Period
to 20 September 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 20 September 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK > England
6 months to
20 Sep 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 114 133 141
Rank change year-on-year +19 +8 -5
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 2,108 1,769 1,872
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 2.24% 1.95% 1.88%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.60% 2.27% 2.20%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,471 1,258 1,312
England median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £308
90th Percentile £613 £600 £588
UK median daily rate £473 £437 £420
% change year-on-year +8.06% +4.11% +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 38 12
England median hourly rate £49.50 £42.88 £43.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +15.45% -0.29% +14.67%
10th Percentile £40.25 £27.28 £37.50
90th Percentile £51.00 £63.85 £52.13
UK median hourly rate £49.50 £42.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year +16.47% - +13.33%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 81,105 77,935 85,078
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 86.25% 85.78% 85.24%
Number of daily rates quoted 54,098 51,736 56,875
England median daily rate £465 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.33% +5.88% +3.03%
10th Percentile £300 £281 £263
90th Percentile £638 £625 £606
UK median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.12%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,220 1,899 2,139
England median hourly rate £21.00 £23.00 £23.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -8.70% - +4.55%
10th Percentile £11.18 £11.25 £11.50
90th Percentile £50.25 £50.00 £47.83
UK median hourly rate £20.50 £24.00 £23.00
% change year-on-year -14.58% +4.35% +4.55%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 20 September 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing in England over the 6 months to 20 September 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in England

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the England region over the 6 months to 20 September 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +27 1,191 £525 +7.69% 258
South East -9 315 £425 -5.56% 137
North of England -24 227 £388 +3.40% 134
South West +29 160 £395 +12.86% 88
Midlands -13 148 £375 +10.29% 89
North West -28 118 £375 - 81
East Midlands +20 99 £375 +9.49% 43
Yorkshire +5 95 £400 +6.67% 49
East of England +19 67 £450 +12.50% 53
West Midlands -48 49 £378 +11.85% 46
North East -24 14 £395 +25.40% 4
Unit Testing
UK

For the 6 months to 20 September 2018, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 1,174 (55.69%) Agile Software Development
2 865 (41.03%) JavaScript
3 814 (38.61%) TDD
4 650 (30.83%) C#
5 641 (30.41%) HTML
6 634 (30.08%) .NET
7 625 (29.65%) Java
8 591 (28.04%) CSS
9 552 (26.19%) Git (software)
10 545 (25.85%) SQL
11 503 (23.86%) Scrum
12 480 (22.77%) Test Automation
13 463 (21.96%) BDD
14 441 (20.92%) SQL Server
15 426 (20.21%) Continuous Integration
16 419 (19.88%) Finance
16 419 (19.88%) AngularJS
17 410 (19.45%) Web Services
18 376 (17.84%) Node.js
19 368 (17.46%) MVC
20 353 (16.75%) HTML5
21 348 (16.51%) React
22 335 (15.89%) Jenkins
23 334 (15.84%) RESTful
24 318 (15.09%) Software Engineering
