Period
to 19 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 19 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Java
UK
6 months to
19 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 12 10 9
Rank change year-on-year -2 -1 +1
Permanent jobs citing Java 14,271 11,629 21,371
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 13.87% 14.20% 14.87%
As % of the Programming Languages category 25.17% 25.63% 27.51%
Number of salaries quoted 9,233 9,522 17,122
10th Percentile £40,000 £37,500 £32,500
25th Percentile £47,500 £46,250 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £65,000 £60,000
Median % change year-on-year - +8.33% +9.09%
75th Percentile £85,000 £85,000 £78,750
90th Percentile £105,000 £106,250 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £52,125 £50,000
% change year-on-year +5.52% +4.25% -

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 56,692 45,364 77,679
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 55.12% 55.41% 54.05%
Number of salaries quoted 40,520 37,631 64,148
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £41,250 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £73,750 £70,000
90th Percentile £92,500 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Java.

Salary trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 19 June 2021.

Salary histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 19 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 12,701 £67,500 +3.85% 2,272
UK excluding London 0 6,863 £55,000 +5.52% 1,227
London -3 6,725 £80,000 +6.67% 1,204
Work from Home -3 2,584 £65,000 +4.00% 519
South East -1 1,805 £57,500 - 280
North of England +5 1,694 £55,000 +10.00% 380
South West +2 1,118 £52,500 +5.00% 132
Yorkshire -1 785 £55,000 +10.00% 121
Midlands +3 764 £52,500 +5.00% 152
North West +1 719 £55,000 +4.76% 217
Scotland 0 712 £50,000 +3.67% 95
West Midlands +7 476 £55,000 +15.79% 113
East of England +7 418 £62,500 +25.00% 120
East Midlands -1 281 £50,000 - 39
Wales +1 198 £45,000 +5.88% 44
North East +20 190 £50,000 +11.11% 42
Northern Ireland +8 185 £42,500 -7.61% 25
Isle of Man - 2 £40,000 -

For the 6 months to 19 June 2021, IT jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 6,907 (48.40%) Agile Software Development
2 4,683 (32.81%) Python
3 4,363 (30.57%) AWS
4 4,313 (30.22%) Software Engineering
5 4,170 (29.22%) JavaScript
6 3,751 (26.28%) SQL
7 3,565 (24.98%) Microservices
8 3,358 (23.53%) Spring
9 3,253 (22.79%) Docker
10 3,217 (22.54%) DevOps
11 2,975 (20.85%) Finance
12 2,763 (19.36%) Kubernetes
13 2,624 (18.39%) C#
14 2,603 (18.24%) TDD
15 2,590 (18.15%) Social Skills
16 2,501 (17.53%) HTML
17 2,379 (16.67%) CSS
18 2,274 (15.93%) Azure
19 2,219 (15.55%) Test Automation
20 2,152 (15.08%) Oracle
21 2,124 (14.88%) Java 8
22 2,118 (14.84%) Jenkins
23 2,081 (14.58%) Scrum
24 2,062 (14.45%) Git (software)
25 1,990 (13.94%) Linux
26 1,911 (13.39%) React
27 1,847 (12.94%) AngularJS
28 1,706 (11.95%) REST
29 1,691 (11.85%) Degree
30 1,637 (11.47%) Spring Boot

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 692 (4.85%) Apache Spark
2 516 (3.62%) Elasticsearch
3 511 (3.58%) Apache
4 481 (3.37%) Confluence
5 289 (2.03%) Tomcat
6 132 (0.92%) CMS
7 130 (0.91%) nginx
8 128 (0.90%) GemFire
9 112 (0.78%) Apache Airflow
10 100 (0.70%) JBoss
11 84 (0.59%) Cloud Foundry
11 84 (0.59%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 80 (0.56%) WebSphere
