Period
to 26 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 26 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK > England
6 months to
26 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 29 19 18
Rank change year-on-year -10 -1 -5
Contract jobs citing Linux 3,574 2,487 6,686
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 6.32% 7.45% 7.94%
As % of the Operating Systems category 39.84% 38.36% 39.82%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,369 1,770 4,309
10th Percentile £363 £325 £325
25th Percentile £425 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - -
75th Percentile £625 £588 £600
90th Percentile £700 £675 £663
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £500
% change year-on-year +5.00% - +1.52%
Number of hourly rates quoted 69 46 163
10th Percentile £21.40 £20.88 £20.35
25th Percentile £39.50 £33.50 £37.50
Median hourly rate £50.00 £47.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +8.43%
75th Percentile £65.50 £53.44 £51.00
90th Percentile £73.45 £56.50 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £50.50 £47.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year +6.32% +5.56% +12.50%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 8,970 6,483 16,791
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 15.87% 19.42% 19.93%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,930 4,343 10,906
10th Percentile £180 £163 £158
25th Percentile £350 £313 £310
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £470 £450 £438
Median % change year-on-year +4.44% +2.86% -
75th Percentile £575 £538 £545
90th Percentile £653 £638 £625
UK median daily rate £473 £438 £425
% change year-on-year +8.00% +2.94% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 474 378 975
10th Percentile £11.90 £11.72 £11.25
25th Percentile £13.38 £13.49 £13.25
Median hourly rate £17.00 £17.88 £17.50
Median % change year-on-year -4.90% +2.14% -
75th Percentile £36.94 £24.31 £31.38
90th Percentile £59.53 £47.83 £48.75
UK median hourly rate £17.00 £18.00 £17.50
% change year-on-year -5.56% +2.86% +2.94%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Daily rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux in England.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in England

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux in England over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in England

Linux
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the England region over the 6 months to 26 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 1,940 £550 +6.80% 715
South East -4 480 £493 +4.79% 344
North of England -13 298 £475 -4.04% 316
South West -5 239 £476 -4.84% 180
Midlands +11 237 £475 -5.10% 199
West Midlands +7 173 £475 -5.00% 122
North West -16 169 £475 - 182
East of England -14 136 £450 -5.26% 175
Yorkshire -11 111 £460 -12.38% 101
East Midlands +15 59 £413 -8.33% 76
North East -18 18 £438 -10.71% 33
Linux
UK

For the 6 months to 26 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,177 (32.93%) Python
2 1,163 (32.54%) Windows
3 1,158 (32.40%) DevOps
4 1,004 (28.09%) AWS
5 980 (27.42%) Agile Software Development
6 917 (25.66%) Java
7 838 (23.45%) Ansible
8 810 (22.66%) Azure
9 809 (22.64%) Docker
10 789 (22.08%) Unix
11 752 (21.04%) Terraform
12 744 (20.82%) SQL
13 698 (19.53%) Social Skills
14 676 (18.91%) Kubernetes
15 649 (18.16%) Security Cleared
16 632 (17.68%) Finance
17 602 (16.84%) Git (software)
18 594 (16.62%) Jenkins
19 582 (16.28%) Oracle
20 504 (14.10%) SC Cleared
