Period
to 21 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 21 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Java
UK
6 months to
21 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 12 10 8
Rank change year-on-year -2 -2 +1
Permanent jobs citing Java 11,144 15,134 23,054
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 13.23% 13.94% 15.52%
As % of the Programming Languages category 24.09% 25.52% 28.54%
Number of salaries quoted 8,883 12,438 18,394
10th Percentile £40,000 £36,960 £32,500
25th Percentile £47,500 £45,500 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £62,500 £60,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.00% +4.17% +9.09%
75th Percentile £85,000 £85,000 £77,500
90th Percentile £100,000 £107,500 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +10.00% - -

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 46,254 59,300 80,769
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 54.90% 54.61% 54.39%
Number of salaries quoted 37,369 49,394 66,794
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £40,000 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £70,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £46,250 £45,000
% change year-on-year +8.11% +2.78% +2.27%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Java.

Salary trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 21 April 2021.

Salary histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 21 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 10,012 £65,000 - 2,005
London -4 5,389 £77,500 +3.33% 995
UK excluding London 0 5,227 £55,000 +10.00% 1,165
Work from Home -4 2,153 £65,000 - 484
South East -2 1,390 £57,500 +4.55% 292
North of England -3 1,208 £55,000 +10.00% 314
South West +3 969 £52,500 +5.00% 132
Yorkshire -1 590 £55,000 +10.00% 114
Scotland +2 564 £50,000 - 109
Midlands -5 554 £50,000 - 155
North West -4 471 £55,000 +4.76% 159
West Midlands 0 344 £55,000 +15.79% 122
East of England +7 338 £60,000 +20.00% 111
East Midlands -13 206 £50,000 -4.76% 33
North East +24 147 £50,000 +11.11% 41
Wales +1 109 £45,000 +5.88% 28
Northern Ireland +1 103 £42,500 -5.56% 25
Isle of Man - 2 £40,000 -

For the 6 months to 21 April 2021, IT jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 5,404 (48.49%) Agile Software Development
2 3,783 (33.95%) Python
3 3,546 (31.82%) JavaScript
4 3,407 (30.57%) AWS
5 3,131 (28.10%) Software Engineering
6 2,789 (25.03%) SQL
7 2,670 (23.96%) DevOps
8 2,638 (23.67%) Microservices
9 2,634 (23.64%) Docker
10 2,468 (22.15%) Spring
11 2,279 (20.45%) Finance
12 2,189 (19.64%) Kubernetes
13 2,014 (18.07%) C#
14 2,012 (18.05%) TDD
15 1,846 (16.56%) Azure
16 1,681 (15.08%) Test Automation
17 1,680 (15.08%) Scrum
18 1,615 (14.49%) Jenkins
19 1,515 (13.59%) Linux
20 1,432 (12.85%) HTML
21 1,414 (12.69%) React
22 1,402 (12.58%) Git (software)
23 1,348 (12.10%) Spring Boot
24 1,298 (11.65%) AngularJS
25 1,284 (11.52%) Degree
26 1,257 (11.28%) CSS
27 1,210 (10.86%) C++
28 1,206 (10.82%) OO
29 1,198 (10.75%) GCP
30 1,190 (10.68%) Web Services

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 431 (3.87%) Apache Spark
2 404 (3.63%) Confluence
3 396 (3.55%) Elasticsearch
4 348 (3.12%) Apache
5 242 (2.17%) Tomcat
6 125 (1.12%) JBoss
7 102 (0.92%) nginx
8 91 (0.82%) CMS
9 88 (0.79%) WebSphere
10 80 (0.72%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 72 (0.65%) SAS
