Period
to 20 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Software Engineering skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Software Engineering over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Software Engineering
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 12 16 21
Rank change year-on-year +4 +5 +2
Permanent jobs citing Software Engineering 16,192 5,408 14,330
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 13.38% 11.01% 10.14%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 14.23% 11.81% 10.95%
Number of salaries quoted 8,918 4,502 10,901
10th Percentile £37,500 £36,250 £32,500
25th Percentile £47,500 £45,000 £41,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £60,000 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +8.33% +9.09% +4.76%
75th Percentile £88,750 £81,250 £75,000
90th Percentile £112,500 £110,000 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%

Software Engineering is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 113,815 45,798 130,905
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 94.02% 93.24% 92.61%
Number of salaries quoted 75,990 37,717 104,073
10th Percentile £32,500 £32,750 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £76,250 £73,750 £70,000
90th Percentile £93,750 £91,250 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -

Software Engineering
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Software Engineering as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Software Engineering in the UK

Software Engineering
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Software Engineering.

Salary trend for Software Engineering in the UK

Software Engineering
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Software Engineering over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Salary histogram for Software Engineering in the UK

Software Engineering
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Software Engineering within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +6 14,530 £65,000 +8.33% 2,505
London +5 7,961 £82,500 +3.13% 1,002
UK excluding London +5 7,184 £55,000 +10.00% 1,669
Work from Home +5 3,470 £65,000 +13.04% 618
South East +2 2,006 £55,000 - 347
North of England +3 1,848 £55,000 +10.00% 423
South West +10 1,142 £55,000 +12.24% 211
North West +4 880 £57,500 +4.55% 247
Yorkshire 0 793 £55,000 +10.00% 135
Midlands -10 690 £55,000 +13.35% 264
East of England +11 592 £51,000 -7.27% 241
Scotland -5 589 £50,000 - 121
West Midlands -5 468 £55,000 +10.00% 171
East Midlands -17 223 £50,000 +5.26% 92
North East -2 175 £50,000 +11.11% 41
Northern Ireland -2 170 £40,000 -11.11% 21
Wales +12 160 £50,000 +11.11% 42

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT jobs citing Software Engineering also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Software Engineering.

1 8,014 (49.49%) Agile Software Development
2 5,958 (36.80%) AWS
3 5,645 (34.86%) JavaScript
4 5,596 (34.56%) Java
5 5,207 (32.16%) Python
6 4,849 (29.95%) React
7 4,023 (24.85%) Docker
8 3,913 (24.17%) C#
9 3,725 (23.01%) Finance
10 3,687 (22.77%) DevOps
11 3,607 (22.28%) Microservices
12 3,498 (21.60%) Azure
13 3,469 (21.42%) SQL
14 3,424 (21.15%) Kubernetes
15 3,107 (19.19%) Node.js
16 3,096 (19.12%) .NET
17 2,974 (18.37%) Full Stack Development
18 2,809 (17.35%) Social Skills
19 2,808 (17.34%) Degree
20 2,761 (17.05%) TDD
21 2,607 (16.10%) TypeScript
22 2,466 (15.23%) Computer Science
23 2,448 (15.12%) AngularJS
24 2,323 (14.35%) Git (software)
25 2,262 (13.97%) Scrum
26 2,185 (13.49%) Linux
27 2,143 (13.23%) CSS
28 2,135 (13.19%) GCP
29 2,100 (12.97%) Problem-Solving
30 2,034 (12.56%) Test Automation