13 66 (0.46%) SAS
14 55 (0.39%) Apache Solr
15 52 (0.36%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 50 (0.35%) SharePoint
17 49 (0.34%) IIS
17 49 (0.34%) WebLogic
18 35 (0.25%) OpenStack
Applications
1 83 (0.58%) Microsoft Office
2 59 (0.41%) Microsoft Excel
3 40 (0.28%) InVision
4 37 (0.26%) Sketch
5 20 (0.14%) Spreadsheet
6 18 (0.13%) Adobe XD
7 17 (0.12%) Photoshop
8 16 (0.11%) MS Visio
9 13 (0.091%) Microsoft Project
10 12 (0.084%) Adobe Illustrator
11 11 (0.077%) Simulink
12 9 (0.063%) Figma
12 9 (0.063%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 8 (0.056%) SPSS
14 7 (0.049%) Zeplin
15 5 (0.035%) 3ds Max
15 5 (0.035%) Maya
15 5 (0.035%) ZBrush
16 3 (0.021%) Siemens NX
17 2 (0.014%) Adobe Creative Suite
Business Applications
1 37 (0.26%) Distributed Ledger
2 27 (0.19%) Dynamics CRM
3 26 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
4 23 (0.16%) Oracle EBS
5 20 (0.14%) Shopify
6 17 (0.12%) Oracle Applications
6 17 (0.12%) SAP Business One
7 16 (0.11%) Oracle ERP
8 15 (0.11%) R3 Corda
9 14 (0.098%) Magento
10 13 (0.091%) Oracle BPM
11 12 (0.084%) PeopleSoft HCM
11 12 (0.084%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
12 9 (0.063%) SAP S/4HANA
13 8 (0.056%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
13 8 (0.056%) SAP BPC
13 8 (0.056%) Summit
14 6 (0.042%) Dynamics AX
14 6 (0.042%) NetSuite
14 6 (0.042%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 4,363 (30.57%) AWS
2 2,274 (15.93%) Azure
3 1,532 (10.74%) GCP
4 944 (6.61%) Serverless
5 702 (4.92%) SaaS
6 610 (4.27%) GitHub
7 475 (3.33%) AWS Lambda
8 441 (3.09%) Amazon EC2
9 359 (2.52%) AWS CloudFormation
10 329 (2.31%) PaaS
11 296 (2.07%) Amazon S3
12 271 (1.90%) OpenShift
13 238 (1.67%) Cloud Computing
14 236 (1.65%) Amazon ECS
15 185 (1.30%) Amazon Kinesis
16 170 (1.19%) IaaS
17 136 (0.95%) Amazon SQS
18 127 (0.89%) Datadog
19 123 (0.86%) Amazon EKS
20 119 (0.83%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 346 (2.42%) HTTP
2 215 (1.51%) Internet
3 96 (0.67%) Firewall
4 63 (0.44%) AMQP
5 61 (0.43%) Broadband
6 55 (0.39%) TCP/IP
7 48 (0.34%) DNS
8 42 (0.29%) VPN
9 38 (0.27%) SSH
10 34 (0.24%) FTP
10 34 (0.24%) Network Security
11 33 (0.23%) SSL
12 21 (0.15%) LAN
13 20 (0.14%) WAN
14 18 (0.13%) 5G
15 16 (0.11%) IPsec
15 16 (0.11%) SMTP
16 15 (0.11%) HTTPS
17 14 (0.098%) Calico
17 14 (0.098%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,288 (9.03%) NoSQL
2 1,210 (8.48%) PostgreSQL
3 1,078 (7.55%) Big Data
4 978 (6.85%) Relational Database
5 957 (6.71%) MySQL
6 916 (6.42%) MongoDB
7 687 (4.81%) SQL Server
8 575 (4.03%) Hadoop
9 536 (3.76%) Redis
10 394 (2.76%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 282 (1.98%) Apache Cassandra
12 268 (1.88%) RDBMS
13 240 (1.68%) Data Warehouse
14 223 (1.56%) MariaDB
15 199 (1.39%) Amazon RDS
16 188 (1.32%) Oracle Database
17 172 (1.21%) HBase
18 162 (1.14%) Amazon Aurora
19 144 (1.01%) Amazon Redshift
20 139 (0.97%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 2,118 (14.84%) Jenkins
2 2,062 (14.45%) Git (software)
3 1,078 (7.55%) JIRA
4 873 (6.12%) Selenium
5 832 (5.83%) Maven
6 797 (5.58%) Cucumber
7 757 (5.30%) JUnit
8 494 (3.46%) Gradle
9 390 (2.73%) GitLab
10 345 (2.42%) JMeter
11 316 (2.21%) Mockito
12 311 (2.18%) IntelliJ
13 295 (2.07%) Postman
14 270 (1.89%) Eclipse
15 260 (1.82%) Subversion
16 247 (1.73%) Cypress.io