25 315 (14.94%) REST
26 303 (14.37%) CSS3
27 292 (13.85%) OO
28 264 (12.52%) Amazon AWS
29 254 (12.05%) ASP.NET

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 131 (6.21%) Confluence
2 96 (4.55%) Apache
3 82 (3.89%) Elasticsearch
4 78 (3.70%) NServiceBus
5 64 (3.04%) CMS
6 52 (2.47%) Apache Spark
7 38 (1.80%) IIS
8 37 (1.76%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 31 (1.47%) Adobe Experience Manager
9 31 (1.47%) WebLogic
10 25 (1.19%) WebSphere
11 23 (1.09%) Tomcat
12 22 (1.04%) SharePoint
13 18 (0.85%) Apache Solr
13 18 (0.85%) Mule
14 15 (0.71%) JBoss
15 13 (0.62%) Oracle Service Bus
16 11 (0.52%) Sitecore CMS
16 11 (0.52%) Umbraco
17 10 (0.47%) Liferay
Applications
1 31 (1.47%) Photoshop
2 13 (0.62%) Microsoft Excel
3 11 (0.52%) Adobe Illustrator
4 10 (0.47%) Microsoft Office
5 6 (0.28%) Acrobat
5 6 (0.28%) GIMP
6 4 (0.19%) Fireworks
6 4 (0.19%) Microsoft Project
6 4 (0.19%) MS Visio
7 3 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 3 (0.14%) Spreadsheet
8 2 (0.095%) SOLIDWORKS
9 1 (0.047%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 1 (0.047%) InVision
Business Applications
1 16 (0.76%) Dynamics CRM
2 10 (0.47%) Endur
3 8 (0.38%) Payment Gateway
4 7 (0.33%) SAP CO
4 7 (0.33%) SAP FI
4 7 (0.33%) SAP FI/CO
4 7 (0.33%) SAP PS
5 6 (0.28%) Oracle Payables
5 6 (0.28%) Oracle Receivables
6 5 (0.24%) Magento
6 5 (0.24%) Oracle EBS R12
7 4 (0.19%) Maximo
7 4 (0.19%) Oracle EBS
8 3 (0.14%) BusinessWorks
8 3 (0.14%) Global One
8 3 (0.14%) ION MarketView
8 3 (0.14%) Oracle BPM
8 3 (0.14%) Oracle General Ledger
8 3 (0.14%) Oracle Payroll
9 2 (0.095%) Dynamics AX
Cloud Services
1 264 (12.52%) Amazon AWS
2 253 (12.00%) Microsoft Azure
3 97 (4.60%) Serverless
4 76 (3.61%) npm
5 60 (2.85%) AWS Lambda
6 52 (2.47%) Cloud Computing
7 47 (2.23%) GitHub
8 27 (1.28%) Amazon EC2
9 24 (1.14%) NuGet
10 20 (0.95%) Azure Functions
11 19 (0.90%) Google Cloud Platform
12 18 (0.85%) SaaS
13 17 (0.81%) Amazon S3
14 16 (0.76%) AWS CloudFormation
14 16 (0.76%) Dynamics 365
15 15 (0.71%) PaaS
16 13 (0.62%) Amazon Kinesis
17 12 (0.57%) OpenShift
18 10 (0.47%) Yarn
19 7 (0.33%) Trello
Communications & Networking
1 145 (6.88%) HTTP
2 52 (2.47%) TCP/IP
3 37 (1.76%) Internet
4 24 (1.14%) SSL
5 17 (0.81%) FTP
6 16 (0.76%) DNS
7 13 (0.62%) Intranet
8 10 (0.47%) BIG-IP
9 7 (0.33%) Kerberos
9 7 (0.33%) SMS
10 6 (0.28%) Wi-Fi
11 5 (0.24%) DHCP
11 5 (0.24%) HTTPS
12 4 (0.19%) FIX Connectivity
12 4 (0.19%) IPsec
13 3 (0.14%) AMQP
13 3 (0.14%) Broadband
13 3 (0.14%) DLNA
13 3 (0.14%) UPnP
14 2 (0.095%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 441 (20.92%) SQL Server
2 111 (5.27%) Relational Database
3 98 (4.65%) MySQL
4 89 (4.22%) NoSQL
5 78 (3.70%) MongoDB
6 69 (3.27%) Big Data
7 67 (3.18%) PostgreSQL
8 60 (2.85%) Data Warehouse
9 56 (2.66%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 47 (2.23%) Hadoop
11 35 (1.66%) Oracle Database
12 28 (1.33%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 26 (1.23%) Apache Cassandra
13 26 (1.23%) Couchbase
13 26 (1.23%) SQL Server 2012
14 25 (1.19%) RDBMS
14 25 (1.19%) SQL Server 2008
15 23 (1.09%) Redis
15 23 (1.09%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 20 (0.95%) DB2
Development Applications
1 552 (26.19%) Git (software)
2 335 (15.89%) Jenkins
3 216 (10.25%) JIRA
4 179 (8.49%) Selenium
5 152 (7.21%) JUnit
6 130 (6.17%) Maven
7 120 (5.69%) TeamCity
