Period
to 17 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Continuous Integration skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 17 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Continuous Integration
UK > England
6 months to
17 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 81 73 57
Rank change year-on-year -8 -16 -15
Contract jobs citing Continuous Integration 2,073 857 3,174
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 3.11% 3.23% 4.08%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.49% 3.69% 4.66%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,431 612 2,123
10th Percentile £416 £369 £400
25th Percentile £475 £425 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £525
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% -4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £643 £575 £600
90th Percentile £725 £650 £700
UK median daily rate £550 £500 £520
% change year-on-year +10.00% -3.85% +4.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 19 6 10
10th Percentile £25.35 £26.81 £15.20
25th Percentile £40.37 £34.22 £32.56
Median hourly rate £48.25 £45.31 £47.50
Median % change year-on-year +6.49% -4.62% +13.10%
75th Percentile £53.75 £52.36 £50.00
90th Percentile £57.50 £54.38 £50.45
UK median hourly rate £48.27 £45.31 £47.50
% change year-on-year +6.53% -4.62% +14.46%

Continuous Integration is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 59,473 23,229 68,092
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.34% 87.46% 87.57%
Number of daily rates quoted 41,762 15,984 46,124
10th Percentile £317 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £381 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £520 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.47% - +2.15%
75th Percentile £623 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £510 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +7.37% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,477 653 1,900
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.00 £11.36
25th Percentile £14.42 £15.50 £14.38
Median hourly rate £24.08 £25.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -3.68% +11.11% +12.50%
75th Percentile £49.50 £45.00 £46.00
90th Percentile £63.00 £55.00 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £24.90 £25.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year -0.40% +11.11% +15.38%

Continuous Integration
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Continuous Integration as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Continuous Integration in England

Continuous Integration
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration in England.

Daily rate trend for Continuous Integration in England

Continuous Integration
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Continuous Integration in England over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Continuous Integration in England

Continuous Integration
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration in England.

Hourly rate trend for Continuous Integration in England

Continuous Integration
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Continuous Integration in England over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Continuous Integration in England

Continuous Integration
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Continuous Integration within the England region over the 6 months to 17 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +2 1,148 £600 +14.29% 325
South East -13 239 £500 - 129
North of England -8 235 £525 +11.11% 120
North West -8 115 £525 +16.67% 67
Midlands -35 114 £518 +19.91% 73
East of England +14 103 £525 +6.33% 50
Yorkshire -6 99 £525 +13.51% 35
South West +8 87 £500 +8.11% 48
West Midlands -26 86 £520 +18.18% 48
East Midlands -35 27 £463 +23.33% 25
North East -9 23 £575 +18.56% 18
Continuous Integration
UK

For the 6 months to 17 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Continuous Integration also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Continuous Integration.

1 1,367 (65.94%) Agile Software Development
2 856 (41.29%) DevOps
3 714 (34.44%) Java
4 672 (32.42%) TDD
5 633 (30.54%) Test Automation
6 596 (28.75%) Git (software)
7 593 (28.61%) Jenkins
8 568 (27.40%) Scrum
9 529 (25.52%) Azure
10 518 (24.99%) AWS
11 514 (24.79%) JavaScript
12 510 (24.60%) Continuous Delivery
13 496 (23.93%) Python
14 482 (23.25%) SQL
15 439 (21.18%) Social Skills
16 410 (19.78%) Microservices
17 409 (19.73%) C#
18 402 (19.39%) Docker
19 391 (18.86%) Linux
20 386 (18.62%) JIRA
21 382 (18.43%) Software Engineering
22 372 (17.95%) Kubernetes
23 353 (17.03%) Finance
24 313 (15.10%) Terraform
25 293 (14.13%) HTML
26 287 (13.84%) BDD
27 286 (13.80%) .NET
28 271 (13.07%) React
29 269 (12.98%) Problem-Solving
30 261 (12.59%) Continuous Deployment