21 472 (13.21%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
22 471 (13.18%) Bash Shell
23 470 (13.15%) VMware
24 437 (12.23%) Red Hat
25 409 (11.44%) JIRA
26 405 (11.33%) Microsoft
27 404 (11.30%) Banking
28 394 (11.02%) Software Engineering
29 388 (10.86%) Configuration Management
30 387 (10.83%) PowerShell

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 261 (7.30%) Confluence
2 176 (4.92%) Apache
3 115 (3.22%) Tomcat
4 96 (2.69%) WebLogic
5 87 (2.43%) Apache Spark
6 76 (2.13%) Elasticsearch
7 75 (2.10%) WebSphere
8 65 (1.82%) JBoss
8 65 (1.82%) SharePoint
9 63 (1.76%) Mule
10 57 (1.59%) SAS
11 55 (1.54%) nginx
12 52 (1.45%) IIS
13 48 (1.34%) OpenStack
14 37 (1.04%) CMS
15 32 (0.90%) Red Hat Fuse
16 24 (0.67%) Cloud Foundry
17 23 (0.64%) WebSphere Application Server
18 22 (0.62%) Drupal
19 21 (0.59%) MS Exchange
Applications
1 70 (1.96%) Microsoft Office
2 46 (1.29%) Microsoft Excel
3 22 (0.62%) MS Visio
4 10 (0.28%) Simulink
5 6 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 3 (0.084%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 2 (0.056%) Chatbot
7 2 (0.056%) Doxygen
7 2 (0.056%) Microsoft Project
8 1 (0.028%) SOLIDWORKS
8 1 (0.028%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 25 (0.70%) ION MarketView
2 16 (0.45%) Oracle EBS
3 14 (0.39%) assyst
4 12 (0.34%) Oracle Applications
4 12 (0.34%) Sentinel
5 11 (0.31%) Magento
6 7 (0.20%) Oracle EBS R12
7 6 (0.17%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
8 5 (0.14%) Eikon
8 5 (0.14%) Oracle BPM
8 5 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
8 5 (0.14%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 4 (0.11%) Oracle ERP
9 4 (0.11%) Oracle Financials
10 3 (0.084%) Dynamics NAV
11 2 (0.056%) Adobe Campaign
11 2 (0.056%) BASE24
11 2 (0.056%) Dynamics CRM
11 2 (0.056%) Remedy ITSM
11 2 (0.056%) SAP FI-CA
Cloud Services
1 1,004 (28.09%) AWS
2 810 (22.66%) Azure
3 240 (6.72%) PaaS
4 235 (6.58%) GCP
5 211 (5.90%) IaaS
6 192 (5.37%) GitHub
7 130 (3.64%) OpenShift
8 128 (3.58%) AWS CloudFormation
9 126 (3.53%) SaaS
10 119 (3.33%) Serverless
11 101 (2.83%) Microsoft 365
12 97 (2.71%) AWS Lambda
13 84 (2.35%) Amazon EC2
14 73 (2.04%) Amazon S3
15 71 (1.99%) Amazon EKS
16 51 (1.43%) Cloud Computing
17 45 (1.26%) Amazon ECS
17 45 (1.26%) Virtual Private Cloud
18 42 (1.18%) Amazon CloudWatch
18 42 (1.18%) Azure Cosmos DB
Communications & Networking
1 372 (10.41%) Firewall
2 209 (5.85%) DNS
3 196 (5.48%) TCP/IP
4 131 (3.67%) HTTP
5 111 (3.11%) SAN
5 111 (3.11%) VPN
6 105 (2.94%) SSL
7 104 (2.91%) DHCP
8 88 (2.46%) LAN
9 82 (2.29%) WAN
10 64 (1.79%) Multicast
10 64 (1.79%) Network Security
11 57 (1.59%) Internet
12 54 (1.51%) NAS
13 52 (1.45%) VLAN
14 50 (1.40%) Wireless
15 49 (1.37%) Wi-Fi
16 39 (1.09%) Wireshark
17 38 (1.06%) IPv4
17 38 (1.06%) SNMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 282 (7.89%) SQL Server
2 255 (7.13%) MySQL
3 191 (5.34%) Relational Database
4 179 (5.01%) PostgreSQL
5 168 (4.70%) MongoDB
6 157 (4.39%) Big Data
7 152 (4.25%) NoSQL
8 135 (3.78%) Oracle Database
9 117 (3.27%) Hadoop
10 63 (1.76%) Redis
11 59 (1.65%) Apache Hive
12 55 (1.54%) Apache Cassandra
13 54 (1.51%) DB2
14 53 (1.48%) Data Warehouse
15 48 (1.34%) HBase
16 44 (1.23%) Oracle Database 12c
17 41 (1.15%) Amazon RDS
18 38 (1.06%) Oracle Database 11g
19 35 (0.98%) Data Lake
20 34 (0.95%) Hazelcast
Development Applications
1 602 (16.84%) Git (software)
2 594 (16.62%) Jenkins
3 409 (11.44%) JIRA
4 200 (5.60%) GitLab
5 170 (4.76%) Maven
6 131 (3.67%) Bitbucket