8 113 (5.36%) webpack
9 110 (5.22%) Mocha
9 110 (5.22%) Mockito
10 96 (4.55%) Jasmine
11 95 (4.51%) gulp
11 95 (4.51%) Visual Studio
12 88 (4.17%) Team Foundation Server
13 83 (3.94%) Gradle
14 81 (3.84%) NUnit
15 75 (3.56%) Octopus Deploy
16 73 (3.46%) SpecFlow
16 73 (3.46%) Subversion
17 68 (3.23%) Grunt
General
1 419 (19.88%) Finance
2 222 (10.53%) Banking
3 111 (5.27%) Retail
4 83 (3.94%) Front Office
5 51 (2.42%) Investment Banking
6 39 (1.85%) Financial Institution
7 35 (1.66%) Back Office
8 24 (1.14%) Publishing
9 19 (0.90%) Marketing
10 16 (0.76%) Telecoms
11 13 (0.62%) Automotive
12 12 (0.57%) Manufacturing
13 11 (0.52%) Games
14 10 (0.47%) Aerospace
14 10 (0.47%) Legal
15 9 (0.43%) Law
16 8 (0.38%) Billing
17 7 (0.33%) Pharmaceutical
17 7 (0.33%) Retail Banking
18 6 (0.28%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 1,644 (77.99%) Developer
2 304 (14.42%) .NET Developer
3 255 (12.10%) C# Developer
3 255 (12.10%) Java Developer
4 182 (8.63%) Senior Developer
5 169 (8.02%) React Developer
6 167 (7.92%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 125 (5.93%) JavaScript Developer
8 122 (5.79%) Full Stack Developer
9 116 (5.50%) C# .NET Developer
10 107 (5.08%) Software Engineer
11 80 (3.80%) SQL Developer
12 77 (3.65%) Angular Developer
13 69 (3.27%) Software Developer
14 68 (3.23%) UI Developer
15 60 (2.85%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
16 57 (2.70%) Analyst
17 56 (2.66%) Android Developer
18 55 (2.61%) Node.js Developer
19 52 (2.47%) iOS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 641 (30.41%) HTML
2 634 (30.08%) .NET
3 591 (28.04%) CSS
4 419 (19.88%) AngularJS
5 410 (19.45%) Web Services
6 376 (17.84%) Node.js
7 353 (16.75%) HTML5
8 348 (16.51%) React
9 334 (15.84%) RESTful
10 315 (14.94%) REST
11 303 (14.37%) CSS3
12 254 (12.05%) ASP.NET
13 246 (11.67%) Spring
14 244 (11.57%) jQuery
15 206 (9.77%) .NET Framework
16 204 (9.68%) XML
17 195 (9.25%) ASP.NET Web API
18 167 (7.92%) Redux
18 167 (7.92%) Sass
19 163 (7.73%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 192 (9.11%) User Experience
2 146 (6.93%) Computer Science
3 108 (5.12%) Greenfield Project
4 107 (5.08%) Analytical Skills
5 90 (4.27%) Mobile App
6 68 (3.23%) Fintech
7 64 (3.04%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 61 (2.89%) Enterprise Software
9 42 (1.99%) Derivative
10 40 (1.90%) Fixed Income
10 40 (1.90%) Self-Motivation
11 36 (1.71%) Equities
12 35 (1.66%) Data Structures
13 32 (1.52%) Linux Command Line
14 31 (1.47%) Hedge funds
15 29 (1.38%) Algorithms
16 23 (1.09%) Management Information System
16 23 (1.09%) N-Tier
17 22 (1.04%) iPad
17 22 (1.04%) iPhone
Operating Systems
1 169 (8.02%) Linux
2 140 (6.64%) Unix
3 111 (5.27%) Windows
4 92 (4.36%) Android
5 84 (3.98%) Apple iOS
6 20 (0.95%) Embedded Linux
6 20 (0.95%) Solaris
7 17 (0.81%) Windows Server
8 16 (0.76%) VMS
9 11 (0.52%) SUSE
9 11 (0.52%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
10 7 (0.33%) OpenVMS
11 4 (0.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 4 (0.19%) Windows Embedded Compact
12 3 (0.14%) AIX
12 3 (0.14%) CentOS
13 2 (0.095%) MVS
14 1 (0.047%) Mac OS X
14 1 (0.047%) Windows Phone
14 1 (0.047%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,174 (55.69%) Agile Software Development
2 814 (38.61%) TDD
3 503 (23.86%) Scrum
4 480 (22.77%) Test Automation
5 463 (21.96%) BDD
