Period
to 5 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 5 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK > England
6 months to
5 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 27 21 23
Rank change year-on-year -6 +2 -5
Contract jobs citing Linux 4,593 2,398 5,181
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 6.52% 7.65% 6.94%
As % of the Operating Systems category 40.20% 41.18% 33.52%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,247 1,598 3,312
10th Percentile £400 £313 £320
25th Percentile £462 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - -
75th Percentile £644 £588 £588
90th Percentile £700 £650 £675
UK median daily rate £550 £500 £500
% change year-on-year +10.00% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 116 61 127
10th Percentile £37.25 £25.00 £16.21
25th Percentile £44.81 £35.25 £37.50
Median hourly rate £54.93 £42.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +29.24% -5.56% +2.27%
75th Percentile £73.82 £52.00 £50.75
90th Percentile £80.00 £60.00 £54.25
UK median hourly rate £55.00 £42.50 £44.50
% change year-on-year +29.41% -4.49% +3.49%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 11,424 5,823 15,457
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 16.21% 18.58% 20.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,975 3,778 9,885
10th Percentile £161 £165 £145
25th Percentile £320 £313 £255
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £488 £438 £420
Median % change year-on-year +11.43% +4.17% -1.18%
75th Percentile £588 £538 £525
90th Percentile £675 £625 £613
UK median daily rate £490 £433 £413
% change year-on-year +13.25% +4.89% -2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 650 344 1,064
10th Percentile £12.25 £11.17 £11.25
25th Percentile £14.25 £13.94 £14.00
Median hourly rate £18.00 £18.50 £17.50
Median % change year-on-year -2.70% +5.71% +0.72%
75th Percentile £45.00 £40.00 £26.75
90th Percentile £62.15 £51.40 £48.75
UK median hourly rate £18.00 £18.50 £17.50
% change year-on-year -2.70% +5.71% +2.94%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Daily rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 5 December 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 5 December 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the England region over the 6 months to 5 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -8 2,458 £580 +10.48% 731
South East -13 497 £540 +17.39% 328
South West +6 390 £488 +14.71% 229
North of England -8 386 £488 +2.63% 289
Midlands -3 333 £475 +12.98% 218
West Midlands +1 260 £468 +10.00% 130
North West +2 218 £525 +16.67% 152
East of England -8 216 £513 +28.13% 190
Yorkshire -3 151 £450 -10.00% 97
East Midlands -8 66 £488 +27.28% 87
North East -17 21 £500 +3.09% 40
Linux
UK

For the 6 months to 5 December 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,644 (35.79%) Windows
2 1,476 (32.14%) DevOps
3 1,455 (31.68%) Python
4 1,306 (28.43%) AWS
5 1,282 (27.91%) Agile Software Development
6 1,203 (26.19%) Java
7 1,125 (24.49%) Ansible
8 1,031 (22.45%) Docker
9 1,018 (22.16%) Unix
10 1,015 (22.10%) Azure
11 1,010 (21.99%) Terraform
12 933 (20.31%) SQL
13 924 (20.12%) Kubernetes
14 883 (19.22%) Jenkins
15 848 (18.46%) Social Skills
16 817 (17.79%) Security Cleared
17 801 (17.44%) Git (software)
18 746 (16.24%) Bash Shell
19 716 (15.59%) Finance
20 706 (15.37%) Oracle
21 648 (14.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
22 646 (14.06%) SC Cleared