7 112 (3.13%) Subversion
8 97 (2.71%) JUnit
8 97 (2.71%) Sonatype Nexus
9 74 (2.07%) TeamCity
10 68 (1.90%) Artifactory
11 55 (1.54%) Visual Studio
12 52 (1.45%) Eclipse
13 50 (1.40%) Mockito
14 46 (1.29%) SonarQube
15 43 (1.20%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 43 (1.20%) Selenium
16 40 (1.12%) Gradle
17 37 (1.04%) Cucumber
18 27 (0.76%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 698 (19.53%) Social Skills
2 632 (17.68%) Finance
3 404 (11.30%) Banking
4 209 (5.85%) Public Sector
5 199 (5.57%) Investment Banking
6 197 (5.51%) Analytical Skills
7 172 (4.81%) Front Office
8 124 (3.47%) Telecoms
9 72 (2.01%) Electronics
10 65 (1.82%) Marketing
11 63 (1.76%) Manufacturing
12 55 (1.54%) Presentation Skills
13 46 (1.29%) Documentation Skills
14 40 (1.12%) Retail
15 36 (1.01%) Law
16 33 (0.92%) Financial Institution
17 25 (0.70%) Influencing Skills
18 23 (0.64%) Games
18 23 (0.64%) Legal
19 19 (0.53%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 816 (22.83%) Developer
2 560 (15.67%) DevOps Engineer
3 329 (9.21%) Java Developer
4 263 (7.36%) Architect
5 178 (4.98%) AWS Engineer
6 170 (4.76%) Azure Engineer
7 166 (4.64%) Software Engineer
8 165 (4.62%) Linux Engineer
9 148 (4.14%) Senior Developer
10 147 (4.11%) Administrator
11 140 (3.92%) Cloud Engineer
12 137 (3.83%) Infrastructure Engineer
13 132 (3.69%) AWS DevOps
14 126 (3.53%) Analyst
15 118 (3.30%) Consultant
16 113 (3.16%) C++ Developer
17 110 (3.08%) AWS DevOps Engineer
18 91 (2.55%) Python Developer
19 89 (2.49%) Azure DevOps Engineer
20 85 (2.38%) Senior Java Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 323 (9.04%) Spring
2 261 (7.30%) Web Services
3 237 (6.63%) REST
4 185 (5.18%) JSON
4 185 (5.18%) Middleware
5 172 (4.81%) .NET
6 170 (4.76%) Kafka
7 146 (4.09%) HTML
8 135 (3.78%) Spring Boot
9 133 (3.72%) Node.js
10 126 (3.53%) XML
11 121 (3.39%) React
12 106 (2.97%) RESTful
13 103 (2.88%) Apache Camel
14 102 (2.85%) Elastic Stack
15 99 (2.77%) J2EE
16 97 (2.71%) CSS
17 91 (2.55%) AngularJS
18 88 (2.46%) SOAP
19 73 (2.04%) RabbitMQ
Miscellaneous
1 189 (5.29%) Data Centre
2 148 (4.14%) Algorithms
3 122 (3.41%) Management Information System
3 122 (3.41%) Public Cloud
4 120 (3.36%) Data Structures
5 104 (2.91%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 98 (2.74%) Clustering
7 93 (2.60%) Linux Command Line
8 88 (2.46%) Cloud Native
9 74 (2.07%) Fixed Income
10 70 (1.96%) Data Protection Act
11 61 (1.71%) Derivative
12 54 (1.51%) PKI
13 53 (1.48%) Self-Motivation
14 49 (1.37%) Replication
15 45 (1.26%) Equities
16 44 (1.23%) Private Cloud
16 44 (1.23%) User Experience
17 43 (1.20%) Enterprise Software
18 41 (1.15%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 1,163 (32.54%) Windows
2 789 (22.08%) Unix
3 472 (13.21%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 285 (7.97%) Windows Server
5 167 (4.67%) CentOS
6 118 (3.30%) Ubuntu
7 113 (3.16%) Solaris
8 100 (2.80%) AIX
9 55 (1.54%) Windows 10
10 48 (1.34%) VMS
11 46 (1.29%) Windows Server 2016
12 44 (1.23%) Windows Server 2012
13 40 (1.12%) Android
14 39 (1.09%) Embedded Linux
15 37 (1.04%) Mac OS X
16 35 (0.98%) Windows Server 2019
17 33 (0.92%) Debian
18 31 (0.87%) Mac OS
19 30 (0.84%) Oracle Linux
19 30 (0.84%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,158 (32.40%) DevOps
2 980 (27.42%) Agile Software Development
3 394 (11.02%) Software Engineering
4 388 (10.86%) Configuration Management
5 382 (10.69%) Microservices
6 368 (10.30%) Problem-Solving
7 366 (10.24%) Scrum
