Period
to 14 October 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 14 October 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK > England
6 months to
14 Oct 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 131 118 127
Rank change year-on-year -13 +9 +15
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,556 2,089 1,807
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 1.99% 2.24% 2.00%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.30% 2.58% 2.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,077 1,464 1,321
England median daily rate £488 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.63% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £352 £326 £319
90th Percentile £650 £614 £600
UK median daily rate £475 £470 £438
% change year-on-year +1.06% +7.43% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 18 48 36
England median hourly rate £43.00 £49.50 £42.88
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -13.13% +15.45% +3.94%
10th Percentile £35.00 £40.44 £31.25
90th Percentile £56.25 £51.00 £67.75
UK median hourly rate £43.00 £49.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -13.13% +16.47% +3.66%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 67,710 81,102 78,164
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 86.75% 86.84% 86.38%
Number of daily rates quoted 44,940 54,096 52,148
England median daily rate £475 £470 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.06% +4.44% +5.88%
10th Percentile £300 £300 £281
90th Percentile £650 £644 £626
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,975 2,205 1,881
England median hourly rate £24.12 £20.50 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +17.66% -18.00% +11.11%
10th Percentile £11.80 £11.18 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.75 £50.00 £50.00
UK median hourly rate £24.00 £20.50 £25.00
% change year-on-year +17.07% -18.00% +11.11%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 14 October 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 14 October 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the England region over the 6 months to 14 October 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -25 811 £535 +1.90% 204
South East +17 268 £425 - 125
North of England -12 176 £450 +15.98% 113
South West -34 118 £433 +8.13% 78
Midlands +28 116 £475 +23.38% 79
North West -9 99 £450 +16.81% 65
East of England +27 63 £450 - 39
East Midlands +4 63 £456 +21.67% 46
Yorkshire -7 59 £450 +12.50% 35
West Midlands +40 51 £475 +18.75% 33
North East +21 18 £350 -8.50% 13
Unit Testing
UK

For the 6 months to 14 October 2019, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 813 (52.25%) Agile Software Development
2 506 (32.52%) Java
3 492 (31.62%) C#
4 488 (31.36%) JavaScript
5 466 (29.95%) TDD
6 436 (28.02%) .NET
7 422 (27.12%) SQL
8 375 (24.10%) Git (software)
9 343 (22.04%) HTML
10 328 (21.08%) Test Automation
11 321 (20.63%) AngularJS
12 320 (20.57%) CSS
13 287 (18.44%) Scrum
14 281 (18.06%) Finance
15 274 (17.61%) Continuous Integration
16 267 (17.16%) Azure
17 243 (15.62%) React
18 228 (14.65%) Python
19 226 (14.52%) SQL Server
20 221 (14.20%) Microservices
21 219 (14.07%) MVC
22 217 (13.95%) Web Services
23 215 (13.82%) DevOps
24 196 (12.60%) Software Engineering