23 571 (12.43%) VMware
24 560 (12.19%) Red Hat
25 553 (12.04%) Configuration Management
26 551 (12.00%) Problem-Solving
27 533 (11.60%) Microsoft
28 518 (11.28%) Software Engineering
29 492 (10.71%) PowerShell
30 479 (10.43%) Test Automation

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 283 (6.16%) Confluence
2 233 (5.07%) Apache
3 128 (2.79%) Tomcat
4 109 (2.37%) JBoss
5 107 (2.33%) nginx
5 107 (2.33%) WebLogic
6 104 (2.26%) Apache Spark
6 104 (2.26%) WebSphere
7 97 (2.11%) IIS
8 91 (1.98%) OpenStack
9 87 (1.89%) Elasticsearch
10 86 (1.87%) SharePoint
11 69 (1.50%) SAS
12 66 (1.44%) Mule
13 54 (1.18%) CMS
14 34 (0.74%) MS Exchange
15 33 (0.72%) Red Hat Fuse
16 31 (0.67%) Cloud Foundry
17 27 (0.59%) Oracle Workflow
18 19 (0.41%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 93 (2.02%) Microsoft Office
2 53 (1.15%) Microsoft Excel
3 15 (0.33%) MS Visio
3 15 (0.33%) Simulink
4 9 (0.20%) Spreadsheet
5 7 (0.15%) Microsoft Project
6 5 (0.11%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 5 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 2 (0.044%) Chatbot
7 2 (0.044%) Doxygen
7 2 (0.044%) Notepad++
8 1 (0.022%) Houdini
8 1 (0.022%) Maya
8 1 (0.022%) NUKE
8 1 (0.022%) SOLIDWORKS
8 1 (0.022%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 23 (0.50%) SAP S/4HANA
2 15 (0.33%) BusinessWorks
3 11 (0.24%) Sentinel
4 10 (0.22%) Magento
5 9 (0.20%) ION MarketView
5 9 (0.20%) SAP Hybris
6 8 (0.17%) Oracle EBS
7 7 (0.15%) NetSuite
7 7 (0.15%) Oracle EBS R12
8 6 (0.13%) RMDS
9 5 (0.11%) Dynamics CRM
9 5 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
10 4 (0.087%) assyst
10 4 (0.087%) Oracle Applications
10 4 (0.087%) Oracle Cash Management
11 3 (0.065%) Distributed Ledger
11 3 (0.065%) Oracle Financials
11 3 (0.065%) SAP FI-CA
11 3 (0.065%) SAP Oil and Gas
11 3 (0.065%) SunGard Martini
Cloud Services
1 1,306 (28.43%) AWS
2 1,015 (22.10%) Azure
3 326 (7.10%) GCP
4 281 (6.12%) PaaS
5 229 (4.99%) IaaS
6 225 (4.90%) GitHub
7 203 (4.42%) AWS CloudFormation
8 187 (4.07%) SaaS
9 151 (3.29%) Amazon EC2
10 139 (3.03%) Serverless
11 135 (2.94%) Microsoft 365
12 128 (2.79%) Amazon S3
13 122 (2.66%) OpenShift
14 104 (2.26%) Amazon EKS
15 98 (2.13%) Cloud Computing
16 91 (1.98%) Virtual Private Cloud
17 87 (1.89%) Azure Active Directory
18 82 (1.79%) Amazon ECS
19 73 (1.59%) AWS Lambda
20 54 (1.18%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 457 (9.95%) Firewall
2 341 (7.42%) DNS
3 223 (4.86%) TCP/IP
4 167 (3.64%) HTTP
5 156 (3.40%) VPN
6 141 (3.07%) SSL
7 136 (2.96%) Network Security
8 127 (2.77%) WAN
9 123 (2.68%) SAN
10 96 (2.09%) DHCP
11 89 (1.94%) LAN
12 84 (1.83%) Internet
13 68 (1.48%) Kerberos
14 62 (1.35%) Wireless
15 47 (1.02%) Multicast
16 46 (1.00%) SNMP
17 44 (0.96%) VLAN
18 43 (0.94%) Ethernet
19 42 (0.91%) SSH
20 40 (0.87%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 367 (7.99%) SQL Server
2 306 (6.66%) MySQL
3 214 (4.66%) PostgreSQL
4 208 (4.53%) MongoDB
5 200 (4.35%) NoSQL
6 191 (4.16%) Big Data
7 190 (4.14%) Relational Database
8 162 (3.53%) Hadoop
9 155 (3.37%) Oracle Database
10 93 (2.02%) Apache Hive
11 92 (2.00%) Data Warehouse
12 80 (1.74%) Apache Cassandra
13 79 (1.72%) Amazon RDS
14 72 (1.57%) HBase
15 65 (1.42%) Redis
16 55 (1.20%) DB2
17 54 (1.18%) Data Lake
18 53 (1.15%) BusinessObjects
18 53 (1.15%) RDBMS
18 53 (1.15%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 883 (19.22%) Jenkins
2 801 (17.44%) Git (software)
3 471 (10.25%) JIRA
4 316 (6.88%) GitLab
5 217 (4.72%) Bitbucket
