Period
to 20 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 20 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK > England
6 months to
20 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 138 115 142
Rank change year-on-year -23 +27 -4
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,590 2,012 1,595
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 1.92% 2.21% 1.90%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.20% 2.54% 2.22%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,089 1,420 1,077
England median daily rate £488 £475 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.63% +11.76% -
10th Percentile £357 £325 £306
90th Percentile £625 £600 £590
UK median daily rate £475 £470 £425
% change year-on-year +1.06% +10.59% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 26 21 40
England median hourly rate £44.00 £49.50 £41.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -11.11% +20.00% -4.62%
10th Percentile £39.38 £35.63 £31.25
90th Percentile £52.63 £51.00 £59.95
UK median hourly rate £44.25 £49.50 £41.25
% change year-on-year -10.61% +20.00% -4.07%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 72,435 79,074 71,987
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 87.37% 86.75% 85.73%
Number of daily rates quoted 48,103 52,496 47,365
England median daily rate £475 £463 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.70% +2.78% +5.88%
10th Percentile £306 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £438
% change year-on-year +5.56% +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,944 2,160 1,911
England median hourly rate £25.06 £22.00 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +13.91% -12.00% -
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.25 £11.43
90th Percentile £52.50 £50.00 £51.50
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £21.50 £25.00
% change year-on-year +16.28% -14.00% -

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 20 June 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 20 June 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the England region over the 6 months to 20 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -30 846 £525 +4.48% 50
South East -35 260 £440 -1.28% 28
North of England +1 177 £425 +9.68% 23
Midlands +18 141 £475 +18.75% 13
South West -53 105 £475 +26.67% 15
West Midlands +31 82 £475 +26.67% 9
North West -3 80 £394 +5.00% 13
Yorkshire -4 67 £425 +6.25% 4
East Midlands +2 57 £500 +25.00% 4
East of England -2 56 £463 +2.78% 4
North East +37 30 £450 +28.57% 6
Unit Testing
UK

For the 6 months to 20 June 2019, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 849 (53.40%) Agile Software Development
2 550 (34.59%) TDD
3 531 (33.40%) C#
4 514 (32.33%) JavaScript
5 501 (31.51%) .NET
6 467 (29.37%) Java
7 431 (27.11%) Git (software)
8 396 (24.91%) CSS
9 389 (24.47%) SQL
10 387 (24.34%) HTML
11 341 (21.45%) AngularJS
12 321 (20.19%) Test Automation
13 320 (20.13%) Scrum
14 314 (19.75%) Continuous Integration
15 292 (18.36%) Finance
16 277 (17.42%) React
17 266 (16.73%) Microsoft Azure
18 264 (16.60%) SQL Server
19 260 (16.35%) Web Services
20 246 (15.47%) Node.js
21 243 (15.28%) REST
22 230 (14.47%) Jenkins
23 219 (13.77%) Software Engineering
