Period
to 2 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 2 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Java
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 13 13 11
Rank change year-on-year 0 -2 -2
Permanent jobs citing Java 17,017 8,193 18,643
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 13.19% 14.71% 13.88%
As % of the Programming Languages category 24.80% 24.94% 25.80%
Number of salaries quoted 10,347 6,973 15,214
10th Percentile £41,250 £40,000 £35,000
25th Percentile £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £70,000 £65,000 £62,500
Median % change year-on-year +7.69% +4.00% +8.70%
75th Percentile £91,250 £85,000 £82,500
90th Percentile £111,250 £108,750 £102,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year - +10.00% -

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 68,619 32,855 72,257
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 53.19% 59.01% 53.80%
Number of salaries quoted 46,199 28,318 60,141
10th Percentile £36,250 £33,750 £31,250
25th Percentile £45,000 £42,500 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £80,000 £73,750 £71,250
90th Percentile £97,500 £90,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Java.

Salary trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 2 December 2021.

Salary histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 14,718 £70,000 +7.69% 2,586
London -3 8,566 £82,500 +6.45% 1,366
UK excluding London -3 6,984 £55,000 - 1,407
Work from Home -5 3,375 £70,000 +16.67% 587
South East -5 1,913 £60,000 - 262
North of England +2 1,832 £55,000 +4.76% 444
North West +14 890 £57,500 +4.55% 260
Yorkshire 0 843 £55,000 +4.76% 128
Midlands +10 833 £52,500 - 207
South West -6 796 £55,000 +10.00% 176
Scotland -1 759 £52,500 +5.00% 146
West Midlands +9 586 £55,000 +4.76% 147
East of England -9 411 £55,000 -2.22% 111
Wales +19 290 £54,450 +8.90% 35
East Midlands +5 248 £50,000 -4.76% 57
Northern Ireland -2 189 £52,500 - 27
North East -16 104 £50,000 - 56

For the 6 months to 2 December 2021, IT jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 9,079 (53.35%) Agile Software Development
2 6,016 (35.35%) AWS
3 5,889 (34.61%) Software Engineering
4 5,803 (34.10%) Python
5 5,135 (30.18%) JavaScript
6 4,887 (28.72%) DevOps
7 4,839 (28.44%) Microservices
8 4,643 (27.28%) Spring
9 4,292 (25.22%) Docker
10 4,264 (25.06%) SQL
11 4,016 (23.60%) Finance
12 3,811 (22.40%) Kubernetes
13 3,686 (21.66%) Social Skills
14 3,529 (20.74%) Azure
15 3,289 (19.33%) React
16 3,286 (19.31%) TDD
17 3,166 (18.60%) C#
18 3,150 (18.51%) Test Automation
19 3,086 (18.13%) Jenkins
20 3,040 (17.86%) Git (software)
21 2,742 (16.11%) Scrum
22 2,573 (15.12%) AngularJS
23 2,566 (15.08%) Spring Boot
24 2,537 (14.91%) Full Stack Development
25 2,531 (14.87%) Degree
26 2,508 (14.74%) Node.js
27 2,358 (13.86%) Problem-Solving
28 2,306 (13.55%) Continuous Integration
29 2,299 (13.51%) REST
30 2,245 (13.19%) GCP

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 913 (5.37%) Apache Spark
2 725 (4.26%) Apache
3 635 (3.73%) Elasticsearch
4 580 (3.41%) Confluence
5 298 (1.75%) Tomcat
6 180 (1.06%) CMS
7 172 (1.01%) GemFire
8 166 (0.98%) Apache Airflow
9 150 (0.88%) nginx
10 140 (0.82%) Cloud Foundry
11 128 (0.75%) JBoss
12 106 (0.62%) Apache Solr
13 77 (0.45%) WebLogic
14 74 (0.43%) IIS
15 66 (0.39%) SharePoint
16 64 (0.38%) SAS
17 61 (0.36%) WebSphere