Software Engineering
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 681 (4.21%) Apache Spark
2 659 (4.07%) Elasticsearch
3 547 (3.38%) Apache
4 408 (2.52%) Confluence
5 189 (1.17%) GemFire
6 163 (1.01%) CMS
7 116 (0.72%) Tomcat
8 115 (0.71%) nginx
9 85 (0.52%) Apache Airflow
10 73 (0.45%) GeoServer
11 67 (0.41%) Cloud Foundry
12 57 (0.35%) SharePoint
13 54 (0.33%) WebLogic
14 51 (0.31%) Jupyter
15 50 (0.31%) Tornado
16 48 (0.30%) JBoss
17 45 (0.28%) WordPress
18 41 (0.25%) Apache Pulsar
19 39 (0.24%) OpenStack
20 38 (0.23%) IIS
Applications
1 74 (0.46%) Simulink
2 67 (0.41%) Sketch
3 58 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
4 49 (0.30%) InVision
5 48 (0.30%) Microsoft Excel
6 46 (0.28%) Figma
7 38 (0.23%) Photoshop
8 35 (0.22%) Adobe Illustrator
9 26 (0.16%) GIMP
10 24 (0.15%) Spreadsheet
11 17 (0.10%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 14 (0.086%) Chatbot
13 12 (0.074%) Zeplin
14 9 (0.056%) Microsoft Project
15 6 (0.037%) Adobe Creative Suite
15 6 (0.037%) Maya
15 6 (0.037%) UXPin
16 5 (0.031%) Fireworks
17 4 (0.025%) MS Visio
17 4 (0.025%) Stateflow
Business Applications
1 71 (0.44%) Distributed Ledger
2 58 (0.36%) R3 Corda
3 45 (0.28%) Shopify
4 38 (0.23%) Magento
5 37 (0.23%) Payment Gateway
6 25 (0.15%) Dynamics CRM
7 24 (0.15%) NetSuite
8 16 (0.099%) Sentinel
9 12 (0.074%) SAP Business ByDesign
10 10 (0.062%) Oracle BPM
10 10 (0.062%) Primavera
11 8 (0.049%) Dynamics AX
11 8 (0.049%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
12 6 (0.037%) Dynamics NAV
12 6 (0.037%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
13 5 (0.031%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
13 5 (0.031%) RMDS
14 4 (0.025%) MetaTrader
14 4 (0.025%) Oracle Financials
14 4 (0.025%) Summit
Cloud Services
1 5,958 (36.80%) AWS
2 3,498 (21.60%) Azure
3 2,135 (13.19%) GCP
4 1,911 (11.80%) Serverless
5 1,098 (6.78%) AWS Lambda
6 1,067 (6.59%) GitHub
7 864 (5.34%) SaaS
8 605 (3.74%) Amazon S3
9 484 (2.99%) Amazon EC2
10 472 (2.92%) AWS CloudFormation
11 428 (2.64%) Amazon SQS
12 352 (2.17%) Amazon ECS
13 316 (1.95%) Amazon Kinesis
14 281 (1.74%) PaaS
15 279 (1.72%) Cloud Computing
16 275 (1.70%) OpenShift
17 253 (1.56%) AWS Step Functions
18 170 (1.05%) Amazon EKS
19 152 (0.94%) npm
20 137 (0.85%) Slack
Communications & Networking
1 479 (2.96%) HTTP
2 268 (1.66%) Internet
3 260 (1.61%) Broadband
4 240 (1.48%) TCP/IP
5 133 (0.82%) Ethernet
6 100 (0.62%) Wireless
7 77 (0.48%) Wi-Fi
8 72 (0.44%) MQTT
9 71 (0.44%) Bluetooth
10 69 (0.43%) Firewall
11 62 (0.38%) DNS
12 61 (0.38%) Modbus
13 60 (0.37%) SSL
14 54 (0.33%) RS-422
15 41 (0.25%) RS-485
16 39 (0.24%) SSH
17 33 (0.20%) VPN
18 30 (0.19%) 4G
19 29 (0.18%) HTTPS
20 28 (0.17%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,828 (11.29%) PostgreSQL
2 1,637 (10.11%) NoSQL
3 1,208 (7.46%) SQL Server
4 1,101 (6.80%) Relational Database
5 1,044 (6.45%) MySQL
6 966 (5.97%) MongoDB
7 916 (5.66%) Amazon DynamoDB
8 887 (5.48%) Big Data
9 765 (4.72%) Redis
10 460 (2.84%) Amazon RDS
11 388 (2.40%) Hadoop
12 326 (2.01%) Amazon Aurora
13 269 (1.66%) MariaDB
14 249 (1.54%) Amazon Athena
15 233 (1.44%) HBase
16 217 (1.34%) Amazon Redshift
17 183 (1.13%) RDBMS
18 174 (1.07%) Apache Cassandra
19 161 (0.99%) Blockchain
20 156 (0.96%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 2,323 (14.35%) Git (software)
2 1,614 (9.97%) Jenkins
3 807 (4.98%) JIRA
4 619 (3.82%) Cypress.io
5 574 (3.54%) GitLab
6 471 (2.91%) JUnit
7 361 (2.23%) Cucumber
8 319 (1.97%) Gradle
