Period
to 22 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 22 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK > England
6 months to
22 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 136 165 143
Rank change year-on-year +29 -22 -26
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 969 622 1,597
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 1.93% 1.65% 1.92%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.19% 1.91% 2.20%
Number of daily rates quoted 643 463 1,093
10th Percentile £363 £358 £359
25th Percentile £425 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% +2.56% +2.63%
75th Percentile £625 £600 £575
90th Percentile £724 £670 £625
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £475
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.43%
Number of hourly rates quoted 23 5 26
10th Percentile £41.31 £41.10 £39.38
25th Percentile £44.00 £41.25 £41.31
Median hourly rate £48.25 £42.50 £44.00
Median % change year-on-year +13.53% -3.41% +3.53%
75th Percentile £55.00 £44.00 £47.50
90th Percentile £56.20 £44.60 £52.63
UK median hourly rate £46.00 £42.50 £44.25
% change year-on-year +8.24% -3.95% +4.12%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 44,170 32,587 72,748
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 88.16% 86.31% 87.67%
Number of daily rates quoted 30,356 22,113 49,157
10th Percentile £313 £300 £306
25th Percentile £404 £400 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £477 £475
Median % change year-on-year +4.75% +0.49% +2.70%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,317 871 1,848
10th Percentile £11.75 £12.50 £11.85
25th Percentile £15.03 £15.85 £14.60
Median hourly rate £24.08 £22.50 £22.93
Median % change year-on-year +7.02% -1.88% +9.19%
75th Percentile £46.50 £45.46 £45.00
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £22.61 £22.92
% change year-on-year +10.57% -1.33% +14.58%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 22 June 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 22 June 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the England region over the 6 months to 22 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +63 625 £550 - 191
South East -28 104 £451 -2.59% 99
Midlands +18 55 £425 +6.58% 74
North of England -9 51 £425 -15.00% 97
East of England +14 47 £400 -3.03% 26
West Midlands +16 42 £438 +4.17% 45
South West -2 31 £450 +2.86% 39
North West -13 24 £413 -21.43% 48
Yorkshire +5 20 £425 +13.33% 34
East Midlands +8 13 £413 +26.92% 29
North East +9 7 £518 +32.69% 15
Unit Testing
UK

For the 6 months to 22 June 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 453 (46.75%) Agile Software Development
2 301 (31.06%) Git (software)
3 297 (30.65%) SQL
4 294 (30.34%) JavaScript
5 289 (29.82%) TDD
6 288 (29.72%) Java
7 241 (24.87%) .NET
8 239 (24.66%) C#
9 238 (24.56%) DevOps
10 215 (22.19%) Social Skills
11 214 (22.08%) Scrum
12 197 (20.33%) Azure
13 193 (19.92%) Continuous Integration
14 172 (17.75%) HTML
15 171 (17.65%) Test Automation
16 168 (17.34%) React
17 162 (16.72%) Microservices
17 162 (16.72%) Python
18 161 (16.62%) CSS
19 159 (16.41%) Software Engineering
20 158 (16.31%) Finance