12 56 (0.50%) Apache Airflow
13 54 (0.48%) Cloud Foundry
13 54 (0.48%) Red Hat Fuse
14 53 (0.48%) WebLogic
15 43 (0.39%) Apache Solr
15 43 (0.39%) Mule
16 41 (0.37%) Adobe Experience Manager
17 37 (0.33%) IIS
18 35 (0.31%) OpenStack
Applications
1 76 (0.68%) Microsoft Office
2 48 (0.43%) Sketch
3 39 (0.35%) InVision
4 38 (0.34%) Microsoft Excel
5 27 (0.24%) Adobe XD
6 21 (0.19%) Spreadsheet
7 20 (0.18%) Figma
8 11 (0.099%) MS Visio
9 9 (0.081%) Photoshop
10 8 (0.072%) Adobe Illustrator
10 8 (0.072%) Simulink
10 8 (0.072%) SPSS
10 8 (0.072%) Zeplin
11 7 (0.063%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 6 (0.054%) Microsoft Project
13 2 (0.018%) Adobe Creative Suite
13 2 (0.018%) EngageOne
13 2 (0.018%) Maya
13 2 (0.018%) PrintSoft PReS
13 2 (0.018%) ZBrush
Business Applications
1 19 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
2 18 (0.16%) Dynamics CRM
2 18 (0.16%) Oracle EBS
3 15 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
3 15 (0.13%) Shopify
4 14 (0.13%) Oracle Applications
5 12 (0.11%) R3 Corda
5 12 (0.11%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 11 (0.099%) Oracle BPM
6 11 (0.099%) PeopleSoft HCM
7 9 (0.081%) SAP CRM
8 8 (0.072%) SAP Hybris
9 6 (0.054%) NetSuite
9 6 (0.054%) SAP Business One
10 5 (0.045%) Temenos T24
11 4 (0.036%) Distributed Ledger
11 4 (0.036%) FINCAD Analytics
11 4 (0.036%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
11 4 (0.036%) Oracle EBS R12
11 4 (0.036%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 3,407 (30.57%) AWS
2 1,846 (16.56%) Azure
3 1,198 (10.75%) GCP
4 619 (5.55%) SaaS
5 555 (4.98%) Serverless
6 320 (2.87%) AWS Lambda
7 300 (2.69%) Amazon EC2
8 290 (2.60%) AWS CloudFormation
9 257 (2.31%) GitHub
9 257 (2.31%) PaaS
10 182 (1.63%) Amazon ECS
11 174 (1.56%) Amazon S3
12 170 (1.53%) OpenShift
13 159 (1.43%) Cloud Computing
14 149 (1.34%) IaaS
15 119 (1.07%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 96 (0.86%) Amazon EKS
17 93 (0.83%) Amazon Kinesis
18 91 (0.82%) Power Platform
19 88 (0.79%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 204 (1.83%) HTTP
2 162 (1.45%) Internet
3 71 (0.64%) Firewall
4 69 (0.62%) TCP/IP
5 54 (0.48%) DNS
6 29 (0.26%) AMQP
7 26 (0.23%) FTP
8 23 (0.21%) HTTPS
9 21 (0.19%) SSL
10 20 (0.18%) Broadband
10 20 (0.18%) Network Security
10 20 (0.18%) SSH
10 20 (0.18%) Wireless
11 18 (0.16%) VPN
12 17 (0.15%) Bluetooth
13 16 (0.14%) 5G
14 14 (0.13%) IMAP
14 14 (0.13%) SMTP
15 13 (0.12%) SNMP
16 11 (0.099%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 927 (8.32%) NoSQL
2 903 (8.10%) PostgreSQL
3 772 (6.93%) MySQL
4 730 (6.55%) Big Data
5 645 (5.79%) Relational Database
6 644 (5.78%) SQL Server
7 621 (5.57%) MongoDB
8 437 (3.92%) Hadoop
9 287 (2.58%) Redis
10 231 (2.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 228 (2.05%) Apache Cassandra
12 195 (1.75%) RDBMS
13 184 (1.65%) Data Warehouse
14 117 (1.05%) Amazon Redshift
14 117 (1.05%) BigQuery
15 111 (1.00%) Amazon RDS
16 110 (0.99%) Apache Hive
16 110 (0.99%) Oracle Database
17 107 (0.96%) Blockchain
18 95 (0.85%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 1,615 (14.49%) Jenkins
2 1,402 (12.58%) Git (software)
3 862 (7.74%) JIRA
4 779 (6.99%) Selenium
5 694 (6.23%) Maven
6 621 (5.57%) Cucumber
7 497 (4.46%) JUnit
8 306 (2.75%) Gradle
9 295 (2.65%) GitLab
10 241 (2.16%) WebDriver
11 217 (1.95%) Subversion
12 212 (1.90%) JMeter
