Period
to 19 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 19 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK > England
6 months to
19 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 143 146 135
Rank change year-on-year +3 -11 -10
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,275 494 1,535
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 1.89% 1.84% 1.99%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.12% 2.11% 2.27%
Number of daily rates quoted 897 361 1,065
10th Percentile £363 £314 £350
25th Percentile £431 £400 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £541 £475 £490
Median % change year-on-year +13.88% -3.06% +3.16%
75th Percentile £650 £575 £588
90th Percentile £738 £631 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £475 £480
% change year-on-year +10.53% -1.04% +3.78%
Number of hourly rates quoted 20 8 15
10th Percentile £40.55 £41.43 £27.40
25th Percentile £43.69 £41.50 £40.63
Median hourly rate £47.31 £48.25 £43.00
Median % change year-on-year -1.96% +12.21% -13.13%
75th Percentile £51.85 £55.00 £46.00
90th Percentile £55.85 £57.11 £46.90
UK median hourly rate £46.36 £44.25 £43.00
% change year-on-year +4.77% +2.91% -13.13%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 60,212 23,463 67,527
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.36% 87.46% 87.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 42,312 16,157 45,749
10th Percentile £319 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £381 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £520 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.47% - +1.60%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £510 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +7.37% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,483 661 1,901
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.00 £11.36
25th Percentile £14.48 £15.50 £14.38
Median hourly rate £24.36 £25.33 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -3.83% +12.58% +12.50%
75th Percentile £49.38 £45.00 £46.00
90th Percentile £63.00 £55.00 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £25.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year - +11.11% +15.38%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the England region over the 6 months to 19 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +36 780 £600 +14.29% 230
North of England -48 133 £450 -7.46% 85
South East -32 116 £450 -5.26% 78
Midlands -49 72 £409 +13.54% 72
North West -61 64 £425 -12.82% 45
East of England -4 61 £486 +21.56% 34
Yorkshire -15 55 £450 -10.00% 35
West Midlands -32 48 £432 +1.65% 39
South West -39 46 £500 +21.58% 56
East Midlands -33 22 £375 +7.14% 33
North East -3 14 £525 +26.51% 5
Unit Testing
UK

For the 6 months to 19 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 654 (51.29%) Agile Software Development
2 439 (34.43%) Git (software)
3 383 (30.04%) JavaScript
4 382 (29.96%) C#
5 369 (28.94%) TDD
6 359 (28.16%) Java
7 358 (28.08%) .NET
8 337 (26.43%) DevOps
9 336 (26.35%) SQL
10 318 (24.94%) Social Skills
11 265 (20.78%) Scrum
12 263 (20.63%) Azure
13 240 (18.82%) React
14 238 (18.67%) Continuous Integration
15 237 (18.59%) Software Engineering
16 225 (17.65%) HTML
17 223 (17.49%) Test Automation
