Period
to 14 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 14 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK > England
6 months to
14 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 21 22 14
Rank change year-on-year +1 -8 -4
Contract jobs citing Linux 2,836 3,573 7,319
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 6.77% 6.68% 8.29%
As % of the Operating Systems category 40.51% 32.81% 40.79%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,898 2,440 4,840
10th Percentile £325 £320 £325
25th Percentile £400 £406 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £500
75th Percentile £600 £588 £588
90th Percentile £688 £663 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £490 £500
% change year-on-year +2.04% -2.00% +2.04%
Number of hourly rates quoted 59 87 141
10th Percentile £33.20 £20.50 £21.25
25th Percentile £40.25 £35.63 £40.00
Median hourly rate £47.00 £45.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +4.44% - +5.88%
75th Percentile £57.50 £50.50 £50.00
90th Percentile £60.40 £54.25 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £47.00 £45.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year +4.44% - +12.50%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 7,000 10,891 17,945
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 16.71% 20.36% 20.33%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,617 7,106 11,683
10th Percentile £181 £143 £160
25th Percentile £325 £250 £317
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £450 £425 £438
Median % change year-on-year +5.88% -2.86% -
75th Percentile £539 £528 £538
90th Percentile £630 £613 £625
UK median daily rate £450 £420 £425
% change year-on-year +7.14% -1.18% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 368 852 1,017
10th Percentile £11.93 £11.61 £11.17
25th Percentile £14.00 £13.50 £13.00
Median hourly rate £17.89 £17.25 £17.00
Median % change year-on-year +3.68% +1.47% +3.03%
75th Percentile £42.00 £21.56 £27.25
90th Percentile £54.00 £47.50 £48.16
UK median hourly rate £17.89 £17.50 £16.95
% change year-on-year +2.20% +3.24% +4.10%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Daily rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 14 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 14 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the England region over the 6 months to 14 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +3 1,481 £525 - 607
South East +17 436 £460 -3.16% 336
South West +1 239 £463 -6.09% 163
North of England -14 221 £450 - 257
Midlands +3 160 £400 -11.11% 186
North West -8 124 £443 -1.56% 131
East of England -7 120 £425 -5.56% 184
West Midlands +1 102 £400 -15.34% 109
Yorkshire -13 79 £488 +14.71% 94
East Midlands +10 51 £400 -5.88% 76
North East -9 18 £450 +0.56% 32
Linux
UK

For the 6 months to 14 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Linux.

1 915 (32.26%) DevOps
2 839 (29.58%) Windows
3 826 (29.13%) Python
4 734 (25.88%) Java
5 726 (25.60%) AWS
6 704 (24.82%) Agile Software Development
7 685 (24.15%) Docker
8 653 (23.03%) Kubernetes
9 632 (22.28%) Ansible
10 627 (22.11%) Unix
11 606 (21.37%) Security Cleared
12 575 (20.28%) Azure
13 564 (19.89%) Terraform
14 466 (16.43%) SQL
15 454 (16.01%) Git (software)
16 445 (15.69%) Finance
17 442 (15.59%) SC Cleared
18 441 (15.55%) Jenkins
19 396 (13.96%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