24 211 (13.27%) DevOps
25 207 (13.02%) Python
26 204 (12.83%) MVC
27 201 (12.64%) Microservices
28 197 (12.39%) Problem-Solving
29 196 (12.33%) BDD
30 188 (11.82%) Amazon AWS

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 77 (4.84%) Confluence
2 48 (3.02%) Apache
3 36 (2.26%) CMS
4 35 (2.20%) WebSphere
5 32 (2.01%) Apache Spark
6 29 (1.82%) Elasticsearch
7 27 (1.70%) IIS
8 19 (1.19%) SharePoint
9 18 (1.13%) Drupal
9 18 (1.13%) JBoss
9 18 (1.13%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 16 (1.01%) Apache Solr
11 14 (0.88%) Sitecore CMS
12 13 (0.82%) BizTalk Server
12 13 (0.82%) Ethereum
12 13 (0.82%) Hyperledger
13 12 (0.75%) Jetty
14 11 (0.69%) Tomcat
15 9 (0.57%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 7 (0.44%) Apache ServiceMix
Applications
1 23 (1.45%) Microsoft Excel
2 12 (0.75%) Photoshop
3 11 (0.69%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 7 (0.44%) MS Visio
4 7 (0.44%) Sketch
5 6 (0.38%) Simulink
5 6 (0.38%) Spreadsheet
6 3 (0.19%) Adobe Illustrator
6 3 (0.19%) Adobe XD
6 3 (0.19%) Microsoft Office
6 3 (0.19%) Microsoft Project
6 3 (0.19%) Stateflow
7 2 (0.13%) Chatbot
8 1 (0.063%) EngageOne
8 1 (0.063%) Fireworks
8 1 (0.063%) GIMP
8 1 (0.063%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 30 (1.89%) Dynamics CRM
2 25 (1.57%) Magento
3 20 (1.26%) Endur
4 18 (1.13%) SAP MM
5 15 (0.94%) Distributed Ledger
6 13 (0.82%) R3 Corda
6 13 (0.82%) SAP FI
7 11 (0.69%) SAP CO
7 11 (0.69%) SAP FI/CO
8 9 (0.57%) SAP PS
9 8 (0.50%) NetSuite
10 7 (0.44%) Payment Gateway
11 6 (0.38%) Oracle BPM
11 6 (0.38%) SAP Hybris
11 6 (0.38%) Workday HCM
12 5 (0.31%) Fredhopper
12 5 (0.31%) SAP QM
12 5 (0.31%) SAP S/4HANA
12 5 (0.31%) Shopify
13 4 (0.25%) Dynamics AX
Cloud Services
1 266 (16.73%) Microsoft Azure
2 188 (11.82%) Amazon AWS
3 77 (4.84%) GitHub
4 68 (4.28%) Serverless
5 50 (3.14%) npm
6 47 (2.96%) Google Cloud Platform
7 45 (2.83%) AWS Lambda
8 36 (2.26%) Cloud Computing
9 34 (2.14%) AWS CloudFormation
10 27 (1.70%) Dynamics 365
11 23 (1.45%) Power Platform
12 22 (1.38%) SaaS
13 21 (1.32%) PaaS
14 20 (1.26%) Azure Functions
15 15 (0.94%) Sauce Labs
16 12 (0.75%) IaaS
17 11 (0.69%) Amazon EC2
17 11 (0.69%) Amazon S3
17 11 (0.69%) Amazon SQS
17 11 (0.69%) Azure Data Factory
Communications & Networking
1 57 (3.58%) HTTP
2 32 (2.01%) TCP/IP
3 18 (1.13%) Internet
4 16 (1.01%) DNS
5 15 (0.94%) FTP
6 12 (0.75%) IPFS
6 12 (0.75%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
7 7 (0.44%) DHCP
7 7 (0.44%) IPsec
7 7 (0.44%) Network Security
8 6 (0.38%) SNMP
8 6 (0.38%) SSH
9 5 (0.31%) TETRA
10 4 (0.25%) AMQP
10 4 (0.25%) Firewall
11 3 (0.19%) Bluetooth
11 3 (0.19%) NFC
12 2 (0.13%) Ethernet
12 2 (0.13%) Junos
12 2 (0.13%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 264 (16.60%) SQL Server
2 86 (5.41%) NoSQL
3 84 (5.28%) Relational Database
4 66 (4.15%) Big Data
5 56 (3.52%) MySQL
6 51 (3.21%) Data Warehouse
6 51 (3.21%) MongoDB
7 45 (2.83%) PostgreSQL
8 41 (2.58%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 37 (2.33%) Hadoop
10 36 (2.26%) Apache Cassandra
11 31 (1.95%) RDBMS
12 27 (1.70%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 27 (1.70%) HBase
13 26 (1.64%) Oracle Database
14 24 (1.51%) SQL Server 2012
15 23 (1.45%) Azure SQL Database