18 55 (0.32%) Adobe Experience Manager
19 46 (0.27%) Oracle SOA Suite
20 44 (0.26%) OpenStack
Applications
1 66 (0.39%) Microsoft Office
2 59 (0.35%) Microsoft Excel
3 51 (0.30%) Sketch
4 38 (0.22%) Figma
5 34 (0.20%) InVision
6 27 (0.16%) Photoshop
7 21 (0.12%) Adobe Illustrator
7 21 (0.12%) Adobe XD
7 21 (0.12%) Chatbot
8 19 (0.11%) Spreadsheet
9 14 (0.082%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 12 (0.071%) Microsoft Project
11 9 (0.053%) MS Visio
12 6 (0.035%) Siemens NX
13 5 (0.029%) Fireworks
13 5 (0.029%) GIMP
14 3 (0.018%) CPLEX
14 3 (0.018%) Oracle Smart View
15 2 (0.012%) Adobe Creative Suite
15 2 (0.012%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 87 (0.51%) Distributed Ledger
2 59 (0.35%) R3 Corda
3 39 (0.23%) Oracle EBS
3 39 (0.23%) Payment Gateway
4 36 (0.21%) Magento
5 30 (0.18%) Shopify
6 27 (0.16%) SAP Business One
7 24 (0.14%) Oracle Applications
8 19 (0.11%) Dynamics CRM
9 18 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
10 15 (0.088%) Oracle ERP
11 14 (0.082%) SAP BPC
12 13 (0.076%) Summit
13 12 (0.071%) NetSuite
13 12 (0.071%) Oracle EBS R12
14 10 (0.059%) Oracle General Ledger
14 10 (0.059%) Oracle Payables
14 10 (0.059%) Oracle Receivables
15 9 (0.053%) Oracle Cash Management
15 9 (0.053%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
Cloud Services
1 6,016 (35.35%) AWS
2 3,529 (20.74%) Azure
3 2,245 (13.19%) GCP
4 1,790 (10.52%) Serverless
5 1,330 (7.82%) GitHub
6 775 (4.55%) AWS Lambda
7 734 (4.31%) OpenShift
8 725 (4.26%) SaaS
9 583 (3.43%) Amazon EC2
10 535 (3.14%) AWS CloudFormation
11 507 (2.98%) Amazon S3
12 379 (2.23%) Amazon ECS
13 375 (2.20%) PaaS
14 371 (2.18%) Cloud Computing
15 355 (2.09%) Amazon Kinesis
16 302 (1.77%) Amazon EKS
17 266 (1.56%) Power Platform
18 233 (1.37%) Amazon SQS
19 184 (1.08%) npm
20 170 (1.00%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 538 (3.16%) HTTP
2 208 (1.22%) Internet
3 160 (0.94%) Broadband
4 149 (0.88%) Firewall
5 109 (0.64%) TCP/IP
6 106 (0.62%) Kerberos
7 89 (0.52%) DNS
8 86 (0.51%) Cisco IPT
9 85 (0.50%) SSL
10 74 (0.43%) SSH
11 60 (0.35%) AMQP
12 55 (0.32%) Network Security
13 44 (0.26%) VPN
14 38 (0.22%) HTTPS
15 35 (0.21%) FTP
16 30 (0.18%) Calico
16 30 (0.18%) SMTP
17 24 (0.14%) SMS
18 22 (0.13%) MQTT
19 18 (0.11%) IPv6
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,752 (10.30%) NoSQL
2 1,631 (9.58%) PostgreSQL
3 1,451 (8.53%) MongoDB
4 1,393 (8.19%) Big Data
5 1,262 (7.42%) Relational Database
6 1,220 (7.17%) MySQL
7 801 (4.71%) SQL Server
8 794 (4.67%) Redis
9 619 (3.64%) Hadoop
10 572 (3.36%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 448 (2.63%) Apache Cassandra
12 370 (2.17%) Data Lake
13 364 (2.14%) Data Warehouse
14 311 (1.83%) RDBMS
15 310 (1.82%) Amazon RDS
16 307 (1.80%) Amazon Aurora
17 292 (1.72%) Amazon Athena
18 277 (1.63%) Blockchain
19 258 (1.52%) MariaDB
20 249 (1.46%) HBase
Development Applications
1 3,086 (18.13%) Jenkins
2 3,040 (17.86%) Git (software)
3 1,214 (7.13%) JIRA
4 1,082 (6.36%) Selenium
5 1,057 (6.21%) Maven
6 959 (5.64%) JUnit
7 913 (5.37%) Cucumber
8 618 (3.63%) Gradle
9 550 (3.23%) Postman
10 512 (3.01%) GitLab
11 481 (2.83%) JMeter
12 424 (2.49%) Mockito
13 422 (2.48%) Cypress.io
14 397 (2.33%) Bitbucket
15 329 (1.93%) REST Assured
16 325 (1.91%) Subversion
17 308 (1.81%) TeamCity
18 306 (1.80%) Eclipse
18 306 (1.80%) Sonatype Nexus