20 395 (13.93%) Oracle
21 378 (13.33%) Red Hat
22 372 (13.12%) VMware
23 350 (12.34%) Microsoft
24 304 (10.72%) Software Engineering
25 297 (10.47%) C++
26 293 (10.33%) Banking
27 288 (10.16%) Bash Shell
28 284 (10.01%) Continuous Integration
29 281 (9.91%) PowerShell
30 279 (9.84%) Test Automation

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 137 (4.83%) Confluence
2 136 (4.80%) Apache
3 80 (2.82%) Elasticsearch
4 72 (2.54%) Apache Spark
4 72 (2.54%) Tomcat
5 62 (2.19%) Mule
6 59 (2.08%) JBoss
6 59 (2.08%) SharePoint
7 53 (1.87%) WebSphere
8 50 (1.76%) WebLogic
9 46 (1.62%) IIS
10 45 (1.59%) nginx
11 35 (1.23%) Red Hat Fuse
12 32 (1.13%) MS Exchange
13 30 (1.06%) SAS
14 29 (1.02%) OpenStack
15 28 (0.99%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 21 (0.74%) WebSphere Application Server
17 17 (0.60%) CMS
18 14 (0.49%) Drupal
Applications
1 42 (1.48%) Microsoft Excel
2 41 (1.45%) Microsoft Office
3 27 (0.95%) MS Visio
4 6 (0.21%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.11%) SOLIDWORKS
6 2 (0.071%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 2 (0.071%) Microsoft Project
6 2 (0.071%) Simulink
Business Applications
1 26 (0.92%) Oracle Applications
1 26 (0.92%) Oracle EBS
2 15 (0.53%) ION MarketView
3 10 (0.35%) Sentinel
4 9 (0.32%) assyst
4 9 (0.32%) Magento
5 5 (0.18%) Eikon
5 5 (0.18%) Oracle EBS R12
5 5 (0.18%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
5 5 (0.18%) Remedy ITSM
6 4 (0.14%) Oracle BPM
6 4 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
7 3 (0.11%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 2 (0.071%) Dynamics NAV
8 2 (0.071%) HFM
8 2 (0.071%) Kondor
8 2 (0.071%) Oracle Payables
8 2 (0.071%) Salerio
8 2 (0.071%) SAP FI-CA
8 2 (0.071%) SAP PSCD
Cloud Services
1 726 (25.60%) AWS
2 575 (20.28%) Azure
3 156 (5.50%) GCP
4 147 (5.18%) PaaS
5 141 (4.97%) IaaS
6 131 (4.62%) GitHub
7 109 (3.84%) OpenShift
8 102 (3.60%) AWS CloudFormation
9 91 (3.21%) Serverless
10 86 (3.03%) Microsoft 365
11 70 (2.47%) Amazon EC2
12 69 (2.43%) SaaS
13 67 (2.36%) Cloud Computing
14 66 (2.33%) AWS Lambda
15 64 (2.26%) Amazon EKS
16 61 (2.15%) Amazon S3
17 45 (1.59%) Amazon ECS
18 38 (1.34%) Virtual Private Cloud
19 29 (1.02%) Azure Active Directory
20 25 (0.88%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 267 (9.41%) Firewall
2 167 (5.89%) DNS
3 162 (5.71%) TCP/IP
4 94 (3.31%) HTTP
5 91 (3.21%) WAN
6 88 (3.10%) DHCP
7 81 (2.86%) VPN
8 79 (2.79%) SAN
9 74 (2.61%) LAN
10 62 (2.19%) SSL
11 58 (2.05%) VLAN
12 54 (1.90%) Multicast
13 43 (1.52%) Network Security
14 40 (1.41%) Internet
15 37 (1.30%) Wireless
16 36 (1.27%) Wireshark
17 35 (1.23%) IPv6
18 33 (1.16%) Ethernet
18 33 (1.16%) SMTP
18 33 (1.16%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 228 (8.04%) SQL Server
2 176 (6.21%) Relational Database
3 160 (5.64%) MySQL
4 133 (4.69%) PostgreSQL
5 122 (4.30%) MongoDB
6 120 (4.23%) NoSQL
7 110 (3.88%) Oracle Database
8 95 (3.35%) Hadoop
9 90 (3.17%) Big Data
10 52 (1.83%) Data Warehouse
11 49 (1.73%) DB2
12 45 (1.59%) Apache Cassandra
13 42 (1.48%) HBase
14 41 (1.45%) Amazon RDS
14 41 (1.45%) Apache Hive
15 37 (1.30%) Oracle Database 11g
16 35 (1.23%) RDBMS
17 34 (1.20%) Oracle Database 12c
18 31 (1.09%) Redis
19 26 (0.92%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 454 (16.01%) Git (software)
2 441 (15.55%) Jenkins
3 250 (8.82%) JIRA
4 190 (6.70%) GitLab
5 120 (4.23%) Maven