21 153 (15.79%) Docker
22 152 (15.69%) Oracle
22 152 (15.69%) Banking
23 151 (15.58%) AWS
24 147 (15.17%) AngularJS
25 144 (14.86%) RESTful
26 143 (14.76%) Jenkins
27 140 (14.45%) Node.js
27 140 (14.45%) Spring

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 34 (3.51%) Apache
2 27 (2.79%) Elasticsearch
3 26 (2.68%) Confluence
4 24 (2.48%) Tomcat
5 18 (1.86%) Apache Spark
5 18 (1.86%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 15 (1.55%) Camunda
7 14 (1.44%) WebSphere
8 13 (1.34%) Mule
9 12 (1.24%) Adobe Experience Manager
9 12 (1.24%) Jetty
10 11 (1.14%) CMS
10 11 (1.14%) IBM Domino
11 9 (0.93%) GemFire
11 9 (0.93%) SAS
12 8 (0.83%) IIS
12 8 (0.83%) Mule ESB
13 7 (0.72%) Ethereum
14 6 (0.62%) WebLogic
15 5 (0.52%) SharePoint
Applications
1 16 (1.65%) Spreadsheet
2 9 (0.93%) Microsoft Excel
3 5 (0.52%) Figma
4 4 (0.41%) Microsoft Office
5 2 (0.21%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 2 (0.21%) OrCAD
5 2 (0.21%) Photoshop
5 2 (0.21%) Sketch
5 2 (0.21%) Zeplin
6 1 (0.10%) InfoPath
6 1 (0.10%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 24 (2.48%) SunGard Martini
2 12 (1.24%) Oracle EBS
3 11 (1.14%) Oracle Payables
4 10 (1.03%) Magento
5 8 (0.83%) Oracle Assets
5 8 (0.83%) Oracle General Ledger
5 8 (0.83%) Payment Gateway
5 8 (0.83%) Shopify
6 6 (0.62%) Oracle ERP
6 6 (0.62%) Oracle Receivables
7 5 (0.52%) Adobe Campaign
7 5 (0.52%) Oracle EBS R12
7 5 (0.52%) Unit4 Business World
8 4 (0.41%) iTrent
8 4 (0.41%) SAP S/4HANA
9 3 (0.31%) Distributed Ledger
9 3 (0.31%) Oracle Cash Management
9 3 (0.31%) Temenos T24
10 2 (0.21%) Dynamics CRM
10 2 (0.21%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 197 (20.33%) Azure
2 151 (15.58%) AWS
3 86 (8.88%) Serverless
4 44 (4.54%) GCP
5 37 (3.82%) Amazon S3
5 37 (3.82%) GitHub
6 31 (3.20%) AWS Lambda
6 31 (3.20%) Power Platform
7 26 (2.68%) Azure Service Bus
7 26 (2.68%) SaaS
8 25 (2.58%) Azure Functions
9 20 (2.06%) Cloud Computing
9 20 (2.06%) PaaS
10 18 (1.86%) Azure Cosmos DB
10 18 (1.86%) Azure Data Factory
10 18 (1.86%) npm
11 13 (1.34%) Azure Active Directory
12 12 (1.24%) Amazon CloudWatch
12 12 (1.24%) AWS CloudFormation
12 12 (1.24%) Azure Synapse Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 16 (1.65%) HTTP
2 12 (1.24%) Internet
2 12 (1.24%) TCP/IP
3 7 (0.72%) Wi-Fi
4 6 (0.62%) DNS
4 6 (0.62%) SMS
4 6 (0.62%) SSL
5 5 (0.52%) DMARC
5 5 (0.52%) Kerberos
5 5 (0.52%) SMTP
6 4 (0.41%) DLNA
6 4 (0.41%) Unified Communications
6 4 (0.41%) UPnP
7 3 (0.31%) Bluetooth
7 3 (0.31%) IPFS
8 2 (0.21%) Broadband
8 2 (0.21%) Firewall
8 2 (0.21%) FTP
8 2 (0.21%) Reverse Proxy
8 2 (0.21%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 116 (11.97%) SQL Server
2 70 (7.22%) Relational Database
3 62 (6.40%) NoSQL
4 44 (4.54%) PostgreSQL
5 38 (3.92%) MySQL
6 37 (3.82%) Oracle Database
7 30 (3.10%) Data Warehouse
8 29 (2.99%) MongoDB
9 28 (2.89%) Power BI
10 25 (2.58%) Azure SQL Database
10 25 (2.58%) Oracle Database 12c
11 24 (2.48%) Pentaho
11 24 (2.48%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 21 (2.17%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 17 (1.75%) Hadoop
14 16 (1.65%) Oracle Reports
15 15 (1.55%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 15 (1.55%) Data Lake