8 345 (9.65%) Continuous Integration
9 340 (9.51%) Infrastructure as Code
10 330 (9.23%) Test Automation
11 276 (7.72%) Migration
12 245 (6.86%) TDD
13 220 (6.16%) ITIL
14 210 (5.88%) High Availability
15 209 (5.85%) Infrastructure Engineering
16 176 (4.92%) Cybersecurity
17 169 (4.73%) Performance Tuning
18 164 (4.59%) OO
19 163 (4.56%) Open Source
20 159 (4.45%) Site Reliability Engineering
Programming Languages
1 1,177 (32.93%) Python
2 917 (25.66%) Java
3 744 (20.82%) SQL
4 471 (13.18%) Bash Shell
5 387 (10.83%) PowerShell
6 356 (9.96%) C++
7 317 (8.87%) JavaScript
8 256 (7.16%) Shell Script
9 185 (5.18%) C
10 166 (4.64%) Perl
11 161 (4.50%) Java 8
12 148 (4.14%) PL/SQL
13 142 (3.97%) C#
14 120 (3.36%) Scala
15 112 (3.13%) PHP
16 111 (3.11%) Ruby
17 110 (3.08%) Go
18 81 (2.27%) TypeScript
19 63 (1.76%) Groovy
20 38 (1.06%) Java 11
Qualifications
1 649 (18.16%) Security Cleared
2 504 (14.10%) SC Cleared
3 199 (5.57%) Degree
4 131 (3.67%) DV Cleared
5 66 (1.85%) Cisco Certification
6 54 (1.51%) Computer Science Degree
7 53 (1.48%) CCNA
8 43 (1.20%) AWS Certification
9 39 (1.09%) Microsoft Certification
10 37 (1.04%) CCNP
11 34 (0.95%) CISSP
11 34 (0.95%) RHCE
12 28 (0.78%) ITIL Certification
13 27 (0.76%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
14 23 (0.64%) Master's Degree
15 22 (0.62%) GIAC
16 20 (0.56%) MCSE
17 17 (0.48%) TOGAF Certification
18 16 (0.45%) MCP
19 13 (0.36%) CISM
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 107 (2.99%) QA
2 52 (1.45%) SLA
3 37 (1.04%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 31 (0.87%) GDPR
5 24 (0.67%) NIST
6 21 (0.59%) PCI DSS
7 19 (0.53%) Accessibility
7 19 (0.53%) Data Quality
7 19 (0.53%) GRC
8 13 (0.36%) NCSC
9 9 (0.25%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
9 9 (0.25%) PMO
10 7 (0.20%) COBIT
10 7 (0.20%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 5 (0.14%) HIPAA
11 5 (0.14%) ISO 9001
11 5 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27005
11 5 (0.14%) NIST 800
12 4 (0.11%) Cyber Essentials
12 4 (0.11%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
System Software
1 809 (22.64%) Docker
2 324 (9.07%) VMware Infrastructure
3 260 (7.27%) Active Directory
4 96 (2.69%) Virtual Machines
5 70 (1.96%) VMware ESXi
6 66 (1.85%) Hyper-V
6 66 (1.85%) vSphere
7 54 (1.51%) HDFS
8 37 (1.04%) NFS
9 29 (0.81%) KVM
10 27 (0.76%) Oracle RAC
11 25 (0.70%) Virtual Servers
11 25 (0.70%) VMware NSX
12 21 (0.59%) Xen
13 18 (0.50%) Firmware
14 17 (0.48%) iptables
15 14 (0.39%) Varnish
15 14 (0.39%) Veritas Cluster Server
16 11 (0.31%) SRDF
16 11 (0.31%) Veritas Volume Manager
Systems Management
1 838 (23.45%) Ansible
2 752 (21.04%) Terraform
3 676 (18.91%) Kubernetes
4 364 (10.18%) Puppet
5 199 (5.57%) Opscode Chef
6 94 (2.63%) Prometheus
7 91 (2.55%) Grafana
8 81 (2.27%) Packer
9 43 (1.20%) vRealize
10 42 (1.18%) SCCM
11 41 (1.15%) Docker Swarm
12 40 (1.12%) Red Hat Satellite
13 39 (1.09%) Kibana
14 31 (0.87%) Nagios
15 30 (0.84%) Istio
16 29 (0.81%) Microsoft Intune
17 27 (0.76%) Data Guard
17 27 (0.76%) ITRS Geneos
18 26 (0.73%) Oracle RMAN
19 25 (0.70%) Salt
Vendors
1 582 (16.28%) Oracle
2 470 (13.15%) VMware
3 437 (12.23%) Red Hat
4 405 (11.33%) Microsoft
5 185 (5.18%) Cisco
6 162 (4.53%) Google
7 146 (4.09%) IBM
8 131 (3.67%) Splunk
9 107 (2.99%) SAP
10 85 (2.38%) Informatica
11 82 (2.29%) Citrix
12 72 (2.01%) EMC
13 70 (1.96%) HP
14 68 (1.90%) Cloudera
15 65 (1.82%) ServiceNow
16 64 (1.79%) Atlassian
17 61 (1.71%) Sybase
18 59 (1.65%) Dell
19 56 (1.57%) NetApp
20 42 (1.18%) Juniper