6 93 (3.28%) Bitbucket
7 82 (2.89%) Artifactory
8 77 (2.72%) Subversion
9 65 (2.29%) Sonatype Nexus
10 64 (2.26%) TeamCity
11 55 (1.94%) JUnit
11 55 (1.94%) SonarQube
12 52 (1.83%) Atlassian Bamboo
13 47 (1.66%) Selenium
14 46 (1.62%) Cucumber
15 41 (1.45%) GDB
16 39 (1.38%) Gradle
16 39 (1.38%) JMeter
17 38 (1.34%) Visual Studio
18 27 (0.95%) NetBeans
General
1 445 (15.69%) Finance
2 293 (10.33%) Banking
3 145 (5.11%) Public Sector
4 119 (4.20%) Front Office
5 113 (3.98%) Telecoms
6 107 (3.77%) Investment Banking
7 64 (2.26%) Marketing
8 62 (2.19%) Manufacturing
9 52 (1.83%) Electronics
10 35 (1.23%) Law
11 34 (1.20%) Retail
12 20 (0.71%) Aerospace
12 20 (0.71%) Back Office
13 15 (0.53%) Billing
14 14 (0.49%) Games
14 14 (0.49%) Publishing
15 13 (0.46%) Pharmaceutical
16 12 (0.42%) Financial Institution
17 10 (0.35%) Legal
17 10 (0.35%) Military
Job Titles
1 641 (22.60%) Developer
2 426 (15.02%) DevOps Engineer
3 246 (8.67%) Architect
4 233 (8.22%) Java Developer
5 152 (5.36%) Linux Engineer
6 150 (5.29%) AWS Engineer
7 148 (5.22%) AWS DevOps
8 131 (4.62%) Software Engineer
9 117 (4.13%) Consultant
10 116 (4.09%) Cloud Engineer
11 115 (4.06%) Administrator
11 115 (4.06%) Senior Developer
12 114 (4.02%) Infrastructure Engineer
13 109 (3.84%) Azure Engineer
13 109 (3.84%) C++ Developer
14 107 (3.77%) AWS DevOps Engineer
15 99 (3.49%) Analyst
16 76 (2.68%) Senior DevOps
17 70 (2.47%) Senior DevOps Engineer
18 62 (2.19%) Senior Java Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 227 (8.00%) Spring
2 205 (7.23%) Web Services
3 189 (6.66%) REST
4 175 (6.17%) Middleware
5 170 (5.99%) Kafka
6 165 (5.82%) .NET
7 122 (4.30%) HTML
8 113 (3.98%) Node.js
9 107 (3.77%) JSON
10 98 (3.46%) AngularJS
11 90 (3.17%) Apache Camel
12 88 (3.10%) RESTful
13 87 (3.07%) Elastic Stack
14 86 (3.03%) XML
15 79 (2.79%) CSS
16 78 (2.75%) Spring Boot
17 68 (2.40%) React
18 62 (2.19%) Spring Integration
19 58 (2.05%) J2EE
20 55 (1.94%) Hibernate
Miscellaneous
1 142 (5.01%) Analytical Skills
2 131 (4.62%) Data Centre
3 97 (3.42%) Clustering
4 94 (3.31%) Management Information System
5 87 (3.07%) Public Cloud
6 84 (2.96%) Algorithms
7 67 (2.36%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 67 (2.36%) Linux Command Line
8 63 (2.22%) Data Structures
9 55 (1.94%) Cloud Native
10 52 (1.83%) Enterprise Software
11 49 (1.73%) User Experience
12 45 (1.59%) Fixed Income
13 40 (1.41%) Private Cloud
14 39 (1.38%) Hedge funds
15 38 (1.34%) Self-Motivation
16 36 (1.27%) Greenfield Project
17 34 (1.20%) PKI
17 34 (1.20%) Replication
18 32 (1.13%) Hybrid Cloud
Operating Systems
1 839 (29.58%) Windows
2 627 (22.11%) Unix
3 396 (13.96%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 200 (7.05%) Windows Server
5 163 (5.75%) CentOS
6 87 (3.07%) Solaris
7 82 (2.89%) Ubuntu
8 69 (2.43%) AIX
9 62 (2.19%) Windows Server 2012
10 61 (2.15%) Windows 10
11 46 (1.62%) Mac OS X
12 42 (1.48%) Android
13 40 (1.41%) Embedded Linux
14 36 (1.27%) Mac OS
14 36 (1.27%) Oracle Linux
15 33 (1.16%) Windows Server 2008
16 32 (1.13%) SUSE
17 31 (1.09%) Apple iOS
17 31 (1.09%) Windows Server 2016
18 22 (0.78%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 915 (32.26%) DevOps
2 704 (24.82%) Agile Software Development
3 304 (10.72%) Software Engineering
4 284 (10.01%) Continuous Integration
5 279 (9.84%) Test Automation
6 272 (9.59%) Scrum
7 268 (9.45%) Infrastructure as Code
8 265 (9.34%) Microservices