25 195 (12.53%) REST
26 188 (12.08%) Node.js
27 181 (11.63%) AWS
28 180 (11.57%) Jenkins
29 177 (11.38%) BDD
29 177 (11.38%) Microsoft

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 57 (3.66%) Confluence
2 42 (2.70%) CMS
3 41 (2.63%) WebSphere
4 37 (2.38%) Apache
5 33 (2.12%) IIS
6 30 (1.93%) Apache Spark
7 20 (1.29%) Sitecore CMS
8 18 (1.16%) ArcGIS
9 16 (1.03%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 15 (0.96%) NServiceBus
11 14 (0.90%) GeoServer
12 12 (0.77%) Elasticsearch
12 12 (0.77%) Jetty
12 12 (0.77%) Tomcat
13 11 (0.71%) SAS
14 10 (0.64%) JBoss
15 9 (0.58%) CICS
15 9 (0.58%) Jupyter
16 8 (0.51%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 8 (0.51%) Ethereum
Applications
1 21 (1.35%) MS Visio
2 17 (1.09%) Microsoft Excel
3 11 (0.71%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 10 (0.64%) Photoshop
5 7 (0.45%) Sketch
6 4 (0.26%) Simulink
7 1 (0.064%) Adobe XD
7 1 (0.064%) Microsoft Office
7 1 (0.064%) Microsoft Project
7 1 (0.064%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.064%) Stateflow
Business Applications
1 34 (2.19%) Magento
2 25 (1.61%) Oracle EBS
3 22 (1.41%) Siebel CRM
4 20 (1.29%) Endur
4 20 (1.29%) SAP MM
5 15 (0.96%) SAP FI
6 14 (0.90%) SAP CO
6 14 (0.90%) SAP FI/CO
7 11 (0.71%) SAP QM
7 11 (0.71%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 10 (0.64%) Distributed Ledger
9 9 (0.58%) SAP PP
9 9 (0.58%) SAP PS
10 8 (0.51%) R3 Corda
11 7 (0.45%) Oracle BPM
11 7 (0.45%) SAP IBP
11 7 (0.45%) SAP S/4HANA
11 7 (0.45%) Shopify
12 6 (0.39%) Dynamics CRM
13 5 (0.32%) SAP WM
Cloud Services
1 267 (17.16%) Azure
2 181 (11.63%) AWS
3 60 (3.86%) GitHub
4 46 (2.96%) npm
5 44 (2.83%) Cloud Computing
6 42 (2.70%) GCP
7 33 (2.12%) Serverless
8 22 (1.41%) OpenShift
8 22 (1.41%) SaaS
9 19 (1.22%) AWS Lambda
9 19 (1.22%) IaaS
9 19 (1.22%) Power Platform
10 18 (1.16%) PaaS
11 13 (0.84%) Sauce Labs
12 12 (0.77%) Amazon S3
12 12 (0.77%) AWS CloudFormation
12 12 (0.77%) Yarn
13 10 (0.64%) Amazon EKS
13 10 (0.64%) Azure Data Factory
13 10 (0.64%) Office 365
Communications & Networking
1 45 (2.89%) HTTP
2 29 (1.86%) TCP/IP
3 15 (0.96%) DNS
4 12 (0.77%) TETRA
5 11 (0.71%) FTP
6 9 (0.58%) Internet
6 9 (0.58%) Network Security
7 7 (0.45%) IPFS
7 7 (0.45%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
8 6 (0.39%) Reverse Proxy
9 5 (0.32%) Firewall
9 5 (0.32%) SNMP
10 3 (0.19%) VoIP
11 2 (0.13%) AMQP
11 2 (0.13%) DHCP
11 2 (0.13%) Ethernet
11 2 (0.13%) IPsec
11 2 (0.13%) Tactical Data Link
12 1 (0.064%) FIX Connectivity
12 1 (0.064%) Junos
Database & Business Intelligence
1 226 (14.52%) SQL Server
2 91 (5.85%) NoSQL
3 85 (5.46%) Relational Database
4 63 (4.05%) PostgreSQL
5 62 (3.98%) MySQL
6 50 (3.21%) Oracle Database
7 46 (2.96%) MongoDB
8 39 (2.51%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 36 (2.31%) Data Warehouse
9 36 (2.31%) Oracle BI EE
10 33 (2.12%) Big Data
10 33 (2.12%) Hadoop
11 30 (1.93%) KDB
12 28 (1.80%) Azure SQL Database
13 27 (1.74%) Kdb+
14 23 (1.48%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 21 (1.35%) Oracle8/8i Database
15 21 (1.35%) Oracle9i Database
16 20 (1.29%) RDBMS
17 19 (1.22%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 375 (24.10%) Git (software)
2 180 (11.57%) Jenkins
3 116 (7.46%) JIRA
4 108 (6.94%) TeamCity