18 219 (17.18%) Jenkins
18 219 (17.18%) Finance
19 218 (17.10%) CSS
19 218 (17.10%) AngularJS
20 207 (16.24%) Microservices
21 205 (16.08%) Docker
22 195 (15.29%) Python
23 192 (15.06%) RESTful
24 182 (14.27%) AWS
25 176 (13.80%) REST
25 176 (13.80%) TypeScript
25 176 (13.80%) Web Services
26 171 (13.41%) Banking

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 42 (3.29%) Apache
2 38 (2.98%) Confluence
3 32 (2.51%) Adobe Experience Manager
4 31 (2.43%) Apache Spark
5 30 (2.35%) CMS
5 30 (2.35%) Tomcat
6 29 (2.27%) Elasticsearch
7 20 (1.57%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 17 (1.33%) IIS
9 15 (1.18%) BizTalk Server
10 13 (1.02%) Jetty
11 11 (0.86%) IBM Domino
11 11 (0.86%) Mule
12 10 (0.78%) JBoss
13 8 (0.63%) nginx
13 8 (0.63%) Traefik
14 7 (0.55%) SAS
14 7 (0.55%) WebSphere
15 6 (0.47%) SharePoint
15 6 (0.47%) WebLogic
Applications
1 11 (0.86%) Spreadsheet
2 10 (0.78%) Microsoft Office
3 7 (0.55%) Microsoft Excel
4 5 (0.39%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.24%) Chatbot
5 3 (0.24%) Figma
6 2 (0.16%) Zeplin
7 1 (0.078%) MS Visio
7 1 (0.078%) Photoshop
7 1 (0.078%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 35 (2.75%) SunGard Martini
2 12 (0.94%) Magento
3 10 (0.78%) Dynamics CRM
4 9 (0.71%) Oracle ERP
4 9 (0.71%) Payment Gateway
4 9 (0.71%) Shopify
5 5 (0.39%) Temenos T24
6 4 (0.31%) Oracle EBS
6 4 (0.31%) Oracle Payables
6 4 (0.31%) Oracle Receivables
6 4 (0.31%) Workday HCM
7 3 (0.24%) iTrent
7 3 (0.24%) Unit4 Business World
8 2 (0.16%) Global One
8 2 (0.16%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 2 (0.16%) SAP QM
8 2 (0.16%) SAP S/4HANA
8 2 (0.16%) SAP SD
9 1 (0.078%) Maximo
9 1 (0.078%) Teamcenter
Cloud Services
1 263 (20.63%) Azure
2 182 (14.27%) AWS
3 117 (9.18%) Serverless
4 61 (4.78%) GitHub
5 52 (4.08%) Azure Service Bus
6 47 (3.69%) Azure Functions
6 47 (3.69%) GCP
7 43 (3.37%) Power Platform
8 42 (3.29%) SaaS
9 40 (3.14%) Amazon EC2
10 37 (2.90%) npm
10 37 (2.90%) PaaS
11 36 (2.82%) AWS CloudFormation
11 36 (2.82%) Azure Logic Apps
12 35 (2.75%) Amazon S3
13 27 (2.12%) Azure Event Grid
14 25 (1.96%) AWS Lambda
15 23 (1.80%) Cloud Computing
16 22 (1.73%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 22 (1.73%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 39 (3.06%) TCP/IP
2 31 (2.43%) HTTP
3 12 (0.94%) DNS
4 8 (0.63%) Internet
5 6 (0.47%) SSL
6 5 (0.39%) Wi-Fi
7 4 (0.31%) Intranet
7 4 (0.31%) SSH
8 3 (0.24%) Bluetooth
8 3 (0.24%) Firewall
8 3 (0.24%) Kerberos
8 3 (0.24%) VPN
8 3 (0.24%) Wireshark
9 2 (0.16%) DHCP
9 2 (0.16%) DLNA
9 2 (0.16%) FTP
9 2 (0.16%) IPsec
9 2 (0.16%) MQTT
9 2 (0.16%) UPnP
10 1 (0.078%) tcpdump
Database & Business Intelligence
1 169 (13.25%) SQL Server
2 79 (6.20%) Relational Database
3 76 (5.96%) NoSQL
4 70 (5.49%) Oracle Database
5 50 (3.92%) MongoDB
6 39 (3.06%) Oracle Database 12c
7 36 (2.82%) MySQL
8 35 (2.75%) Power BI
8 35 (2.75%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 33 (2.59%) Data Warehouse
10 28 (2.20%) SQL Server 2016
11 24 (1.88%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 21 (1.65%) Redis
13 20 (1.57%) Apache Cassandra
13 20 (1.57%) Pentaho
14 19 (1.49%) Big Data
15 17 (1.33%) PostgreSQL