13 182 (1.63%) Mockito
14 176 (1.58%) IntelliJ
15 171 (1.53%) Bitbucket
16 163 (1.46%) Postman
17 153 (1.37%) Eclipse
18 150 (1.35%) Appium
19 149 (1.34%) Artifactory
20 148 (1.33%) SonarQube
General
1 2,279 (20.45%) Finance
2 973 (8.73%) Banking
3 487 (4.37%) Public Sector
4 433 (3.89%) Front Office
5 393 (3.53%) Games
6 321 (2.88%) Retail
7 285 (2.56%) Marketing
8 212 (1.90%) Investment Banking
9 186 (1.67%) Law
10 149 (1.34%) Telecoms
11 147 (1.32%) Electronics
12 143 (1.28%) Manufacturing
13 114 (1.02%) Advertising
14 101 (0.91%) Multimedia
15 91 (0.82%) Back Office
15 91 (0.82%) Legal
16 90 (0.81%) Financial Institution
17 59 (0.53%) Automotive
17 59 (0.53%) Publishing
18 49 (0.44%) Billing
Job Titles
1 5,245 (47.07%) Developer
2 2,949 (26.46%) Java Developer
3 1,685 (15.12%) Software Engineer
4 1,175 (10.54%) Senior Developer
5 992 (8.90%) Java Engineer
6 766 (6.87%) Senior Java Developer
7 551 (4.94%) Java Software Engineer
8 543 (4.87%) Software Developer
9 530 (4.76%) Architect
10 496 (4.45%) Full Stack Developer
11 456 (4.09%) DevOps Engineer
12 425 (3.81%) Senior Software Engineer
13 411 (3.69%) Lead Developer
14 349 (3.13%) Tester
15 310 (2.78%) Data Engineer
16 297 (2.67%) AWS Engineer
17 272 (2.44%) Python Engineer
18 259 (2.32%) React Developer
19 252 (2.26%) Analyst
20 251 (2.25%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,468 (22.15%) Spring
2 1,432 (12.85%) HTML
3 1,414 (12.69%) React
4 1,348 (12.10%) Spring Boot
5 1,298 (11.65%) AngularJS
6 1,257 (11.28%) CSS
7 1,190 (10.68%) Web Services
8 1,175 (10.54%) Node.js
9 1,136 (10.19%) Kafka
10 1,102 (9.89%) REST
11 953 (8.55%) RESTful
12 869 (7.80%) .NET
13 691 (6.20%) Hibernate
14 608 (5.46%) HTML5
15 417 (3.74%) SOAP
16 415 (3.72%) XML
17 393 (3.53%) JSON
18 391 (3.51%) Vue.js
19 341 (3.06%) CSS3
20 313 (2.81%) J2EE
Miscellaneous
1 668 (5.99%) Analytical Skills
2 596 (5.35%) Greenfield Project
3 514 (4.61%) Data Structures
4 478 (4.29%) Algorithms
5 448 (4.02%) Mobile App
6 417 (3.74%) User Experience
7 311 (2.79%) Fixed Income
8 298 (2.67%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 293 (2.63%) Enterprise Software
10 284 (2.55%) Equities
11 277 (2.49%) Self-Motivation
12 244 (2.19%) Derivative
12 244 (2.19%) Hedge funds
13 235 (2.11%) Cloud Native
14 165 (1.48%) NHS
15 146 (1.31%) Virtual Team
16 121 (1.09%) Linux Command Line
17 112 (1.01%) Data Centre
18 102 (0.92%) Public Cloud
19 101 (0.91%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 1,515 (13.59%) Linux
2 596 (5.35%) Android
3 536 (4.81%) Windows
4 473 (4.24%) Unix
5 309 (2.77%) Apple iOS
6 140 (1.26%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 96 (0.86%) CentOS
8 70 (0.63%) Ubuntu
9 43 (0.39%) Windows Server
10 23 (0.21%) Solaris
11 20 (0.18%) Embedded Linux
12 11 (0.099%) Windows Server 2016
13 8 (0.072%) CoreOS
13 8 (0.072%) Mac OS
13 8 (0.072%) zOS
14 7 (0.063%) Debian
15 6 (0.054%) Mac OS X
16 5 (0.045%) AIX
16 5 (0.045%) VMS
17 4 (0.036%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,404 (48.49%) Agile Software Development
2 3,131 (28.10%) Software Engineering
3 2,670 (23.96%) DevOps
4 2,638 (23.67%) Microservices
5 2,012 (18.05%) TDD
6 1,681 (15.08%) Test Automation
7 1,680 (15.08%) Scrum
8 1,206 (10.82%) OO
9 1,088 (9.76%) BDD
10 1,075 (9.65%) Problem-Solving
11 1,057 (9.48%) Computer Science
12 1,023 (9.18%) Continuous Integration
13 987 (8.86%) Fintech