5 104 (6.68%) Selenium
6 96 (6.17%) Maven
7 90 (5.78%) Visual Studio
8 84 (5.40%) JUnit
9 81 (5.21%) Jasmine
10 72 (4.63%) Cucumber
11 70 (4.50%) Subversion
12 63 (4.05%) webpack
13 59 (3.79%) NUnit
14 54 (3.47%) Team Foundation Server
15 51 (3.28%) Karma Test Runner
16 49 (3.15%) Mockito
17 42 (2.70%) Grunt
18 41 (2.63%) Mocha
19 40 (2.57%) Octopus Deploy
20 38 (2.44%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 281 (18.06%) Finance
2 133 (8.55%) Banking
3 89 (5.72%) Front Office
4 61 (3.92%) Retail
5 41 (2.63%) Investment Banking
6 38 (2.44%) Manufacturing
7 35 (2.25%) Public Sector
8 33 (2.12%) Games
9 28 (1.80%) Telecoms
10 20 (1.29%) Law
11 18 (1.16%) Publishing
12 15 (0.96%) Legal
13 14 (0.90%) Billing
14 13 (0.84%) Marketing
15 11 (0.71%) Back Office
16 9 (0.58%) Retail Banking
17 6 (0.39%) Advertising
17 6 (0.39%) Financial Institution
18 4 (0.26%) Local Government
18 4 (0.26%) Military
Job Titles
1 1,098 (70.57%) Developer
2 194 (12.47%) .NET Developer
3 166 (10.67%) C# Developer
4 162 (10.41%) Java Developer
5 121 (7.78%) Senior Developer
6 93 (5.98%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 82 (5.27%) Full Stack Developer
8 79 (5.08%) React Developer
9 74 (4.76%) C# .NET Developer
10 73 (4.69%) Angular Developer
11 69 (4.43%) Consultant
12 66 (4.24%) JavaScript Developer
12 66 (4.24%) Software Engineer
13 48 (3.08%) Scala Developer
14 45 (2.89%) Lead Developer
15 43 (2.76%) Architect
15 43 (2.76%) SAP Consultant
16 41 (2.63%) Agile Developer
16 41 (2.63%) Software Developer
17 37 (2.38%) Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 436 (28.02%) .NET
2 343 (22.04%) HTML
3 321 (20.63%) AngularJS
4 320 (20.57%) CSS
5 243 (15.62%) React
6 217 (13.95%) Web Services
7 195 (12.53%) REST
8 188 (12.08%) Node.js
9 175 (11.25%) RESTful
10 155 (9.96%) HTML5
11 152 (9.77%) ASP.NET Web API
12 146 (9.38%) .NET Core
13 143 (9.19%) Spring
14 138 (8.87%) .NET Framework
15 122 (7.84%) XML
16 115 (7.39%) JSON
17 108 (6.94%) Sass
18 106 (6.81%) CSS3
19 105 (6.75%) ASP.NET
20 94 (6.04%) Twitter Bootstrap
Miscellaneous
1 112 (7.20%) Greenfield Project
2 111 (7.13%) User Experience
3 62 (3.98%) Derivative
4 61 (3.92%) Analytical Skills
5 57 (3.66%) Enterprise Software
6 55 (3.53%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 47 (3.02%) Self-Motivation
8 42 (2.70%) Mobile App
9 38 (2.44%) Algorithms
10 33 (2.12%) Data Structures
10 33 (2.12%) Equities
10 33 (2.12%) Hedge funds
11 27 (1.74%) W3C
12 25 (1.61%) Linux Command Line
13 20 (1.29%) Fixed Income
13 20 (1.29%) Vector Graphics
14 17 (1.09%) Management Information System
15 15 (0.96%) Cloud Native
16 12 (0.77%) N-Tier
17 11 (0.71%) Mainframe
Operating Systems
1 149 (9.58%) Linux
2 106 (6.81%) Windows
3 56 (3.60%) Unix
4 44 (2.83%) Android
5 41 (2.63%) Apple iOS
6 20 (1.29%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 13 (0.84%) CentOS
8 11 (0.71%) OpenVMS
9 9 (0.58%) Windows Server
10 7 (0.45%) Mac OS
10 7 (0.45%) Windows 8
11 5 (0.32%) MVS
11 5 (0.32%) Windows 10
12 4 (0.26%) Mac OS X
12 4 (0.26%) Mac OS X Server
12 4 (0.26%) tvOS
13 3 (0.19%) Ubuntu
13 3 (0.19%) VMS
14 2 (0.13%) Windows 7
15 1 (0.064%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 813 (52.25%) Agile Software Development
2 466 (29.95%) TDD
3 328 (21.08%) Test Automation