Continuous Integration
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 194 (9.36%) Confluence
2 68 (3.28%) Apache
3 56 (2.70%) Apache Spark
4 55 (2.65%) Elasticsearch
5 54 (2.60%) Tomcat
6 44 (2.12%) CMS
7 36 (1.74%) SAS
8 35 (1.69%) SharePoint
9 30 (1.45%) Apache Airflow
10 28 (1.35%) nginx
10 28 (1.35%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 23 (1.11%) WebSphere
12 17 (0.82%) Oracle Coherence
12 17 (0.82%) WebLogic
13 14 (0.68%) OpenStack
14 13 (0.63%) Cloud Foundry
15 12 (0.58%) IBM Domino
16 10 (0.48%) Jetty
17 9 (0.43%) JBoss
18 7 (0.34%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 39 (1.88%) Microsoft Excel
2 12 (0.58%) Microsoft Office
3 7 (0.34%) Microsoft Project
4 6 (0.29%) FrameMaker
4 6 (0.29%) Photoshop
5 3 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.14%) MS Visio
6 2 (0.096%) Chatbot
6 2 (0.096%) Figma
6 2 (0.096%) Zeplin
7 1 (0.048%) Doxygen
7 1 (0.048%) Mingle
7 1 (0.048%) PlantUML
7 1 (0.048%) Sketch
7 1 (0.048%) S-PLUS
7 1 (0.048%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 14 (0.68%) Dynamics CRM
2 12 (0.58%) Magento
3 9 (0.43%) Salesforce.com CRM
3 9 (0.43%) Shopify
4 7 (0.34%) SAP Hybris
5 5 (0.24%) ION MarketView
6 3 (0.14%) Distributed Ledger
7 2 (0.096%) Adobe Campaign
7 2 (0.096%) Oracle BPM
7 2 (0.096%) SAP FI-CA
7 2 (0.096%) SAP PSCD
8 1 (0.048%) Aligne
8 1 (0.048%) BusinessWorks
8 1 (0.048%) Endur
8 1 (0.048%) IBM Planning Analytics
8 1 (0.048%) Oracle CRM
8 1 (0.048%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
8 1 (0.048%) Primavera
8 1 (0.048%) Sage CRM
8 1 (0.048%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 529 (25.52%) Azure
2 518 (24.99%) AWS
3 197 (9.50%) GitHub
4 172 (8.30%) GCP
5 134 (6.46%) Serverless
6 115 (5.55%) PaaS
7 94 (4.53%) SaaS
8 85 (4.10%) AWS CloudFormation
9 84 (4.05%) IaaS
10 71 (3.42%) AWS Lambda
11 61 (2.94%) Amazon S3
12 59 (2.85%) Amazon EC2
13 56 (2.70%) OpenShift
14 42 (2.03%) Power Platform
15 35 (1.69%) Amazon ECS
16 34 (1.64%) Azure Active Directory
16 34 (1.64%) Virtual Private Cloud
17 30 (1.45%) Azure Service Bus
17 30 (1.45%) npm
17 30 (1.45%) Slack
Communications & Networking
1 60 (2.89%) HTTP
2 50 (2.41%) TCP/IP
3 47 (2.27%) DNS
4 41 (1.98%) SSL
5 32 (1.54%) Firewall
6 24 (1.16%) RTMP
7 23 (1.11%) Internet
8 21 (1.01%) Network Security
9 16 (0.77%) Kerberos
10 15 (0.72%) VPN
11 14 (0.68%) WAN
12 13 (0.63%) Multicast
13 12 (0.58%) HTTPS
14 9 (0.43%) IPsec
14 9 (0.43%) NAS
14 9 (0.43%) SAN
14 9 (0.43%) Wi-Fi
15 8 (0.39%) Bluetooth
15 8 (0.39%) IPv4
15 8 (0.39%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 178 (8.59%) SQL Server
2 150 (7.24%) Relational Database
3 145 (6.99%) NoSQL
4 106 (5.11%) MongoDB
5 100 (4.82%) Oracle Database
6 92 (4.44%) MySQL
7 87 (4.20%) Big Data
8 69 (3.33%) Hadoop
9 55 (2.65%) Apache Hive
10 53 (2.56%) PostgreSQL
11 52 (2.51%) Data Warehouse
12 42 (2.03%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 37 (1.78%) HBase
14 36 (1.74%) Amazon RDS
15 34 (1.64%) Pentaho
15 34 (1.64%) Redis
15 34 (1.64%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 30 (1.45%) Power BI
17 29 (1.40%) Data Lake
18 27 (1.30%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 596 (28.75%) Git (software)
2 593 (28.61%) Jenkins
3 386 (18.62%) JIRA
4 145 (6.99%) Maven
5 144 (6.95%) Selenium
6 137 (6.61%) GitLab
7 113 (5.45%) TeamCity
8 107 (5.16%) Cucumber
9 104 (5.02%) Bitbucket
10 74 (3.57%) Visual Studio