9 311 (1.92%) Selenium
10 300 (1.85%) Storybook
11 289 (1.78%) Eclipse
12 284 (1.75%) TeamCity
13 283 (1.75%) Maven
14 276 (1.70%) webpack
15 269 (1.66%) Mockito
16 267 (1.65%) Octopus Deploy
17 252 (1.56%) Protractor
18 245 (1.51%) SonarQube
19 234 (1.45%) Artifactory
20 231 (1.43%) Subversion
General
1 3,725 (23.01%) Finance
2 2,809 (17.35%) Social Skills
3 1,195 (7.38%) Banking
4 763 (4.71%) Analytical Skills
5 762 (4.71%) Inclusion and Diversity
6 749 (4.63%) Games
7 721 (4.45%) Retail
8 639 (3.95%) Front Office
9 588 (3.63%) Law
10 575 (3.55%) Marketing
11 370 (2.29%) Public Sector
12 326 (2.01%) Electronics
13 297 (1.83%) Presentation Skills
14 289 (1.78%) Legal
15 255 (1.57%) Manufacturing
16 242 (1.49%) Telecoms
17 177 (1.09%) Publishing
18 176 (1.09%) Financial Institution
19 169 (1.04%) Pharmaceutical
20 160 (0.99%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 7,725 (47.71%) Software Engineer
2 4,911 (30.33%) Developer
3 2,280 (14.08%) Senior Software Engineer
4 1,084 (6.69%) Senior Developer
5 947 (5.85%) Java Engineer
6 833 (5.14%) Software Developer
7 813 (5.02%) Java Software Engineer
8 806 (4.98%) Developer/Software Engineer
9 763 (4.71%) Java Developer
10 728 (4.50%) Python Engineer
11 633 (3.91%) React Developer
12 612 (3.78%) Python Developer
13 569 (3.51%) Lead Software Engineer
14 546 (3.37%) Python Software Engineer
15 538 (3.32%) C# Developer
16 483 (2.98%) Lead Developer
17 481 (2.97%) Architect
18 476 (2.94%) Full Stack Developer
19 471 (2.91%) Principal Engineer
20 421 (2.60%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,849 (29.95%) React
2 3,107 (19.19%) Node.js
3 3,096 (19.12%) .NET
4 2,448 (15.12%) AngularJS
5 2,143 (13.23%) CSS
6 1,995 (12.32%) Web Services
7 1,848 (11.41%) HTML
8 1,640 (10.13%) REST
9 1,591 (9.83%) Spring
10 1,484 (9.17%) RESTful
11 1,341 (8.28%) Kafka
12 1,210 (7.47%) .NET Core
13 1,061 (6.55%) Vue.js
14 1,049 (6.48%) GraphQL
15 1,015 (6.27%) Redux
16 831 (5.13%) Spring Boot
17 691 (4.27%) .NET Framework
18 629 (3.88%) HTML5
19 625 (3.86%) RabbitMQ
20 602 (3.72%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 1,529 (9.44%) User Experience
2 937 (5.79%) Algorithms
3 788 (4.87%) Greenfield Project
4 599 (3.70%) Hedge funds
5 527 (3.25%) Mobile App
6 498 (3.08%) Cloud Native
7 490 (3.03%) Self-Motivation
8 474 (2.93%) Data Structures
9 431 (2.66%) Virtual Team
10 391 (2.41%) Equities
11 389 (2.40%) Derivative
12 343 (2.12%) Fixed Income
13 333 (2.06%) Enterprise Software
14 321 (1.98%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 299 (1.85%) Linux Command Line
16 288 (1.78%) Social Media
17 261 (1.61%) Legacy Systems
18 259 (1.60%) Blog
19 221 (1.36%) Management Information System
20 209 (1.29%) Embedded Systems
Operating Systems
1 2,185 (13.49%) Linux
2 685 (4.23%) Unix
3 612 (3.78%) Windows
4 557 (3.44%) Android
5 540 (3.33%) Apple iOS
6 137 (0.85%) Embedded Linux
7 114 (0.70%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 113 (0.70%) CentOS
9 110 (0.68%) Ubuntu
10 73 (0.45%) Windows Server
11 43 (0.27%) Mac OS
12 34 (0.21%) Mesosphere
13 26 (0.16%) Debian
13 26 (0.16%) Windows 10
14 23 (0.14%) Solaris
15 13 (0.080%) FreeRTOS
16 11 (0.068%) CoreOS
16 11 (0.068%) VMS
17 10 (0.062%) VxWorks
18 8 (0.049%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 8,014 (49.49%) Agile Software Development
2 3,687 (22.77%) DevOps
3 3,607 (22.28%) Microservices
4 2,974 (18.37%) Full Stack Development
5 2,761 (17.05%) TDD
6 2,466 (15.23%) Computer Science
7 2,262 (13.97%) Scrum