4 287 (18.44%) Scrum
5 274 (17.61%) Continuous Integration
6 221 (14.20%) Microservices
7 219 (14.07%) MVC
8 215 (13.82%) DevOps
9 196 (12.60%) Software Engineering
10 177 (11.38%) BDD
11 168 (10.80%) Problem-Solving
12 157 (10.09%) OO
13 156 (10.03%) Front End Development
14 153 (9.83%) SDLC
15 123 (7.90%) Integration Testing
16 117 (7.52%) Analytics
17 102 (6.56%) Pair Programming
18 98 (6.30%) E-Commerce
19 89 (5.72%) Business Intelligence
20 86 (5.53%) OOP
Programming Languages
1 506 (32.52%) Java
2 492 (31.62%) C#
3 488 (31.36%) JavaScript
4 422 (27.12%) SQL
5 228 (14.65%) Python
6 132 (8.48%) TypeScript
7 120 (7.71%) C++
8 88 (5.66%) Scala
9 81 (5.21%) PHP
10 77 (4.95%) ES6
11 63 (4.05%) C
12 60 (3.86%) Java 8
13 54 (3.47%) T-SQL
14 45 (2.89%) PL/SQL
15 39 (2.51%) PowerShell
16 38 (2.44%) Bash Shell
17 36 (2.31%) VB.NET
18 32 (2.06%) Shell Script
19 25 (1.61%) Kotlin
20 23 (1.48%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 155 (9.96%) Security Cleared
2 133 (8.55%) SC Cleared
3 82 (5.27%) Degree
4 19 (1.22%) ISTQB
5 16 (1.03%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 15 (0.96%) Computer Science Degree
7 9 (0.58%) BPSS Clearance
8 8 (0.51%) Master's Degree
9 7 (0.45%) DV Cleared
10 4 (0.26%) DBS Check
10 4 (0.26%) PhD
11 2 (0.13%) CTC Cleared
11 2 (0.13%) Sun Certification
12 1 (0.064%) AWS Certification
12 1 (0.064%) BC Cleared
12 1 (0.064%) ISEB
12 1 (0.064%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 128 (8.23%) QA
2 10 (0.64%) PCI DSS
3 7 (0.45%) Data Quality
4 5 (0.32%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 4 (0.26%) MISRA
6 3 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
6 3 (0.19%) GxP
6 3 (0.19%) HL7
7 2 (0.13%) PMO
7 2 (0.13%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 2 (0.13%) SLA
8 1 (0.064%) DICOM
8 1 (0.064%) GAAP
8 1 (0.064%) ISO 9001
8 1 (0.064%) MISRA C
8 1 (0.064%) PSD2
System Software
1 160 (10.28%) Docker
2 12 (0.77%) VirtualBox
3 9 (0.58%) Virtual Machines
4 7 (0.45%) Active Directory
4 7 (0.45%) LXC
5 4 (0.26%) Microsoft App-V
5 4 (0.26%) RACF
5 4 (0.26%) VMware Infrastructure
6 3 (0.19%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 1 (0.064%) Firmware
7 1 (0.064%) Terminal Server
7 1 (0.064%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
7 1 (0.064%) Virtual Desktop
7 1 (0.064%) VMware ESXi
7 1 (0.064%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 68 (4.37%) Kubernetes
2 48 (3.08%) Terraform
3 34 (2.19%) Ansible
4 18 (1.16%) Puppet
5 10 (0.64%) Docker Swarm
6 8 (0.51%) HP ALM
6 8 (0.51%) Oozie
7 7 (0.45%) Kibana
8 6 (0.39%) Hadoop YARN
8 6 (0.39%) Opscode Chef
8 6 (0.39%) Tivoli
9 5 (0.32%) logstash
10 4 (0.26%) CA Endevor
10 4 (0.26%) Graphite
10 4 (0.26%) Jamf Pro
10 4 (0.26%) Nagios
10 4 (0.26%) Single Sign-On
10 4 (0.26%) StatsD
10 4 (0.26%) zSecure
11 3 (0.19%) Packer
Vendors
1 177 (11.38%) Microsoft
2 139 (8.93%) Oracle
3 83 (5.33%) SAP
4 79 (5.08%) IBM
5 41 (2.63%) Sitecore
6 40 (2.57%) Google
7 33 (2.12%) Informatica
8 27 (1.74%) Citrix
9 25 (1.61%) Siebel
10 24 (1.54%) Atlassian
10 24 (1.54%) Cypress Semiconductor
10 24 (1.54%) hybris
11 22 (1.41%) OpenText
12 20 (1.29%) OpenLink
13 19 (1.22%) MuleSoft
14 18 (1.16%) ESRI
15 17 (1.09%) Red Hat
16 14 (0.90%) Zend
17 13 (0.84%) Roku
18 12 (0.77%) Salesforce.com