15 23 (1.45%) Power BI
16 20 (1.26%) SQL Server 2008
17 18 (1.13%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 431 (27.11%) Git (software)
2 230 (14.47%) Jenkins
3 157 (9.87%) JIRA
4 139 (8.74%) Selenium
5 128 (8.05%) Visual Studio
6 125 (7.86%) JUnit
7 119 (7.48%) Maven
8 113 (7.11%) Team Foundation Server
9 88 (5.53%) TeamCity
10 76 (4.78%) Cucumber
11 72 (4.53%) webpack
12 66 (4.15%) Jasmine
13 64 (4.03%) Mockito
14 63 (3.96%) Mocha
15 58 (3.65%) Subversion
16 51 (3.21%) Bitbucket
16 51 (3.21%) Karma Test Runner
16 51 (3.21%) Octopus Deploy
17 50 (3.14%) NUnit
18 48 (3.02%) Eclipse
General
1 292 (18.36%) Finance
2 127 (7.99%) Banking
3 78 (4.91%) Retail
4 77 (4.84%) Front Office
5 37 (2.33%) Investment Banking
6 32 (2.01%) Telecoms
7 31 (1.95%) Manufacturing
8 24 (1.51%) Games
8 24 (1.51%) Marketing
9 22 (1.38%) Legal
10 15 (0.94%) Advertising
10 15 (0.94%) Financial Institution
11 13 (0.82%) Publishing
12 9 (0.57%) Back Office
12 9 (0.57%) Electronics
13 8 (0.50%) Retail Banking
14 7 (0.44%) Billing
15 6 (0.38%) Aerospace
15 6 (0.38%) Local Government
16 5 (0.31%) Law
Job Titles
1 1,157 (72.77%) Developer
2 230 (14.47%) .NET Developer
3 172 (10.82%) Java Developer
4 161 (10.13%) C# Developer
5 124 (7.80%) Senior Developer
6 109 (6.86%) Full Stack Developer
7 95 (5.97%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
8 93 (5.85%) React Developer
9 91 (5.72%) C# .NET Developer
10 74 (4.65%) Software Engineer
11 63 (3.96%) JavaScript Developer
12 60 (3.77%) Software Developer
13 52 (3.27%) Angular Developer
14 48 (3.02%) Python Developer
15 46 (2.89%) Lead Developer
16 43 (2.70%) Scala Developer
17 40 (2.52%) Analyst
17 40 (2.52%) Architect
18 37 (2.33%) Consultant
18 37 (2.33%) iOS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 501 (31.51%) .NET
2 396 (24.91%) CSS
3 387 (24.34%) HTML
4 341 (21.45%) AngularJS
5 277 (17.42%) React
6 260 (16.35%) Web Services
7 246 (15.47%) Node.js
8 243 (15.28%) REST
9 186 (11.70%) HTML5
10 183 (11.51%) RESTful
11 173 (10.88%) Spring
12 168 (10.57%) ASP.NET Web API
13 164 (10.31%) JSON
14 141 (8.87%) .NET Framework
15 133 (8.36%) XML
16 129 (8.11%) jQuery
17 128 (8.05%) CSS3
18 127 (7.99%) Sass
19 122 (7.67%) .NET Core
19 122 (7.67%) ASP.NET
Miscellaneous
1 126 (7.92%) Greenfield Project
2 112 (7.04%) User Experience
3 93 (5.85%) Analytical Skills
4 55 (3.46%) Derivative
5 53 (3.33%) Enterprise Software
6 52 (3.27%) Mobile App
7 48 (3.02%) Algorithms
8 46 (2.89%) Self-Motivation
9 41 (2.58%) Data Structures
10 35 (2.20%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 35 (2.20%) Linux Command Line
11 29 (1.82%) Equities
12 28 (1.76%) Fixed Income
13 25 (1.57%) Virtual Team
14 24 (1.51%) Mainframe
15 21 (1.32%) Hedge funds
16 20 (1.26%) W3C
17 16 (1.01%) N-Tier
18 13 (0.82%) Client/Server
18 13 (0.82%) Vector Graphics
Operating Systems
1 166 (10.44%) Linux
2 94 (5.91%) Windows
3 89 (5.60%) Unix
4 57 (3.58%) Apple iOS
5 55 (3.46%) Android
6 12 (0.75%) Mac OS
7 10 (0.63%) MVS
8 8 (0.50%) OpenVMS
9 4 (0.25%) CentOS
9 4 (0.25%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 4 (0.25%) Ubuntu
10 3 (0.19%) Windows 10
11 2 (0.13%) FreeRTOS
11 2 (0.13%) Solaris
12 1 (0.063%) AIX
12 1 (0.063%) Debian
12 1 (0.063%) Windows 7
12 1 (0.063%) Windows Server