9 243 (8.57%) Problem-Solving
10 224 (7.90%) Configuration Management
11 222 (7.83%) TDD
12 180 (6.35%) Migration
13 172 (6.06%) Infrastructure Engineering
14 171 (6.03%) Open Source
15 158 (5.57%) ITIL
16 149 (5.25%) High Availability
17 138 (4.87%) Cybersecurity
18 133 (4.69%) Performance Tuning
19 104 (3.67%) Computer Science
20 98 (3.46%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 826 (29.13%) Python
2 734 (25.88%) Java
3 466 (16.43%) SQL
4 297 (10.47%) C++
5 288 (10.16%) Bash Shell
6 281 (9.91%) PowerShell
7 251 (8.85%) JavaScript
8 195 (6.88%) Shell Script
9 155 (5.47%) Perl
10 143 (5.04%) C
11 138 (4.87%) C#
12 98 (3.46%) Ruby
13 95 (3.35%) Go
14 90 (3.17%) Java 8
15 88 (3.10%) PL/SQL
16 87 (3.07%) Scala
17 71 (2.50%) PHP
18 44 (1.55%) Groovy
18 44 (1.55%) TypeScript
19 15 (0.53%) Rust
Qualifications
1 606 (21.37%) Security Cleared
2 442 (15.59%) SC Cleared
3 171 (6.03%) Degree
4 158 (5.57%) DV Cleared
5 56 (1.97%) Cisco Certification
6 44 (1.55%) Computer Science Degree
7 43 (1.52%) CCNA
8 38 (1.34%) CCNP
9 29 (1.02%) Microsoft Certification
10 25 (0.88%) AWS Certification
10 25 (0.88%) RHCE
11 23 (0.81%) CISSP
12 22 (0.78%) Master's Degree
13 20 (0.71%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
14 19 (0.67%) GIAC
15 17 (0.60%) TOGAF Certification
16 14 (0.49%) RHCSA
17 13 (0.46%) CISM
18 12 (0.42%) CompTIA Security+
19 11 (0.39%) ITIL Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 79 (2.79%) QA
2 40 (1.41%) NIST
3 39 (1.38%) SLA
4 33 (1.16%) GDPR
5 24 (0.85%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 23 (0.81%) PCI DSS
7 12 (0.42%) COBIT
7 12 (0.42%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 10 (0.35%) JTAG
9 9 (0.32%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
10 8 (0.28%) WCAG
11 7 (0.25%) Data Quality
11 7 (0.25%) HIPAA
11 7 (0.25%) PMO
12 5 (0.18%) MiFID
13 4 (0.14%) RMADS
14 3 (0.11%) ISO 26262
14 3 (0.11%) NIST 800
15 2 (0.071%) NCSC
15 2 (0.071%) OASIS TOSCA
System Software
1 685 (24.15%) Docker
2 264 (9.31%) VMware Infrastructure
3 245 (8.64%) Active Directory
4 99 (3.49%) Virtual Machines
5 76 (2.68%) VMware ESXi
6 58 (2.05%) Hyper-V
7 56 (1.97%) vSphere
8 43 (1.52%) HDFS
9 41 (1.45%) VMware NSX
10 28 (0.99%) Oracle RAC
11 24 (0.85%) KVM
12 22 (0.78%) NFS
13 19 (0.67%) Firmware
14 16 (0.56%) Veritas Cluster Server
15 14 (0.49%) GlusterFS
16 13 (0.46%) Apache ZooKeeper
16 13 (0.46%) iptables
16 13 (0.46%) Xen
17 9 (0.32%) VirtualBox
18 8 (0.28%) BitLocker
Systems Management
1 653 (23.03%) Kubernetes
2 632 (22.28%) Ansible
3 564 (19.89%) Terraform
4 269 (9.49%) Puppet
5 165 (5.82%) Opscode Chef
6 93 (3.28%) Grafana
7 92 (3.24%) Prometheus
8 51 (1.80%) Kibana
9 49 (1.73%) Packer
10 37 (1.30%) Microsoft Intune
11 35 (1.23%) SCCM
11 35 (1.23%) vCenter Server
11 35 (1.23%) vRealize
12 32 (1.13%) Red Hat Satellite
13 30 (1.06%) Istio
13 30 (1.06%) Salt
14 29 (1.02%) Consul
15 28 (0.99%) Docker Swarm
16 24 (0.85%) Nagios
16 24 (0.85%) Oracle RMAN
Vendors
1 395 (13.93%) Oracle
2 378 (13.33%) Red Hat
3 372 (13.12%) VMware
4 350 (12.34%) Microsoft
5 165 (5.82%) Cisco
6 123 (4.34%) IBM
7 122 (4.30%) Splunk
8 113 (3.98%) Google
9 101 (3.56%) SAP
10 69 (2.43%) Dell
11 67 (2.36%) Atlassian
11 67 (2.36%) EMC
12 59 (2.08%) Citrix
13 54 (1.90%) HP
14 52 (1.83%) AppDynamics
15 45 (1.59%) ServiceNow
16 43 (1.52%) NetApp
17 41 (1.45%) F5
17 41 (1.45%) Veritas
18 36 (1.27%) Cloudera