16 14 (1.44%) Big Data
16 14 (1.44%) Impala
Development Applications
1 301 (31.06%) Git (software)
2 143 (14.76%) Jenkins
3 86 (8.88%) JIRA
4 73 (7.53%) JUnit
5 72 (7.43%) Mockito
6 68 (7.02%) Visual Studio
7 63 (6.50%) Maven
8 53 (5.47%) Team Foundation Server
9 48 (4.95%) Cypress.io
10 46 (4.75%) Subversion
11 45 (4.64%) Cucumber
12 36 (3.72%) Jasmine
12 36 (3.72%) Selenium
12 36 (3.72%) webpack
13 34 (3.51%) Bitbucket
14 33 (3.41%) TeamCity
15 28 (2.89%) Oracle APEX
16 27 (2.79%) CppUnit
17 26 (2.68%) Karma Test Runner
18 25 (2.58%) Mocha
General
1 215 (22.19%) Social Skills
2 158 (16.31%) Finance
3 152 (15.69%) Banking
4 97 (10.01%) Investment Banking
5 91 (9.39%) Analytical Skills
6 60 (6.19%) Public Sector
7 56 (5.78%) Front Office
8 34 (3.51%) Retail
9 21 (2.17%) Back Office
10 17 (1.75%) Marketing
10 17 (1.75%) Presentation Skills
11 16 (1.65%) Financial Institution
12 8 (0.83%) Pharmaceutical
12 8 (0.83%) Publishing
13 7 (0.72%) Prime Brokerage
14 6 (0.62%) Documentation Skills
14 6 (0.62%) Games
14 6 (0.62%) General Ledger
14 6 (0.62%) Law
14 6 (0.62%) Legal
Job Titles
1 671 (69.25%) Developer
2 114 (11.76%) Java Developer
3 100 (10.32%) Senior Developer
4 81 (8.36%) .NET Developer
5 71 (7.33%) Full Stack Developer
5 71 (7.33%) React Developer
6 70 (7.22%) C# Developer
7 62 (6.40%) Software Engineer
8 57 (5.88%) C++ Developer
9 46 (4.75%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 41 (4.23%) Data Engineer
11 36 (3.72%) SQL Developer
12 34 (3.51%) Software Developer
13 33 (3.41%) JavaScript Developer
13 33 (3.41%) Scala Developer
14 32 (3.30%) C# .NET Developer
15 30 (3.10%) Investment Banking C++ Developer
16 29 (2.99%) Architect
17 28 (2.89%) Angular Developer
18 26 (2.68%) Android Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 241 (24.87%) .NET
2 172 (17.75%) HTML
3 168 (17.34%) React
4 161 (16.62%) CSS
5 147 (15.17%) AngularJS
6 144 (14.86%) RESTful
7 140 (14.45%) Node.js
7 140 (14.45%) Spring
8 116 (11.97%) REST
9 99 (10.22%) Web Services
10 97 (10.01%) .NET Core
11 96 (9.91%) HTML5
12 82 (8.46%) Jest
12 82 (8.46%) XML
13 75 (7.74%) Redux
14 63 (6.50%) JSON
15 55 (5.68%) .NET Framework
16 52 (5.37%) CSS3
16 52 (5.37%) SOAP
17 51 (5.26%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 78 (8.05%) User Experience
2 58 (5.99%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
3 36 (3.72%) Enterprise Software
4 34 (3.51%) Mobile App
5 33 (3.41%) Greenfield Project
6 29 (2.99%) Fixed Income
7 24 (2.48%) Hedge funds
8 22 (2.27%) Data Structures
8 22 (2.27%) Self-Motivation
9 18 (1.86%) Derivative
10 15 (1.55%) Algorithms
10 15 (1.55%) Grid Computing
10 15 (1.55%) Management Information System
11 14 (1.44%) Market Risk
12 13 (1.34%) Cloud Native
13 12 (1.24%) CMDB
14 10 (1.03%) NHS
15 9 (0.93%) Virtual Team
16 8 (0.83%) W3C
17 7 (0.72%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 93 (9.60%) Linux
2 66 (6.81%) Windows
3 54 (5.57%) Android
4 47 (4.85%) Apple iOS
4 47 (4.85%) Unix
5 5 (0.52%) Embedded Linux
6 4 (0.41%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 2 (0.21%) Amazon Linux
7 2 (0.21%) Mac OS
7 2 (0.21%) Windows Server
7 2 (0.21%) Windows Server 2012