17 246 (1.72%) WebDriver
18 228 (1.60%) Bitbucket
19 227 (1.59%) SonarQube
20 218 (1.53%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 2,975 (20.85%) Finance
2 2,590 (18.15%) Social Skills
3 1,281 (8.98%) Banking
4 791 (5.54%) Analytical Skills
5 565 (3.96%) Public Sector
6 519 (3.64%) Front Office
7 485 (3.40%) Games
8 483 (3.38%) Retail
9 408 (2.86%) Law
10 377 (2.64%) Marketing
11 247 (1.73%) Investment Banking
11 247 (1.73%) Presentation Skills
12 188 (1.32%) Legal
12 188 (1.32%) Manufacturing
13 179 (1.25%) Telecoms
14 165 (1.16%) Advertising
15 151 (1.06%) Electronics
16 138 (0.97%) Financial Institution
17 112 (0.78%) Back Office
18 100 (0.70%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 6,852 (48.01%) Developer
2 3,358 (23.53%) Java Developer
3 2,381 (16.68%) Software Engineer
4 1,305 (9.14%) Senior Developer
5 1,193 (8.36%) Java Engineer
6 927 (6.50%) Trainee
7 915 (6.41%) Software Developer
8 914 (6.40%) Trainee Developer
9 848 (5.94%) Senior Java Developer
10 824 (5.77%) Full Stack Developer
11 732 (5.13%) Web Developer
12 666 (4.67%) Java Software Engineer
13 642 (4.50%) Trainee Web Developer
14 609 (4.27%) Senior Software Engineer
15 601 (4.21%) Architect
16 510 (3.57%) DevOps Engineer
17 469 (3.29%) Lead Developer
18 399 (2.80%) Data Engineer
19 365 (2.56%) Tester
20 352 (2.47%) AWS Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,358 (23.53%) Spring
2 2,501 (17.53%) HTML
3 2,379 (16.67%) CSS
4 1,911 (13.39%) React
5 1,847 (12.94%) AngularJS
6 1,706 (11.95%) REST
7 1,637 (11.47%) Spring Boot
8 1,622 (11.37%) Node.js
9 1,558 (10.92%) Kafka
10 1,543 (10.81%) Web Services
11 1,523 (10.67%) HTML5
12 1,376 (9.64%) RESTful
13 1,149 (8.05%) .NET
14 969 (6.79%) Hibernate
15 947 (6.64%) Java SE
16 575 (4.03%) JSON
17 546 (3.83%) XML
18 505 (3.54%) GraphQL
19 504 (3.53%) SOAP
20 497 (3.48%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 672 (4.71%) Greenfield Project
2 626 (4.39%) User Experience
3 614 (4.30%) Data Structures
4 606 (4.25%) Algorithms
5 526 (3.69%) Mobile App
6 400 (2.80%) Self-Motivation
7 356 (2.49%) Fixed Income
8 341 (2.39%) Hedge funds
9 340 (2.38%) Derivative
10 335 (2.35%) Equities
11 330 (2.31%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 322 (2.26%) Cloud Native
13 299 (2.10%) Enterprise Software
14 229 (1.60%) Linux Command Line
14 229 (1.60%) Virtual Team
15 184 (1.29%) NHS
16 170 (1.19%) Data Centre
17 158 (1.11%) Public Cloud
18 129 (0.90%) Blog
19 124 (0.87%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 1,990 (13.94%) Linux
2 723 (5.07%) Android
3 710 (4.98%) Unix
4 649 (4.55%) Windows
5 391 (2.74%) Apple iOS
6 170 (1.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 106 (0.74%) CentOS
8 88 (0.62%) Ubuntu
9 58 (0.41%) Windows Server
10 27 (0.19%) Mac OS X
11 20 (0.14%) Debian
11 20 (0.14%) Solaris
12 18 (0.13%) Embedded Linux
13 17 (0.12%) Windows Server 2016
14 13 (0.091%) Windows 10
15 12 (0.084%) Mac OS
16 8 (0.056%) Windows Server 2008
16 8 (0.056%) Windows Server 2012
17 6 (0.042%) Oracle Linux
18 5 (0.035%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 6,907 (48.40%) Agile Software Development
2 4,313 (30.22%) Software Engineering
3 3,565 (24.98%) Microservices
4 3,217 (22.54%) DevOps
5 2,603 (18.24%) TDD
6 2,219 (15.55%) Test Automation
7 2,081 (14.58%) Scrum
8 1,633 (11.44%) Problem-Solving
9 1,521 (10.66%) OO
10 1,510 (10.58%) BDD