11 60 (2.89%) Sonatype Nexus
12 59 (2.85%) JUnit
13 58 (2.80%) SonarQube
14 48 (2.32%) Gatling
15 44 (2.12%) Gradle
15 44 (2.12%) Mockito
15 44 (2.12%) Postman
16 41 (1.98%) Subversion
17 36 (1.74%) Atlassian Bamboo
17 36 (1.74%) JMeter
General
1 439 (21.18%) Social Skills
2 353 (17.03%) Finance
3 242 (11.67%) Banking
4 153 (7.38%) Public Sector
5 104 (5.02%) Analytical Skills
6 94 (4.53%) Investment Banking
7 80 (3.86%) Front Office
8 66 (3.18%) Retail
9 37 (1.78%) Marketing
10 36 (1.74%) Presentation Skills
11 30 (1.45%) Games
12 27 (1.30%) Telecoms
13 21 (1.01%) Legal
14 20 (0.96%) Retail Banking
15 19 (0.92%) Electronics
16 15 (0.72%) Publishing
17 13 (0.63%) Law
17 13 (0.63%) Manufacturing
18 12 (0.58%) Documentation Skills
19 8 (0.39%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 1,032 (49.78%) Developer
2 244 (11.77%) DevOps Engineer
3 178 (8.59%) Java Developer
4 176 (8.49%) Senior Developer
5 134 (6.46%) C# Developer
6 119 (5.74%) Architect
7 114 (5.50%) Full Stack Developer
8 110 (5.31%) Software Engineer
9 99 (4.78%) .NET Developer
10 94 (4.53%) React Developer
11 79 (3.81%) JavaScript Developer
12 78 (3.76%) AWS Engineer
13 74 (3.57%) Python Developer
14 73 (3.52%) Scala Developer
15 64 (3.09%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
16 60 (2.89%) Software Developer
17 53 (2.56%) Java Engineer
17 53 (2.56%) Senior Java Developer
18 50 (2.41%) Azure Engineer
19 44 (2.12%) C# .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 293 (14.13%) HTML
2 286 (13.80%) .NET
3 271 (13.07%) React
4 259 (12.49%) CSS
5 249 (12.01%) RESTful
6 245 (11.82%) Web Services
7 234 (11.29%) AngularJS
8 225 (10.85%) Node.js
9 214 (10.32%) Spring
10 209 (10.08%) REST
11 135 (6.51%) Kafka
12 134 (6.46%) Spring Boot
13 132 (6.37%) JSON
14 127 (6.13%) HTML5
15 109 (5.26%) Redux
16 87 (4.20%) .NET Core
17 85 (4.10%) Play Framework
18 84 (4.05%) ASP.NET
19 82 (3.96%) XML
20 73 (3.52%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 134 (6.46%) User Experience
2 81 (3.91%) Data Protection Act
3 61 (2.94%) Mobile App
4 55 (2.65%) Cloud Native
5 52 (2.51%) Management Information System
5 52 (2.51%) Public Cloud
6 46 (2.22%) Data Structures
7 44 (2.12%) Self-Motivation
8 39 (1.88%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 37 (1.78%) Derivative
10 35 (1.69%) Greenfield Project
11 33 (1.59%) Enterprise Software
12 28 (1.35%) Algorithms
12 28 (1.35%) Fixed Income
12 28 (1.35%) Linux Command Line
13 25 (1.21%) iPad
14 23 (1.11%) Interest Rate Derivative
14 23 (1.11%) Legacy Systems
14 23 (1.11%) Private Cloud
15 22 (1.06%) Hybrid Cloud
Operating Systems
1 391 (18.86%) Linux
2 154 (7.43%) Windows
3 146 (7.04%) Unix
4 87 (4.20%) Android
5 85 (4.10%) Apple iOS
6 50 (2.41%) Windows Server
7 40 (1.93%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 18 (0.87%) CentOS
8 18 (0.87%) Windows Server 2016
9 16 (0.77%) Ubuntu
10 11 (0.53%) Solaris
11 9 (0.43%) Mac OS
12 8 (0.39%) OpenWrt
12 8 (0.39%) Windows Server 2012
13 5 (0.24%) Windows Server 2019
14 4 (0.19%) Amazon Linux
14 4 (0.19%) tvOS
14 4 (0.19%) VMS
15 3 (0.14%) Mac OS X
15 3 (0.14%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,367 (65.94%) Agile Software Development
2 856 (41.29%) DevOps
3 672 (32.42%) TDD
4 633 (30.54%) Test Automation
5 568 (27.40%) Scrum
6 510 (24.60%) Continuous Delivery
7 410 (19.78%) Microservices
8 382 (18.43%) Software Engineering
9 287 (13.84%) BDD