8 2,100 (12.97%) Problem-Solving
9 2,034 (12.56%) Test Automation
10 1,979 (12.22%) Mentoring
11 1,809 (11.17%) Continuous Integration
12 1,569 (9.69%) OO
13 1,487 (9.18%) Analytics
14 1,393 (8.60%) Fintech
15 1,382 (8.54%) Artificial Intelligence
16 1,320 (8.15%) Machine Learning
17 1,286 (7.94%) SDLC
18 1,211 (7.48%) Unit Testing
19 1,092 (6.74%) Open Source
20 1,072 (6.62%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 5,645 (34.86%) JavaScript
2 5,596 (34.56%) Java
3 5,207 (32.16%) Python
4 3,913 (24.17%) C#
5 3,469 (21.42%) SQL
6 2,607 (16.10%) TypeScript
7 2,006 (12.39%) C++
8 1,190 (7.35%) Go
9 1,060 (6.55%) C
10 891 (5.50%) Scala
11 890 (5.50%) Kotlin
12 843 (5.21%) PHP
13 699 (4.32%) Ruby
14 378 (2.33%) Shell Script
15 346 (2.14%) Java 8
16 340 (2.10%) ES6
17 304 (1.88%) Bash Shell
18 296 (1.83%) Groovy
19 239 (1.48%) PowerShell
20 235 (1.45%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 2,808 (17.34%) Degree
2 894 (5.52%) Computer Science Degree
3 787 (4.86%) Security Cleared
4 551 (3.40%) SC Cleared
5 262 (1.62%) Master's Degree
6 191 (1.18%) PhD
7 185 (1.14%) OCP
7 185 (1.14%) Oracle Certification
8 107 (0.66%) Numerate Degree
9 92 (0.57%) HND
10 81 (0.50%) DV Cleared
11 72 (0.44%) AWS Certification
12 70 (0.43%) HNC
13 29 (0.18%) Microsoft Certification
14 28 (0.17%) DBS Check
15 21 (0.13%) ISTQB
15 21 (0.13%) Postgraduate
15 21 (0.13%) SAFe Agilist
16 20 (0.12%) BPSS Clearance
17 17 (0.10%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,175 (7.26%) QA
2 186 (1.15%) Accessibility
3 100 (0.62%) GDPR
4 67 (0.41%) Data Quality
4 67 (0.41%) MISRA
5 63 (0.39%) WCAG
6 55 (0.34%) SLA
7 47 (0.29%) MISRA C
8 37 (0.23%) ECSS
8 37 (0.23%) PCI DSS
9 26 (0.16%) GxP
9 26 (0.16%) ISO 13485
10 25 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 23 (0.14%) IEC 61508
12 22 (0.14%) ISO 9001
13 18 (0.11%) PSD2
14 17 (0.10%) CDISC
15 15 (0.093%) 21 CFR Part 11
16 14 (0.086%) Def Stans
16 14 (0.086%) ISO 26262
System Software
1 4,023 (24.85%) Docker
2 199 (1.23%) HDFS
3 193 (1.19%) VMware Infrastructure
4 180 (1.11%) Firmware
5 60 (0.37%) VirtualBox
6 54 (0.33%) Active Directory
7 48 (0.30%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 31 (0.19%) Virtual Machines
9 19 (0.12%) Hyper-V
10 14 (0.086%) ISA Server
11 12 (0.074%) Apache Flume
12 11 (0.068%) Virtual Servers
12 11 (0.068%) vSphere
13 7 (0.043%) KVM
13 7 (0.043%) VMware ESXi
14 5 (0.031%) Kamailio
14 5 (0.031%) OpenSIPS
15 3 (0.019%) LXC
15 3 (0.019%) Microsoft App-V
15 3 (0.019%) OpenAM
Systems Management
1 3,424 (21.15%) Kubernetes
2 1,711 (10.57%) Terraform
3 939 (5.80%) Ansible
4 367 (2.27%) Opscode Chef
5 269 (1.66%) Prometheus
6 251 (1.55%) Grafana
7 214 (1.32%) Puppet
8 113 (0.70%) Docker Swarm
9 95 (0.59%) Istio
10 88 (0.54%) Kibana
11 59 (0.36%) Packer
12 55 (0.34%) Consul
13 42 (0.26%) Graphite
14 39 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
15 37 (0.23%) logstash
16 34 (0.21%) Automic
17 24 (0.15%) Apache Brooklyn
18 23 (0.14%) Hadoop YARN
18 23 (0.14%) Rancher
19 15 (0.093%) Mesos
Vendors
1 1,127 (6.96%) Microsoft
2 1,061 (6.55%) Google
3 762 (4.71%) Oracle
4 293 (1.81%) VMware
5 217 (1.34%) Okta
6 185 (1.14%) Instagram
7 148 (0.91%) IBM
8 141 (0.87%) Splunk
9 137 (0.85%) Samsung
10 131 (0.81%) Xamarin
11 120 (0.74%) Atlassian
12 116 (0.72%) Red Hat
13 113 (0.70%) Salesforce.com
14 110 (0.68%) SAP
15 87 (0.54%) Adobe
15 87 (0.54%) Apple
16 78 (0.48%) New Relic
17 74 (0.46%) Cloudera
18 73 (0.45%) Informatica
19 70 (0.43%) Dell