14 923 (8.28%) Mentoring
15 878 (7.88%) Analytics
16 732 (6.57%) SDLC
17 704 (6.32%) Software Testing
18 661 (5.93%) Open Source
19 632 (5.67%) OOP
20 534 (4.79%) Machine Learning
Programming Languages
1 3,783 (33.95%) Python
2 3,546 (31.82%) JavaScript
3 2,789 (25.03%) SQL
4 2,014 (18.07%) C#
5 1,210 (10.86%) C++
6 1,040 (9.33%) Java 8
7 870 (7.81%) TypeScript
8 842 (7.56%) Go
9 838 (7.52%) Scala
10 767 (6.88%) Kotlin
11 519 (4.66%) Ruby
12 491 (4.41%) PHP
13 479 (4.30%) C
14 371 (3.33%) Bash Shell
15 243 (2.18%) Groovy
16 231 (2.07%) PowerShell
17 188 (1.69%) PL/SQL
18 184 (1.65%) R
19 181 (1.62%) Perl
20 162 (1.45%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 1,284 (11.52%) Degree
2 654 (5.87%) Security Cleared
3 518 (4.65%) SC Cleared
4 480 (4.31%) Computer Science Degree
5 148 (1.33%) Oracle Certification
6 135 (1.21%) OCP
7 117 (1.05%) DV Cleared
8 111 (1.00%) CIW
8 111 (1.00%) ISTQB
8 111 (1.00%) OCA
9 110 (0.99%) Numerate Degree
10 87 (0.78%) Master's Degree
11 73 (0.66%) PhD
12 50 (0.45%) ISEB
13 44 (0.39%) BPSS Clearance
13 44 (0.39%) Microsoft Certification
14 37 (0.33%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
15 25 (0.22%) SANS
16 22 (0.20%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
17 20 (0.18%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 784 (7.04%) QA
2 63 (0.57%) Data Quality
3 54 (0.48%) SLA
4 53 (0.48%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 37 (0.33%) GDPR
6 34 (0.31%) NIST
6 34 (0.31%) WCAG
7 17 (0.15%) GRC
7 17 (0.15%) MiFID
7 17 (0.15%) NCSC
7 17 (0.15%) PCI DSS
8 13 (0.12%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
8 13 (0.12%) ISO/IEC 27005
8 13 (0.12%) SOC 2
9 11 (0.099%) EMIR
10 9 (0.081%) Good Clinical Practice
11 8 (0.072%) Dodd-Frank
11 8 (0.072%) SOC 1
12 5 (0.045%) CDISC
12 5 (0.045%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 2,634 (23.64%) Docker
2 91 (0.82%) VMware Infrastructure
3 84 (0.75%) Active Directory
4 50 (0.45%) HDFS
5 27 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
6 26 (0.23%) Firmware
7 23 (0.21%) KVM
8 22 (0.20%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 20 (0.18%) Hyper-V
10 19 (0.17%) NDS
10 19 (0.17%) NetIQ eDirectory
11 12 (0.11%) vSphere
12 10 (0.090%) Apache Flume
13 9 (0.081%) Postfix
13 9 (0.081%) Xen
14 8 (0.072%) BitLocker
15 5 (0.045%) Virtual Servers
16 4 (0.036%) VirtualBox
17 3 (0.027%) OpenAM
17 3 (0.027%) OpenDJ
Systems Management
1 2,189 (19.64%) Kubernetes
2 893 (8.01%) Terraform
3 765 (6.86%) Ansible
4 325 (2.92%) Puppet
5 288 (2.58%) Opscode Chef
6 190 (1.70%) Prometheus
7 157 (1.41%) Grafana
8 50 (0.45%) Packer
9 46 (0.41%) ZABBIX
10 41 (0.37%) Docker Swarm
11 40 (0.36%) HP Quality Center
12 35 (0.31%) Nagios
13 34 (0.31%) Graphite
13 34 (0.31%) Kibana
14 33 (0.30%) Istio
15 28 (0.25%) Consul
16 27 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
17 19 (0.17%) Demisto
17 19 (0.17%) Fortio
17 19 (0.17%) Kiali
Vendors
1 1,067 (9.57%) Oracle
2 648 (5.81%) Microsoft
3 566 (5.08%) Google
4 234 (2.10%) IBM
5 199 (1.79%) Red Hat
6 177 (1.59%) SAP
7 126 (1.13%) MuleSoft
8 125 (1.12%) VMware
9 123 (1.10%) Splunk
10 114 (1.02%) Atlassian
11 113 (1.01%) Sybase
12 104 (0.93%) Salesforce.com
13 97 (0.87%) Adobe
14 95 (0.85%) New Relic
15 81 (0.73%) Talend
16 77 (0.69%) Apple
17 55 (0.49%) SaltStack
18 54 (0.48%) AppDynamics
18 54 (0.48%) TIBCO
19 53 (0.48%) ServiceNow