15 17 (1.33%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 16 (1.25%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 16 (1.25%) Metadata
Development Applications
1 439 (34.43%) Git (software)
2 219 (17.18%) Jenkins
3 142 (11.14%) JIRA
4 116 (9.10%) JUnit
5 93 (7.29%) Mockito
6 90 (7.06%) Maven
7 80 (6.27%) TeamCity
8 79 (6.20%) Subversion
8 79 (6.20%) Visual Studio
9 78 (6.12%) Jasmine
10 53 (4.16%) Bitbucket
11 50 (3.92%) Selenium
11 50 (3.92%) Team Foundation Server
12 47 (3.69%) Mocha
13 45 (3.53%) CppUnit
14 42 (3.29%) Postman
15 40 (3.14%) Karma Test Runner
16 39 (3.06%) Cucumber
17 38 (2.98%) Gatling
18 37 (2.90%) webpack
General
1 318 (24.94%) Social Skills
2 219 (17.18%) Finance
3 171 (13.41%) Banking
4 98 (7.69%) Analytical Skills
5 92 (7.22%) Investment Banking
6 83 (6.51%) Public Sector
7 65 (5.10%) Front Office
8 45 (3.53%) Presentation Skills
8 45 (3.53%) Retail
9 43 (3.37%) Marketing
10 22 (1.73%) Legal
11 18 (1.41%) Financial Institution
12 15 (1.18%) Back Office
13 14 (1.10%) Games
14 11 (0.86%) Law
15 8 (0.63%) Documentation Skills
15 8 (0.63%) Military
16 7 (0.55%) Police
16 7 (0.55%) Publishing
17 6 (0.47%) Telecoms
Job Titles
1 865 (67.84%) Developer
2 144 (11.29%) C# Developer
3 137 (10.75%) .NET Developer
4 130 (10.20%) Java Developer
5 128 (10.04%) Senior Developer
6 90 (7.06%) React Developer
7 79 (6.20%) Full Stack Developer
8 76 (5.96%) Software Engineer
9 64 (5.02%) Software Developer
10 61 (4.78%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 57 (4.47%) Angular Developer
12 55 (4.31%) Scala Developer
13 53 (4.16%) C# .NET Developer
14 48 (3.76%) JavaScript Developer
15 47 (3.69%) Architect
16 46 (3.61%) Data Engineer
17 43 (3.37%) C# Software Developer
18 40 (3.14%) C++ Developer
19 39 (3.06%) SQL Developer
20 37 (2.90%) Front Office Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 358 (28.08%) .NET
2 240 (18.82%) React
3 225 (17.65%) HTML
4 218 (17.10%) AngularJS
4 218 (17.10%) CSS
5 192 (15.06%) RESTful
6 176 (13.80%) REST
6 176 (13.80%) Web Services
7 149 (11.69%) .NET Core
8 148 (11.61%) Spring
9 145 (11.37%) Node.js
10 115 (9.02%) .NET Framework
11 105 (8.24%) JSON
12 102 (8.00%) XML
13 100 (7.84%) Jest
14 88 (6.90%) HTML5
15 86 (6.75%) ASP.NET
16 83 (6.51%) ASP.NET Web API
17 81 (6.35%) SOAP
18 72 (5.65%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 87 (6.82%) User Experience
2 48 (3.76%) Mobile App
3 41 (3.22%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 37 (2.90%) Self-Motivation
5 36 (2.82%) Greenfield Project
6 35 (2.75%) Data Protection Act
7 34 (2.67%) Enterprise Software
8 26 (2.04%) Hedge funds
9 21 (1.65%) Fixed Income
9 21 (1.65%) Management Information System
10 20 (1.57%) Data Structures
11 18 (1.41%) Public Cloud
11 18 (1.41%) Social Media
12 14 (1.10%) Algorithms
13 12 (0.94%) Cloud Native
14 11 (0.86%) Driving Licence
14 11 (0.86%) Equities
14 11 (0.86%) Life Science
14 11 (0.86%) SCADA
15 10 (0.78%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 116 (9.10%) Linux
2 95 (7.45%) Windows
3 60 (4.71%) Android
4 55 (4.31%) Unix
5 46 (3.61%) Apple iOS
6 13 (1.02%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 8 (0.63%) CentOS
8 6 (0.47%) Windows Server
9 5 (0.39%) Windows Server 2012
9 5 (0.39%) Windows Server 2016
10 4 (0.31%) Embedded Linux
11 2 (0.16%) Ubuntu
11 2 (0.16%) VMS