12 1 (0.063%) Windows Server 2012
12 1 (0.063%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 849 (53.40%) Agile Software Development
2 550 (34.59%) TDD
3 321 (20.19%) Test Automation
4 320 (20.13%) Scrum
5 314 (19.75%) Continuous Integration
6 219 (13.77%) Software Engineering
7 211 (13.27%) DevOps
8 204 (12.83%) MVC
9 201 (12.64%) Microservices
10 197 (12.39%) Problem-Solving
11 196 (12.33%) BDD
12 165 (10.38%) Front End Development
13 140 (8.81%) OO
14 133 (8.36%) SDLC
15 113 (7.11%) Pair Programming
16 98 (6.16%) Migration
17 95 (5.97%) Kanban
18 93 (5.85%) Analytics
19 92 (5.79%) Continuous Delivery
20 88 (5.53%) SOLID
Programming Languages
1 531 (33.40%) C#
2 514 (32.33%) JavaScript
3 467 (29.37%) Java
4 389 (24.47%) SQL
5 207 (13.02%) Python
6 112 (7.04%) TypeScript
7 98 (6.16%) ES6
8 89 (5.60%) C++
9 87 (5.47%) Scala
10 67 (4.21%) PHP
11 58 (3.65%) Java 8
12 53 (3.33%) Bash Shell
13 52 (3.27%) C
13 52 (3.27%) VB.NET
14 42 (2.64%) Apple Swift
15 41 (2.58%) T-SQL
16 38 (2.39%) Ruby
17 34 (2.14%) Objective-C
18 33 (2.08%) PL/SQL
19 28 (1.76%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 105 (6.60%) Degree
2 87 (5.47%) Security Cleared
3 66 (4.15%) SC Cleared
4 16 (1.01%) Computer Science Degree
5 14 (0.88%) BPSS Clearance
6 13 (0.82%) DV Cleared
7 12 (0.75%) DBS Check
8 7 (0.44%) ISTQB
9 6 (0.38%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 6 (0.38%) Master's Degree
10 4 (0.25%) AWS Certification
10 4 (0.25%) CTC Cleared
11 3 (0.19%) Numerate Degree
12 2 (0.13%) PhD
13 1 (0.063%) HND
13 1 (0.063%) ISEB
13 1 (0.063%) Microsoft Certification
13 1 (0.063%) PMI Certification
13 1 (0.063%) Postgraduate
13 1 (0.063%) SAS Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 127 (7.99%) QA
2 6 (0.38%) Disclosure Scotland
2 6 (0.38%) WCAG
3 5 (0.31%) PCI DSS
4 4 (0.25%) IFRS
5 3 (0.19%) MISRA
5 3 (0.19%) Solvency II
6 2 (0.13%) Data Quality
6 2 (0.13%) GDPR
6 2 (0.13%) HL7
7 1 (0.063%) Dublin Core
7 1 (0.063%) ISO 9001
7 1 (0.063%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 1 (0.063%) MiFID
7 1 (0.063%) PSD2
System Software
1 182 (11.45%) Docker
2 13 (0.82%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 11 (0.69%) HDFS
4 8 (0.50%) Active Directory
5 6 (0.38%) Apache Flume
6 4 (0.25%) VirtualBox
7 3 (0.19%) Virtual Machines
8 1 (0.063%) RACF
8 1 (0.063%) Terminal Server
8 1 (0.063%) vSphere
8 1 (0.063%) zsh
Systems Management
1 75 (4.72%) Kubernetes
2 39 (2.45%) Terraform
3 31 (1.95%) Ansible
4 20 (1.26%) Hadoop YARN
4 20 (1.26%) Puppet
5 19 (1.19%) Opscode Chef
6 9 (0.57%) Rundeck
7 8 (0.50%) Kibana
7 8 (0.50%) Single Sign-On
8 7 (0.44%) Packer
8 7 (0.44%) Salt
9 5 (0.31%) logstash
9 5 (0.31%) Rancher
9 5 (0.31%) Tivoli
10 4 (0.25%) Graphite
10 4 (0.25%) Nagios
10 4 (0.25%) StatsD
11 3 (0.19%) HP ALM
11 3 (0.19%) Oozie
12 2 (0.13%) Ionix
Vendors
1 181 (11.38%) Microsoft
2 111 (6.98%) Oracle
3 65 (4.09%) SAP
4 59 (3.71%) Google
5 43 (2.70%) IBM
6 30 (1.89%) hybris
6 30 (1.89%) Splunk
7 28 (1.76%) Atlassian
8 26 (1.64%) Sitecore
9 20 (1.26%) OpenLink
10 15 (0.94%) Adobe
11 13 (0.82%) Cypress Semiconductor
12 12 (0.75%) Xamarin
13 11 (0.69%) ForgeRock
13 11 (0.69%) Perforce
14 10 (0.63%) Dynatrace
14 10 (0.63%) Pega
14 10 (0.63%) Sencha
14 10 (0.63%) Talend
15 9 (0.57%) DevExpress