6 178 (3.88%) Maven
7 129 (2.81%) Sonatype Nexus
8 121 (2.63%) Artifactory
8 121 (2.63%) SonarQube
9 106 (2.31%) JUnit
9 106 (2.31%) Subversion
10 95 (2.07%) TeamCity
11 87 (1.89%) Selenium
12 76 (1.65%) Mockito
13 64 (1.39%) Eclipse
14 63 (1.37%) Cucumber
15 52 (1.13%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 50 (1.09%) Gradle
17 42 (0.91%) Visual Studio
18 33 (0.72%) NetBeans
General
1 848 (18.46%) Social Skills
2 716 (15.59%) Finance
3 455 (9.91%) Banking
4 311 (6.77%) Public Sector
5 288 (6.27%) Analytical Skills
6 193 (4.20%) Investment Banking
7 190 (4.14%) Front Office
8 122 (2.66%) Telecoms
9 73 (1.59%) Marketing
10 70 (1.52%) Presentation Skills
11 67 (1.46%) Electronics
12 66 (1.44%) Retail
13 56 (1.22%) Financial Institution
13 56 (1.22%) Games
14 50 (1.09%) Documentation Skills
14 50 (1.09%) Manufacturing
15 48 (1.05%) Law
15 48 (1.05%) Legal
16 36 (0.78%) Organisational Skills
17 30 (0.65%) Military
Job Titles
1 940 (20.47%) Developer
2 678 (14.76%) DevOps Engineer
3 389 (8.47%) Java Developer
4 321 (6.99%) Architect
5 257 (5.60%) Administrator
6 227 (4.94%) Linux Engineer
7 202 (4.40%) AWS Engineer
8 200 (4.35%) Software Engineer
9 170 (3.70%) Consultant
10 164 (3.57%) Analyst
11 159 (3.46%) Azure Engineer
12 155 (3.37%) Cloud Engineer
13 152 (3.31%) Senior Developer
14 148 (3.22%) Infrastructure Engineer
15 138 (3.00%) Systems Administrator
16 129 (2.81%) Python Developer
17 125 (2.72%) Platform Engineer
18 119 (2.59%) Support Engineer
19 105 (2.29%) AWS DevOps
19 105 (2.29%) Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 337 (7.34%) Spring
2 319 (6.95%) Web Services
3 292 (6.36%) REST
4 222 (4.83%) Kafka
5 215 (4.68%) Middleware
6 202 (4.40%) JSON
7 184 (4.01%) HTML
8 177 (3.85%) Elastic Stack
9 176 (3.83%) .NET
10 175 (3.81%) Node.js
11 165 (3.59%) Spring Boot
12 153 (3.33%) RESTful
13 138 (3.00%) XML
14 137 (2.98%) CSS
15 133 (2.90%) React
16 126 (2.74%) Apache Camel
17 107 (2.33%) J2EE
18 103 (2.24%) SOAP
19 98 (2.13%) LDAP
20 91 (1.98%) RabbitMQ
Miscellaneous
1 234 (5.09%) Data Centre
2 167 (3.64%) Data Protection Act
3 159 (3.46%) Public Cloud
4 145 (3.16%) Linux Command Line
5 130 (2.83%) Algorithms
6 127 (2.77%) Clustering
7 110 (2.39%) Data Structures
8 106 (2.31%) Management Information System
9 98 (2.13%) Cloud Native
10 97 (2.11%) PKI
11 95 (2.07%) Derivative
12 93 (2.02%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 92 (2.00%) Self-Motivation
14 81 (1.76%) Fixed Income
15 71 (1.55%) Private Cloud
16 63 (1.37%) User Experience
17 57 (1.24%) Hybrid Cloud
18 52 (1.13%) Replication
19 46 (1.00%) Virtual Team
20 43 (0.94%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 1,644 (35.79%) Windows
2 1,018 (22.16%) Unix
3 648 (14.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 354 (7.71%) Windows Server
5 216 (4.70%) Ubuntu
6 205 (4.46%) CentOS
7 116 (2.53%) Solaris
8 101 (2.20%) Windows 10
9 93 (2.02%) AIX
10 85 (1.85%) Mac OS
11 73 (1.59%) Windows Server 2016
12 66 (1.44%) Mac OS X
13 65 (1.42%) Debian
13 65 (1.42%) Windows Server 2012
14 64 (1.39%) VMS
15 57 (1.24%) Windows Server 2019
16 36 (0.78%) Oracle Linux
17 35 (0.76%) SUSE
18 34 (0.74%) Embedded Linux
18 34 (0.74%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,476 (32.14%) DevOps
2 1,282 (27.91%) Agile Software Development
3 553 (12.04%) Configuration Management
4 551 (12.00%) Problem-Solving
5 518 (11.28%) Software Engineering
6 479 (10.43%) Test Automation
7 477 (10.39%) Microservices
8 451 (9.82%) Continuous Integration