12 1 (0.078%) Debian
12 1 (0.078%) Robot Operating System
12 1 (0.078%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 654 (51.29%) Agile Software Development
2 369 (28.94%) TDD
3 337 (26.43%) DevOps
4 265 (20.78%) Scrum
5 238 (18.67%) Continuous Integration
6 237 (18.59%) Software Engineering
7 223 (17.49%) Test Automation
8 207 (16.24%) Microservices
9 171 (13.41%) Problem-Solving
10 161 (12.63%) Full Stack Development
11 153 (12.00%) BDD
12 137 (10.75%) MVC
13 118 (9.25%) Integration Testing
14 99 (7.76%) Front End Development
15 98 (7.69%) Pair Programming
16 93 (7.29%) OO
17 86 (6.75%) SDLC
18 79 (6.20%) Continuous Delivery
18 79 (6.20%) Kanban
19 78 (6.12%) Clean Code
Programming Languages
1 383 (30.04%) JavaScript
2 382 (29.96%) C#
3 359 (28.16%) Java
4 336 (26.35%) SQL
5 195 (15.29%) Python
6 176 (13.80%) TypeScript
7 118 (9.25%) C++
8 93 (7.29%) Scala
9 78 (6.12%) Java 8
10 65 (5.10%) PL/SQL
11 63 (4.94%) T-SQL
12 49 (3.84%) Kotlin
13 45 (3.53%) ES6
14 39 (3.06%) C
15 37 (2.90%) Apple Swift
16 35 (2.75%) Go
17 34 (2.67%) Java 11
18 27 (2.12%) Ruby
19 25 (1.96%) Objective-C
20 22 (1.73%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 120 (9.41%) Security Cleared
2 109 (8.55%) SC Cleared
3 61 (4.78%) Degree
4 9 (0.71%) Computer Science Degree
4 9 (0.71%) ISTQB
5 8 (0.63%) DV Cleared
6 7 (0.55%) Microsoft Certification
7 6 (0.47%) BPSS Clearance
8 3 (0.24%) AWS Certification
8 3 (0.24%) CTC Cleared
8 3 (0.24%) ISEB
9 2 (0.16%) HND
9 2 (0.16%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 2 (0.16%) Master's Degree
9 2 (0.16%) PhD
9 2 (0.16%) SAP Certification
10 1 (0.078%) DBS Check
10 1 (0.078%) Novell Certification
10 1 (0.078%) Numerate Degree
10 1 (0.078%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 96 (7.53%) QA
2 70 (5.49%) Accessibility
3 16 (1.25%) GDPR
4 11 (0.86%) WCAG
5 8 (0.63%) Data Quality
5 8 (0.63%) NCSC
6 2 (0.16%) HIPAA
6 2 (0.16%) SLA
7 1 (0.078%) DICOM
7 1 (0.078%) Disclosure Scotland
7 1 (0.078%) IFRS
7 1 (0.078%) MiFID
7 1 (0.078%) MISRA
7 1 (0.078%) MISRA C
7 1 (0.078%) WAI
System Software
1 205 (16.08%) Docker
2 18 (1.41%) VMware Infrastructure
3 14 (1.10%) Virtual Machines
4 12 (0.94%) Active Directory
5 7 (0.55%) HDFS
6 5 (0.39%) LXC
7 3 (0.24%) Varnish
8 2 (0.16%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 2 (0.16%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 106 (8.31%) Kubernetes
2 55 (4.31%) Ansible
3 50 (3.92%) Prometheus
4 40 (3.14%) Grafana
5 37 (2.90%) Terraform
6 26 (2.04%) BladeLogic
7 20 (1.57%) Puppet
8 14 (1.10%) Opscode Chef
9 10 (0.78%) Graphite
9 10 (0.78%) Kibana
10 9 (0.71%) Consul
10 9 (0.71%) Istio
10 9 (0.71%) Packer
10 9 (0.71%) ZABBIX
11 8 (0.63%) Docker Swarm
11 8 (0.63%) HAProxy
11 8 (0.63%) linkerd
12 4 (0.31%) CloudHub
13 3 (0.24%) HP Fortify
14 2 (0.16%) logstash
Vendors
1 167 (13.10%) Oracle
2 135 (10.59%) Microsoft
3 37 (2.90%) Splunk
4 35 (2.75%) FIS
4 35 (2.75%) SunGard
5 32 (2.51%) Adobe
6 30 (2.35%) Salesforce.com
7 26 (2.04%) SAP
8 19 (1.49%) Atlassian
8 19 (1.49%) Pega
9 18 (1.41%) CA Agile Central
9 18 (1.41%) MuleSoft
9 18 (1.41%) VMware
10 17 (1.33%) Google
11 13 (1.02%) hybris
12 12 (0.94%) Ab Initio
12 12 (0.94%) Informatica
13 11 (0.86%) Cloudera
13 11 (0.86%) Xerox
14 10 (0.78%) Xamarin