19 299 (1.76%) Artifactory
General
1 4,016 (23.60%) Finance
2 3,686 (21.66%) Social Skills
3 1,494 (8.78%) Banking
4 878 (5.16%) Analytical Skills
5 728 (4.28%) Inclusion and Diversity
6 695 (4.08%) Public Sector
7 668 (3.93%) Retail
8 560 (3.29%) Front Office
9 497 (2.92%) Games
10 485 (2.85%) Law
11 412 (2.42%) Marketing
12 291 (1.71%) Telecoms
13 271 (1.59%) Investment Banking
14 255 (1.50%) Advertising
15 243 (1.43%) Presentation Skills
16 233 (1.37%) Legal
17 210 (1.23%) Manufacturing
18 183 (1.08%) Financial Institution
19 134 (0.79%) Electronics
20 130 (0.76%) Billing
Job Titles
1 7,173 (42.15%) Developer
2 3,969 (23.32%) Java Developer
3 3,453 (20.29%) Software Engineer
4 1,849 (10.87%) Senior Developer
5 1,402 (8.24%) Java Engineer
6 1,161 (6.82%) Senior Java Developer
7 1,033 (6.07%) Senior Software Engineer
8 953 (5.60%) Software Developer
9 931 (5.47%) Architect
10 871 (5.12%) Java Software Engineer
11 744 (4.37%) Data Engineer
12 663 (3.90%) DevOps Engineer
13 654 (3.84%) Full Stack Developer
14 527 (3.10%) Analyst
15 504 (2.96%) Lead Developer
16 483 (2.84%) AWS Engineer
17 476 (2.80%) Senior Java Engineer
18 441 (2.59%) Developer/Software Engineer
19 399 (2.34%) Java Software Developer
20 382 (2.24%) Python Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,643 (27.28%) Spring
2 3,289 (19.33%) React
3 2,573 (15.12%) AngularJS
4 2,566 (15.08%) Spring Boot
5 2,508 (14.74%) Node.js
6 2,299 (13.51%) REST
7 2,205 (12.96%) Kafka
8 2,099 (12.33%) Web Services
9 1,837 (10.80%) RESTful
10 1,815 (10.67%) .NET
11 1,749 (10.28%) CSS
12 1,735 (10.20%) HTML
13 1,131 (6.65%) Hibernate
14 918 (5.39%) JSON
15 870 (5.11%) XML
16 843 (4.95%) Vue.js
17 671 (3.94%) SOAP
18 664 (3.90%) RabbitMQ
19 663 (3.90%) GraphQL
20 634 (3.73%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 1,043 (6.13%) User Experience
2 909 (5.34%) Algorithms
3 820 (4.82%) Greenfield Project
4 708 (4.16%) Mobile App
5 677 (3.98%) Cloud Native
6 671 (3.94%) Data Structures
7 643 (3.78%) Self-Motivation
8 496 (2.91%) Enterprise Software
9 461 (2.71%) Hedge funds
10 439 (2.58%) Derivative
11 398 (2.34%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 380 (2.23%) Virtual Team
13 352 (2.07%) Fixed Income
14 351 (2.06%) Equities
15 290 (1.70%) Linux Command Line
16 269 (1.58%) Public Cloud
17 244 (1.43%) Management Information System
18 208 (1.22%) Social Media
19 162 (0.95%) Blog
20 137 (0.81%) Pricing Data
Operating Systems
1 2,184 (12.83%) Linux
2 968 (5.69%) Unix
3 904 (5.31%) Android
4 685 (4.03%) Windows
5 577 (3.39%) Apple iOS
6 171 (1.00%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 124 (0.73%) CentOS
8 74 (0.43%) Windows Server
9 60 (0.35%) Mac OS
10 56 (0.33%) Ubuntu
11 47 (0.28%) Debian
12 46 (0.27%) Mesosphere
13 31 (0.18%) Mac OS X
14 22 (0.13%) VMS
15 21 (0.12%) Solaris
16 14 (0.082%) Windows 10
17 10 (0.059%) AIX
17 10 (0.059%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
18 9 (0.053%) Windows Server 2016
19 8 (0.047%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 9,079 (53.35%) Agile Software Development
2 5,889 (34.61%) Software Engineering
3 4,887 (28.72%) DevOps
4 4,839 (28.44%) Microservices
5 3,286 (19.31%) TDD
6 3,150 (18.51%) Test Automation
7 2,742 (16.11%) Scrum
8 2,537 (14.91%) Full Stack Development
9 2,358 (13.86%) Problem-Solving
10 2,306 (13.55%) Continuous Integration
11 2,181 (12.82%) Computer Science