7 2 (0.21%) Windows Server 2016
8 1 (0.10%) Robot Operating System
8 1 (0.10%) Ubuntu
8 1 (0.10%) VME
8 1 (0.10%) VMS
8 1 (0.10%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 453 (46.75%) Agile Software Development
2 289 (29.82%) TDD
3 238 (24.56%) DevOps
4 214 (22.08%) Scrum
5 193 (19.92%) Continuous Integration
6 171 (17.65%) Test Automation
7 162 (16.72%) Microservices
8 159 (16.41%) Software Engineering
9 124 (12.80%) BDD
10 112 (11.56%) Problem-Solving
11 95 (9.80%) MVC
12 80 (8.26%) OO
13 77 (7.95%) Integration Testing
14 75 (7.74%) Kanban
15 74 (7.64%) Front End Development
16 69 (7.12%) Analytics
17 68 (7.02%) Pair Programming
18 65 (6.71%) Test Strategy
19 58 (5.99%) Multithreading
20 54 (5.57%) Refactoring
Programming Languages
1 297 (30.65%) SQL
2 294 (30.34%) JavaScript
3 288 (29.72%) Java
4 239 (24.66%) C#
5 162 (16.72%) Python
6 136 (14.04%) TypeScript
7 107 (11.04%) C++
8 62 (6.40%) Java 8
9 61 (6.30%) PL/SQL
10 54 (5.57%) ES6
11 51 (5.26%) C
12 46 (4.75%) Scala
13 40 (4.13%) T-SQL
14 39 (4.02%) Kotlin
15 37 (3.82%) Go
16 35 (3.61%) Apple Swift
17 25 (2.58%) Objective-C
18 24 (2.48%) PHP
19 23 (2.37%) PowerShell
20 18 (1.86%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 94 (9.70%) Security Cleared
2 83 (8.57%) SC Cleared
3 57 (5.88%) Degree
4 7 (0.72%) Computer Science Degree
4 7 (0.72%) DV Cleared
5 6 (0.62%) AWS Certification
5 6 (0.62%) CTC Cleared
5 6 (0.62%) Microsoft Certification
6 4 (0.41%) BPSS Clearance
6 4 (0.41%) PhD
7 3 (0.31%) HNC
8 2 (0.21%) ISTQB
8 2 (0.21%) PMP
8 2 (0.21%) Postgraduate
8 2 (0.21%) SAP Certification
9 1 (0.10%) BC Cleared
9 1 (0.10%) CFA
9 1 (0.10%) HND
9 1 (0.10%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 1 (0.10%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 62 (6.40%) QA
2 31 (3.20%) Accessibility
3 11 (1.14%) Data Quality
4 7 (0.72%) GDPR
5 6 (0.62%) MiFID
5 6 (0.62%) WCAG
6 2 (0.21%) Dodd-Frank
6 2 (0.21%) ECSS
6 2 (0.21%) HIPAA
6 2 (0.21%) WAI
7 1 (0.10%) Disclosure Scotland
7 1 (0.10%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 153 (15.79%) Docker
2 13 (1.34%) HDFS
3 12 (1.24%) Active Directory
4 4 (0.41%) Virtual Machines
5 3 (0.31%) Varnish
5 3 (0.31%) VMware Infrastructure
6 2 (0.21%) LXC
7 1 (0.10%) OpenAM
7 1 (0.10%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 82 (8.46%) Kubernetes
2 49 (5.06%) Ansible
3 24 (2.48%) Terraform
4 17 (1.75%) Grafana
4 17 (1.75%) Prometheus
5 10 (1.03%) Puppet
6 8 (0.83%) BladeLogic
6 8 (0.83%) CloudHub
7 7 (0.72%) Istio
8 6 (0.62%) Kibana
9 4 (0.41%) Galera Cluster
9 4 (0.41%) HP Quality Center
9 4 (0.41%) Opscode Chef
10 3 (0.31%) HP Fortify
11 2 (0.21%) HP ALM
11 2 (0.21%) ITRS Geneos
12 1 (0.10%) Graphite
12 1 (0.10%) Hadoop YARN
12 1 (0.10%) logstash
12 1 (0.10%) Nessus
Vendors
1 152 (15.69%) Oracle
2 107 (11.04%) Microsoft
3 38 (3.92%) Google
4 24 (2.48%) FIS
4 24 (2.48%) SunGard
5 21 (2.17%) Salesforce.com
6 18 (1.86%) Cloudera
6 18 (1.86%) MuleSoft
7 17 (1.75%) Adobe
8 16 (1.65%) Atlassian
9 15 (1.55%) Splunk
10 14 (1.44%) SAP
11 13 (1.34%) Databricks
11 13 (1.34%) IBM
12 11 (1.14%) Apple
12 11 (1.14%) Xerox
13 10 (1.03%) DevExpress
13 10 (1.03%) hybris
14 9 (0.93%) CA Agile Central
14 9 (0.93%) RedGate