .NET
8 104 (4.11%) XML
9 101 (4.00%) Apache Camel
10 100 (3.96%) JSON
11 93 (3.68%) Node.js
12 86 (3.40%) Elastic Stack
12 86 (3.40%) RESTful
13 77 (3.05%) AngularJS
13 77 (3.05%) CSS
14 72 (2.85%) Spring Boot
15 66 (2.61%) Spring Integration
16 63 (2.49%) J2EE
17 60 (2.37%) RabbitMQ
18 57 (2.25%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 152 (6.01%) Analytical Skills
2 103 (4.07%) Data Centre
3 81 (3.20%) Linux Command Line
4 75 (2.97%) Public Cloud
5 68 (2.69%) Clustering
6 60 (2.37%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 57 (2.25%) Fixed Income
8 51 (2.02%) Private Cloud
9 50 (1.98%) Algorithms
10 48 (1.90%) Enterprise Software
11 47 (1.86%) Management Information System
12 45 (1.78%) User Experience
13 37 (1.46%) Self-Motivation
13 37 (1.46%) Virtual Team
14 36 (1.42%) Device Driver
14 36 (1.42%) Greenfield Project
15 30 (1.19%) Cloud Native
16 29 (1.15%) Replication
17 28 (1.11%) Equities
18 27 (1.07%) PKI
Operating Systems
1 746 (29.51%) Windows
2 550 (21.76%) Unix
3 342 (13.53%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 172 (6.80%) Windows Server
5 152 (6.01%) CentOS
6 97 (3.84%) Solaris
6 97 (3.84%) Ubuntu
7 63 (2.49%) Windows 10
8 56 (2.22%) AIX
9 54 (2.14%) Windows Server 2012
10 41 (1.62%) Oracle Linux
11 39 (1.54%) Windows Server 2016
12 37 (1.46%) Android
13 36 (1.42%) Embedded Linux
13 36 (1.42%) Mac OS X
14 31 (1.23%) SUSE
15 27 (1.07%) Debian
16 26 (1.03%) Mac OS
16 26 (1.03%) Windows Server 2008
17 23 (0.91%) Apple iOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 754 (29.83%) DevOps
2 639 (25.28%) Agile Software Development
3 262 (10.36%) Continuous Integration
4 241 (9.53%) Microservices
5 238 (9.41%) Test Automation
6 231 (9.14%) Problem-Solving
7 222 (8.78%) Scrum
7 222 (8.78%) Software Engineering
8 212 (8.39%) Configuration Management
9 200 (7.91%) Infrastructure as Code
10 196 (7.75%) TDD
11 162 (6.41%) Open Source
12 141 (5.58%) Migration
13 120 (4.75%) Infrastructure Engineering
14 119 (4.71%) High Availability
14 119 (4.71%) Performance Tuning
15 111 (4.39%) Computer Science
16 110 (4.35%) ITIL
17 107 (4.23%) OO
18 106 (4.19%) Continuous Delivery
Programming Languages
1 766 (30.30%) Python
2 673 (26.62%) Java
3 402 (15.90%) SQL
4 296 (11.71%) Bash Shell
5 295 (11.67%) C++
6 232 (9.18%) JavaScript
7 220 (8.70%) PowerShell
8 189 (7.48%) Perl
9 186 (7.36%) Shell Script
10 137 (5.42%) C
11 119 (4.71%) C#
12 105 (4.15%) PL/SQL
13 101 (4.00%) Ruby
14 87 (3.44%) Go
15 73 (2.89%) Scala
16 72 (2.85%) PHP
17 66 (2.61%) Java 8
18 36 (1.42%) Groovy
19 23 (0.91%) TypeScript
20 21 (0.83%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 567 (22.43%) Security Cleared
2 432 (17.09%) SC Cleared
3 144 (5.70%) Degree
4 141 (5.58%) DV Cleared
5 53 (2.10%) Cisco Certification
6 47 (1.86%) Computer Science Degree
7 40 (1.58%) CCNA
8 33 (1.31%) CCNP
9 28 (1.11%) AWS Certification
10 27 (1.07%) Microsoft Certification
11 23 (0.91%) Master's Degree
12 22 (0.87%) RHCE
13 19 (0.75%) CISSP
14 18 (0.71%) CompTIA Security+
15 16 (0.63%) ISEB
15 16 (0.63%) ISTQB
15 16 (0.63%) RHCSA
16 15 (0.59%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
17 13 (0.51%) GCFA
17 13 (0.51%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 79 (3.13%) QA
2 47 (1.86%) NIST
3 43 (1.70%) SLA
4 34 (1.34%) GDPR
5 24 (0.95%) PCI DSS
6 15 (0.59%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 13 (0.51%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 12 (0.47%) COBIT
9 9 (0.36%) WCAG
10 8 (0.32%) RMADS
11 7 (0.28%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
12 6 (0.24%) Data Quality
12 6 (0.24%) HIPAA
13 5 (0.20%) JTAG
13 5 (0.20%) NCSC
14 3 (0.12%) Cyber Essentials
14 3 (0.12%) ISO 9001
14 3 (0.12%) JSP 440
14 3 (0.12%) MiFID
14 3 (0.12%) PMO
System Software
1 571 (22.59%) Docker
2 239 (9.45%) VMware Infrastructure
3 237 (9.38%) Active Directory
4 85 (3.36%) VMware ESXi
5 80 (3.16%) Virtual Machines
6 67 (2.65%) vSphere
7 49 (1.94%) Hyper-V
8 43 (1.70%) VMware NSX
9 34 (1.34%) Oracle RAC
10 33 (1.31%) HDFS
11 21 (0.83%) NFS
12 18 (0.71%) KVM
13 15 (0.59%) GlusterFS
14 13 (0.51%) Firmware
14 13 (0.51%) Xen
15 12 (0.47%) Apache ZooKeeper
16 10 (0.40%) Virtual Servers
16 10 (0.40%) VirtualBox
17 8 (0.32%) Veritas Cluster Server
17 8 (0.32%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 592 (23.42%) Kubernetes
2 520 (20.57%) Ansible
3 455 (18.00%) Terraform
4 280 (11.08%) Puppet
5 156 (6.17%) Opscode Chef
6 86 (3.40%) Prometheus
7 85 (3.36%) Grafana
8 52 (2.06%) Kibana
9 48 (1.90%) vCenter Server
10 43 (1.70%) Packer
11 41 (1.62%) Nagios
12 38 (1.50%) Consul
13 31 (1.23%) Oracle RMAN
14 29 (1.15%) Microsoft Intune
15 28 (1.11%) SCCM
16 26 (1.03%) Rancher
17 24 (0.95%) logstash
18 23 (0.91%) Salt
19 22 (0.87%) Istio
20 21 (0.83%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 398 (15.74%) Oracle
2 335 (13.25%) VMware
3 332 (13.13%) Red Hat
4 259 (10.25%) Microsoft
5 156 (6.17%) Splunk
6 134 (5.30%) Cisco
7 99 (3.92%) IBM
7 99 (3.92%) SAP
8 86 (3.40%) Dell
9 82 (3.24%) Google
10 80 (3.16%) Atlassian
11 69 (2.73%) HP
12 59 (2.33%) EMC
13 47 (1.86%) Juniper
14 45 (1.78%) Citrix
14 45 (1.78%) F5
14 45 (1.78%) NetApp
15 44 (1.74%) AppDynamics
16 41 (1.62%) Sybase
17 40 (1.58%) Fortinet