12 2,098 (12.33%) Mentoring
13 1,901 (11.17%) BDD
14 1,804 (10.60%) OO
15 1,789 (10.51%) Analytics
16 1,498 (8.80%) Open Source
17 1,470 (8.64%) SDLC
18 1,368 (8.04%) Fintech
19 1,093 (6.42%) Coaching
20 1,035 (6.08%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 5,803 (34.10%) Python
2 5,135 (30.18%) JavaScript
3 4,264 (25.06%) SQL
4 3,166 (18.60%) C#
5 1,682 (9.88%) Scala
6 1,639 (9.63%) Kotlin
7 1,612 (9.47%) C++
8 1,565 (9.20%) TypeScript
9 1,503 (8.83%) Go
10 1,495 (8.79%) Java 8
11 786 (4.62%) C
12 781 (4.59%) PHP
13 750 (4.41%) Ruby
14 650 (3.82%) Bash Shell
15 569 (3.34%) Groovy
16 488 (2.87%) Shell Script
17 463 (2.72%) Java 11
18 421 (2.47%) PowerShell
19 335 (1.97%) Perl
20 278 (1.63%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 2,531 (14.87%) Degree
2 1,211 (7.12%) Security Cleared
3 1,036 (6.09%) SC Cleared
4 947 (5.57%) Computer Science Degree
5 211 (1.24%) Master's Degree
6 179 (1.05%) Oracle Certification
7 174 (1.02%) OCP
8 140 (0.82%) AWS Certification
9 116 (0.68%) ISTQB
10 107 (0.63%) CISSP
11 100 (0.59%) Cisco Certification
12 97 (0.57%) PhD
13 96 (0.56%) (ISC)2 CCSP
14 93 (0.55%) DV Cleared
15 87 (0.51%) Numerate Degree
16 70 (0.41%) HND
17 66 (0.39%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
18 49 (0.29%) DBS Check
19 38 (0.22%) ISEB
20 34 (0.20%) BPSS Clearance
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,762 (10.35%) QA
2 189 (1.11%) Accessibility
3 144 (0.85%) Data Quality
4 122 (0.72%) SLA
5 107 (0.63%) GDPR
6 46 (0.27%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 37 (0.22%) PCI DSS
7 37 (0.22%) WCAG
8 26 (0.15%) PMO
9 25 (0.15%) PSD2
10 22 (0.13%) GRC
11 21 (0.12%) NIST
12 19 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 16 (0.094%) MiFID
14 15 (0.088%) ISO 13485
14 15 (0.088%) NCSC
15 13 (0.076%) EMIR
16 11 (0.065%) ISO 20022
17 10 (0.059%) HIPAA
17 10 (0.059%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 4,292 (25.22%) Docker
2 213 (1.25%) VMware Infrastructure
3 199 (1.17%) HDFS
4 102 (0.60%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 83 (0.49%) Virtual Machines
6 45 (0.26%) Active Directory
7 30 (0.18%) KVM
8 25 (0.15%) Postfix
9 22 (0.13%) Firmware
10 19 (0.11%) Hyper-V
11 18 (0.11%) VMware ESXi
12 15 (0.088%) ISA Server
13 11 (0.065%) Apache Flume
14 10 (0.059%) Ceph
15 9 (0.053%) etcd
15 9 (0.053%) vSphere
16 7 (0.041%) Varnish
17 5 (0.029%) LXC
17 5 (0.029%) VirtualBox
17 5 (0.029%) Xen
Systems Management
1 3,811 (22.40%) Kubernetes
2 2,079 (12.22%) Terraform
3 1,483 (8.71%) Ansible
4 470 (2.76%) Puppet
5 463 (2.72%) Opscode Chef
6 407 (2.39%) Prometheus
7 358 (2.10%) Grafana
8 149 (0.88%) Kibana
9 87 (0.51%) Istio
9 87 (0.51%) logstash
10 85 (0.50%) Consul
11 64 (0.38%) Docker Swarm
12 57 (0.33%) Graphite
13 56 (0.33%) Nagios
13 56 (0.33%) Single Sign-On
14 44 (0.26%) HP Quality Center
14 44 (0.26%) Mesos
15 43 (0.25%) Automic
16 37 (0.22%) Packer
17 35 (0.21%) Salt
Vendors
1 1,507 (8.86%) Oracle
2 1,015 (5.96%) Google
3 790 (4.64%) Microsoft
4 302 (1.77%) VMware
5 287 (1.69%) Red Hat
6 285 (1.67%) Salesforce.com
7 281 (1.65%) Databricks
8 253 (1.49%) SAP
9 228 (1.34%) Splunk
10 201 (1.18%) IBM
11 198 (1.16%) Atlassian
12 194 (1.14%) Okta
13 134 (0.79%) Adobe
14 123 (0.72%) Cognizant
15 115 (0.68%) Talend
16 91 (0.53%) New Relic
17 90 (0.53%) MuleSoft
18 85 (0.50%) Sybase
19 71 (0.42%) Facebook
20 67 (0.39%) Informatica