10 269 (12.98%) Problem-Solving
11 261 (12.59%) Continuous Deployment
12 236 (11.38%) Unit Testing
13 202 (9.74%) Continuous Improvement
14 192 (9.26%) Full Stack Development
15 182 (8.78%) Configuration Management
16 178 (8.59%) Pair Programming
17 176 (8.49%) Infrastructure as Code
18 171 (8.25%) Kanban
19 162 (7.81%) OO
20 156 (7.53%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 714 (34.44%) Java
2 514 (24.79%) JavaScript
3 496 (23.93%) Python
4 482 (23.25%) SQL
5 409 (19.73%) C#
6 206 (9.94%) TypeScript
7 188 (9.07%) Scala
8 176 (8.49%) Bash Shell
9 141 (6.80%) C++
10 114 (5.50%) PowerShell
11 90 (4.34%) Ruby
12 76 (3.67%) Java 8
13 72 (3.47%) Shell Script
14 65 (3.14%) Go
15 63 (3.04%) C
15 63 (3.04%) PL/SQL
16 50 (2.41%) ES6
17 49 (2.36%) Apple Swift
18 48 (2.32%) Kotlin
19 47 (2.27%) Perl
Qualifications
1 234 (11.29%) Security Cleared
2 188 (9.07%) SC Cleared
3 113 (5.45%) Degree
4 30 (1.45%) AWS Certification
5 29 (1.40%) BPSS Clearance
6 22 (1.06%) DV Cleared
7 19 (0.92%) Computer Science Degree
7 19 (0.92%) Numerate Degree
8 14 (0.68%) ISTQB
9 12 (0.58%) OCPJP
9 12 (0.58%) Sun Certification
10 10 (0.48%) ISEB
11 8 (0.39%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 6 (0.29%) PMI Certification
12 6 (0.29%) TOGAF Certification
13 5 (0.24%) Master's Degree
14 4 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
15 2 (0.096%) SAFe Agilist
16 1 (0.048%) DBS Check
16 1 (0.048%) Novell Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 157 (7.57%) QA
2 67 (3.23%) Accessibility
3 18 (0.87%) WCAG
4 16 (0.77%) GDPR
5 15 (0.72%) Data Quality
5 15 (0.72%) SLA
6 7 (0.34%) NCSC
6 7 (0.34%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 6 (0.29%) JTAG
7 6 (0.29%) PMO
8 5 (0.24%) PCI DSS
9 4 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
9 4 (0.19%) MISRA
10 2 (0.096%) IFRS
10 2 (0.096%) IFRS 9
11 1 (0.048%) Dodd-Frank
11 1 (0.048%) EMIR
11 1 (0.048%) MISRA C
11 1 (0.048%) SOC 1
11 1 (0.048%) SOC 2
System Software
1 402 (19.39%) Docker
2 72 (3.47%) Active Directory
3 40 (1.93%) VMware Infrastructure
4 33 (1.59%) HDFS
5 15 (0.72%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 12 (0.58%) Virtual Machines
7 10 (0.48%) NFS
8 9 (0.43%) Xen
9 8 (0.39%) Hyper-V
10 7 (0.34%) Firmware
10 7 (0.34%) KVM
10 7 (0.34%) RACF
10 7 (0.34%) SRDF
11 6 (0.29%) vSphere
12 5 (0.24%) Virtual Servers
13 4 (0.19%) Virtual Desktop
13 4 (0.19%) VMware ESXi
14 3 (0.14%) Postfix
14 3 (0.14%) VirtualBox
15 2 (0.096%) Oracle RAC
Systems Management
1 372 (17.95%) Kubernetes
2 313 (15.10%) Terraform
3 260 (12.54%) Ansible
4 113 (5.45%) Puppet
5 86 (4.15%) Grafana
6 64 (3.09%) Opscode Chef
7 61 (2.94%) Prometheus
8 38 (1.83%) Packer
9 25 (1.21%) Kibana
10 23 (1.11%) Bosun
11 19 (0.92%) Istio
11 19 (0.92%) Nagios
11 19 (0.92%) VictorOps
12 17 (0.82%) Rancher
13 15 (0.72%) ZABBIX
14 14 (0.68%) Docker Swarm
15 11 (0.53%) Hadoop YARN
15 11 (0.53%) logstash
16 9 (0.43%) ITRS Geneos
17 7 (0.34%) HAProxy
Vendors
1 241 (11.63%) Oracle
2 238 (11.48%) Microsoft
3 129 (6.22%) Google
4 41 (1.98%) VMware
5 37 (1.78%) Splunk
6 36 (1.74%) SAP
7 35 (1.69%) IBM
8 31 (1.50%) Salesforce.com
9 28 (1.35%) Red Hat
10 27 (1.30%) Talend
11 26 (1.25%) Atlassian
12 25 (1.21%) Informatica
13 23 (1.11%) hybris
14 21 (1.01%) Databricks
15 18 (0.87%) PagerDuty
16 17 (0.82%) Apple
17 16 (0.77%) SaltStack
18 15 (0.72%) ServiceNow
19 14 (0.68%) Cloudera
19 14 (0.68%) F5