11 1,507 (10.56%) Continuous Integration
12 1,442 (10.10%) Computer Science
13 1,423 (9.97%) Mentoring
14 1,373 (9.62%) Web Development
15 1,204 (8.44%) Fintech
16 1,141 (8.00%) Analytics
17 1,104 (7.74%) Cybersecurity
18 1,051 (7.36%) Open Source
19 969 (6.79%) SDLC
20 850 (5.96%) Software Testing
Programming Languages
1 4,683 (32.81%) Python
2 4,170 (29.22%) JavaScript
3 3,751 (26.28%) SQL
4 2,624 (18.39%) C#
5 2,124 (14.88%) Java 8
6 1,408 (9.87%) C++
7 1,163 (8.15%) TypeScript
8 1,120 (7.85%) Scala
9 1,020 (7.15%) Go
10 1,016 (7.12%) Kotlin
11 612 (4.29%) PHP
12 601 (4.21%) C
13 585 (4.10%) Ruby
14 449 (3.15%) Bash Shell
15 411 (2.88%) Groovy
16 297 (2.08%) Shell Script
17 272 (1.91%) PowerShell
18 214 (1.50%) PL/SQL
19 201 (1.41%) Perl
20 199 (1.39%) ES6
Qualifications
1 1,691 (11.85%) Degree
2 1,059 (7.42%) Oracle Certification
3 952 (6.67%) Security Cleared
4 927 (6.50%) CIW
4 927 (6.50%) OCA
5 821 (5.75%) SC Cleared
6 816 (5.72%) OCAJ
7 643 (4.51%) Computer Science Degree
8 227 (1.59%) OCP
9 149 (1.04%) Master's Degree
10 137 (0.96%) ISTQB
11 117 (0.82%) Numerate Degree
12 109 (0.76%) DV Cleared
13 94 (0.66%) PhD
14 53 (0.37%) BPSS Clearance
15 50 (0.35%) Microsoft Certification
16 47 (0.33%) AWS Certification
17 38 (0.27%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
18 35 (0.25%) ISEB
19 27 (0.19%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,103 (7.73%) QA
2 109 (0.76%) Data Quality
3 108 (0.76%) Accessibility
4 92 (0.64%) SLA
5 66 (0.46%) GDPR
6 49 (0.34%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 45 (0.32%) WCAG
8 24 (0.17%) MiFID
9 22 (0.15%) PMO
10 21 (0.15%) GRC
10 21 (0.15%) PCI DSS
11 19 (0.13%) EMIR
12 18 (0.13%) NCSC
13 17 (0.12%) NIST
14 13 (0.091%) HIPAA
14 13 (0.091%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
14 13 (0.091%) ISO/IEC 27005
14 13 (0.091%) SOC 2
15 10 (0.070%) CDISC
15 10 (0.070%) Good Clinical Practice
System Software
1 3,253 (22.79%) Docker
2 158 (1.11%) VMware Infrastructure
3 138 (0.97%) HDFS
4 56 (0.39%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 55 (0.39%) Active Directory
6 45 (0.32%) Virtual Machines
7 27 (0.19%) Hyper-V
7 27 (0.19%) NDS
7 27 (0.19%) NetIQ eDirectory
8 24 (0.17%) KVM
9 20 (0.14%) Firmware
10 13 (0.091%) vSphere
11 12 (0.084%) Apache Flume
11 12 (0.084%) Virtual Servers
12 8 (0.056%) ISA Server
12 8 (0.056%) Postfix
12 8 (0.056%) Xen
13 7 (0.049%) etcd
13 7 (0.049%) VMware ESXi
14 5 (0.035%) Gluster
Systems Management
1 2,763 (19.36%) Kubernetes
2 1,265 (8.86%) Terraform
3 1,042 (7.30%) Ansible
4 412 (2.89%) Opscode Chef
5 410 (2.87%) Puppet
6 246 (1.72%) Prometheus
7 230 (1.61%) Grafana
8 63 (0.44%) Kibana
9 51 (0.36%) Docker Swarm
10 46 (0.32%) Packer
11 43 (0.30%) HP Quality Center
12 36 (0.25%) logstash
12 36 (0.25%) Nagios
13 35 (0.25%) Consul
13 35 (0.25%) Graphite
13 35 (0.25%) Istio
14 29 (0.20%) Single Sign-On
14 29 (0.20%) ZABBIX
15 27 (0.19%) NetIQ Identity Manager
16 26 (0.18%) Mesos
Vendors
1 2,152 (15.08%) Oracle
2 1,553 (10.88%) Microsoft
3 674 (4.72%) Google
4 228 (1.60%) VMware
5 225 (1.58%) IBM
6 216 (1.51%) SAP
7 213 (1.49%) Red Hat
8 173 (1.21%) Splunk
9 153 (1.07%) Atlassian
9 153 (1.07%) Sybase
10 129 (0.90%) Salesforce.com
11 118 (0.83%) Okta
12 104 (0.73%) New Relic
13 90 (0.63%) Adobe
14 88 (0.62%) MuleSoft
15 86 (0.60%) Talend
16 73 (0.51%) Apple
17 66 (0.46%) AppDynamics
17 66 (0.46%) Databricks
18 63 (0.44%) SaltStack