6 426 (20.21%) Continuous Integration
7 368 (17.46%) MVC
8 318 (15.09%) Software Engineering
9 292 (13.85%) OO
10 243 (11.53%) Front End Development
11 237 (11.24%) DevOps
12 222 (10.53%) Microservices
13 213 (10.10%) Problem-Solving
14 209 (9.91%) SDLC
15 193 (9.16%) SOA
16 161 (7.64%) Multithreading
16 161 (7.64%) Web Development
17 149 (7.07%) Pair Programming
18 148 (7.02%) E-Commerce
19 141 (6.69%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 865 (41.03%) JavaScript
2 650 (30.83%) C#
3 625 (29.65%) Java
4 545 (25.85%) SQL
5 183 (8.68%) Python
6 165 (7.83%) ES6
7 151 (7.16%) C++
8 133 (6.31%) T-SQL
9 118 (5.60%) TypeScript
10 98 (4.65%) PHP
11 95 (4.51%) C
12 81 (3.84%) Java 8
13 75 (3.56%) Scala
14 65 (3.08%) Groovy
15 60 (2.85%) Shell Script
16 59 (2.80%) Apple Swift
17 52 (2.47%) Objective-C
18 45 (2.13%) Go
19 40 (1.90%) PL/SQL
20 39 (1.85%) Perl
Qualifications
1 181 (8.59%) Degree
2 75 (3.56%) Computer Science Degree
3 53 (2.51%) Security Cleared
4 40 (1.90%) SC Cleared
5 19 (0.90%) BPSS Clearance
5 19 (0.90%) Master's Degree
6 12 (0.57%) Microsoft Certification
7 7 (0.33%) Siebel Certification
8 6 (0.28%) HND
9 5 (0.24%) ISEB
10 4 (0.19%) ISTQB
10 4 (0.19%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 3 (0.14%) BC Cleared
11 3 (0.14%) Numerate Degree
12 2 (0.095%) CTC Cleared
12 2 (0.095%) DV Cleared
12 2 (0.095%) MCTS
12 2 (0.095%) PhD
12 2 (0.095%) SAS Certification
13 1 (0.047%) OCA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 200 (9.49%) QA
2 8 (0.38%) GCP
3 5 (0.24%) ISO 20022
4 4 (0.19%) IFRS
4 4 (0.19%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 4 (0.19%) PCI DSS
5 3 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
5 3 (0.14%) Solvency II
6 2 (0.095%) 21 CFR Part 11
6 2 (0.095%) GLP
6 2 (0.095%) GMP
6 2 (0.095%) GxP
6 2 (0.095%) PMO
6 2 (0.095%) WAI
7 1 (0.047%) ARP4754
7 1 (0.047%) Data Quality
7 1 (0.047%) DO-178B
7 1 (0.047%) GDPR
7 1 (0.047%) MiFID
7 1 (0.047%) WCAG
System Software
1 207 (9.82%) Docker
2 28 (1.33%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 9 (0.43%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.43%) HDFS
4 4 (0.19%) Apache Flume
5 2 (0.095%) Firmware
5 2 (0.095%) Microsoft App-V
5 2 (0.095%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
5 2 (0.095%) VMware Infrastructure
6 1 (0.047%) Squid
6 1 (0.047%) Virtual Machines
6 1 (0.047%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 80 (3.80%) Kubernetes
2 58 (2.75%) Ansible
3 44 (2.09%) Puppet
4 41 (1.94%) Opscode Chef
5 29 (1.38%) Hadoop YARN
6 18 (0.85%) Oracle Identity Management
6 18 (0.85%) Oracle Identity Manager
7 14 (0.66%) Prometheus
8 12 (0.57%) Terraform
9 10 (0.47%) CFEngine
9 10 (0.47%) Salt
10 7 (0.33%) Single Sign-On
11 6 (0.28%) Docker Swarm
11 6 (0.28%) HP ALM
11 6 (0.28%) Oozie
12 3 (0.14%) Grafana
13 2 (0.095%) HP Quality Center
13 2 (0.095%) Tivoli
14 1 (0.047%) BladeLogic
14 1 (0.047%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
Vendors
1 243 (11.53%) Microsoft
2 182 (8.63%) Oracle
3 50 (2.37%) Adobe
4 41 (1.94%) Google
5 37 (1.76%) IBM
6 34 (1.61%) Atlassian
7 30 (1.42%) TIBCO
8 29 (1.38%) Splunk
9 28 (1.33%) SAP
10 26 (1.23%) Perforce
11 24 (1.14%) MuleSoft
12 18 (0.85%) Sitecore
12 18 (0.85%) Zend
13 17 (0.81%) Okta
13 17 (0.81%) Salesforce.com
13 17 (0.81%) Tableau
14 16 (0.76%) Sybase
15 12 (0.57%) Coverity
15 12 (0.57%) Informatica
16 11 (0.52%) F5