9 422 (9.19%) Infrastructure as Code
10 389 (8.47%) Migration
11 360 (7.84%) Scrum
12 323 (7.03%) TDD
13 286 (6.23%) ITIL
14 261 (5.68%) Infrastructure Engineering
15 257 (5.60%) Analytics
16 234 (5.09%) Open Source
17 232 (5.05%) Cybersecurity
18 229 (4.99%) Data Protection
19 223 (4.86%) Site Reliability Engineering
20 214 (4.66%) OO
Programming Languages
1 1,455 (31.68%) Python
2 1,203 (26.19%) Java
3 933 (20.31%) SQL
4 746 (16.24%) Bash Shell
5 492 (10.71%) PowerShell
6 399 (8.69%) JavaScript
7 330 (7.18%) C++
8 317 (6.90%) Shell Script
9 232 (5.05%) Perl
10 208 (4.53%) C
11 196 (4.27%) C#
12 190 (4.14%) Ruby
13 164 (3.57%) Scala
14 159 (3.46%) Go
15 154 (3.35%) Java 8
16 143 (3.11%) PL/SQL
17 125 (2.72%) Groovy
18 111 (2.42%) PHP
19 88 (1.92%) Java 11
20 84 (1.83%) TypeScript
Qualifications
1 817 (17.79%) Security Cleared
2 646 (14.06%) SC Cleared
3 227 (4.94%) Degree
4 215 (4.68%) DV Cleared
5 83 (1.81%) Cisco Certification
6 75 (1.63%) Computer Science Degree
7 57 (1.24%) Microsoft Certification
8 52 (1.13%) AWS Certification
9 50 (1.09%) CCNA
10 45 (0.98%) RHCE
11 42 (0.91%) BPSS Clearance
12 40 (0.87%) CISSP
13 37 (0.81%) CCNP
14 33 (0.72%) MCSE
15 32 (0.70%) MCSA
16 27 (0.59%) CEH
17 25 (0.54%) ISTQB
18 23 (0.50%) ISEB
19 20 (0.44%) Master's Degree
20 16 (0.35%) CISM
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 105 (2.29%) QA
2 64 (1.39%) GDPR
3 60 (1.31%) SLA
4 52 (1.13%) Accessibility
5 48 (1.05%) NCSC
6 38 (0.83%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 30 (0.65%) PCI DSS
8 29 (0.63%) Data Quality
9 28 (0.61%) NIST
10 20 (0.44%) COBIT
11 16 (0.35%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 14 (0.30%) JSP 440
13 11 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27005
14 10 (0.22%) Disclosure Scotland
15 9 (0.20%) Cyber Essentials
16 7 (0.15%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
16 7 (0.15%) ISO 9001
16 7 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 20000
16 7 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
17 6 (0.13%) JTAG
System Software
1 1,031 (22.45%) Docker
2 443 (9.65%) Active Directory
3 381 (8.30%) VMware Infrastructure
4 125 (2.72%) Virtual Machines
5 96 (2.09%) vSphere
6 85 (1.85%) NFS
7 76 (1.65%) VMware ESXi
8 69 (1.50%) HDFS
9 67 (1.46%) Hyper-V
10 41 (0.89%) Oracle RAC
11 37 (0.81%) Virtual Servers
11 37 (0.81%) VMware NSX
12 30 (0.65%) Firmware
13 24 (0.52%) KVM
13 24 (0.52%) vCloud
14 23 (0.50%) Virtual Desktop
15 15 (0.33%) Xen
16 14 (0.30%) VMware Workstation
17 12 (0.26%) iptables
17 12 (0.26%) LXC
Systems Management
1 1,125 (24.49%) Ansible
2 1,010 (21.99%) Terraform
3 924 (20.12%) Kubernetes
4 380 (8.27%) Puppet
5 192 (4.18%) Opscode Chef
6 189 (4.11%) Prometheus
7 173 (3.77%) Grafana
8 112 (2.44%) Packer
9 93 (2.02%) Docker Swarm
10 69 (1.50%) SCCM
11 63 (1.37%) ZABBIX
12 59 (1.28%) Nagios
13 58 (1.26%) Consul
14 55 (1.20%) Kibana
15 48 (1.05%) Istio
16 47 (1.02%) HAProxy
17 45 (0.98%) Data Guard
18 44 (0.96%) BladeLogic
18 44 (0.96%) ITRS Geneos
19 40 (0.87%) Microsoft Clustering
Vendors
1 706 (15.37%) Oracle
2 571 (12.43%) VMware
3 560 (12.19%) Red Hat
4 533 (11.60%) Microsoft
5 227 (4.94%) Splunk
6 199 (4.33%) Cisco
7 157 (3.42%) Google
8 156 (3.40%) IBM
9 138 (3.00%) SAP
10 128 (2.79%) Citrix
11 116 (2.53%) Informatica
12 101 (2.20%) Atlassian
13 90 (1.96%) ServiceNow
14 89 (1.94%) HP
15 79 (1.72%) Sybase
16 71 (1.55%) AppDynamics
17 69 (1.50%) Dell
18 59 (1.28%) NetApp
19 55 (1.20%) CyberArk
20 54 (1.18%) WSO2