Period
to 2 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Software Engineering skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Software Engineering over the 6 months to 2 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Software Engineering
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 12 18 21
Rank change year-on-year +6 +3 +1
Permanent jobs citing Software Engineering 17,268 5,729 13,278
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 13.39% 10.29% 9.89%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 14.19% 11.08% 10.68%
Number of salaries quoted 9,921 4,939 10,330
10th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £33,750
25th Percentile £48,750 £45,000 £41,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £60,000 £57,500
Median % change year-on-year +8.33% +4.35% +9.52%
75th Percentile £92,500 £80,000 £77,500
90th Percentile £115,000 £103,750 £96,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%

Software Engineering is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 121,729 51,713 124,343
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 94.36% 92.88% 92.59%
Number of salaries quoted 81,314 43,396 99,764
10th Percentile £33,000 £32,500 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,000 £38,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% +1.94%
75th Percentile £77,500 £73,750 £71,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £90,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £48,750 £45,000
% change year-on-year +2.56% +8.33% -

Software Engineering
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Software Engineering as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Software Engineering in the UK

Software Engineering
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Software Engineering.

Salary trend for Software Engineering in the UK

Software Engineering
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Software Engineering over the 6 months to 2 December 2021.

Salary histogram for Software Engineering in the UK

Software Engineering
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Software Engineering within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +7 15,182 £67,500 +12.50% 2,796
London +5 8,171 £85,000 +9.68% 1,147
UK excluding London +5 7,580 £55,000 +10.00% 1,841
Work from Home +5 4,050 £65,000 +8.33% 693
South East +8 2,093 £57,500 +4.55% 361
North of England +4 2,082 £55,000 +4.76% 483
North West +8 1,022 £57,500 +4.55% 287
South West +13 1,020 £55,000 +15.79% 260
Yorkshire 0 890 £55,000 +4.76% 141
Midlands 0 806 £55,000 +10.00% 316
East of England +15 634 £55,000 -0.90% 210
Scotland -2 627 £55,000 +15.79% 149
West Midlands +4 564 £55,000 +10.00% 203
East Midlands -9 243 £50,000 +5.26% 112
Wales +16 199 £49,000 -2.00% 40
North East -4 170 £50,000 +11.11% 55
Northern Ireland -6 147 £50,250 +5.79% 24

For the 6 months to 2 December 2021, IT jobs citing Software Engineering also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Software Engineering.

1 8,724 (50.52%) Agile Software Development
2 6,196 (35.88%) AWS
3 5,889 (34.10%) Java
4 5,852 (33.89%) JavaScript
5 5,445 (31.53%) Python
6 5,070 (29.36%) React
7 4,347 (25.17%) Docker
8 4,172 (24.16%) DevOps
9 4,089 (23.68%) C#
10 3,880 (22.47%) Azure
11 3,760 (21.77%) Finance
12 3,637 (21.06%) SQL
13 3,591 (20.80%) Kubernetes
14 3,512 (20.34%) Microservices
15 3,276 (18.97%) Node.js
16 3,271 (18.94%) Full Stack Development
17 3,156 (18.28%) Social Skills
18 3,133 (18.14%) .NET
19 2,981 (17.26%) Degree
20 2,974 (17.22%) TDD
21 2,925 (16.94%) TypeScript
22 2,614 (15.14%) Computer Science
23 2,568 (14.87%) Git (software)
24 2,442 (14.14%) AngularJS
25 2,361 (13.67%) Scrum
26 2,311 (13.38%) Test Automation
27 2,248 (13.02%) Problem-Solving
28 2,221 (12.86%) Mentoring
29 2,161 (12.51%) CSS
30 2,142 (12.40%) Linux

Software Engineering
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 657 (3.80%) Elasticsearch
2 588 (3.41%) Apache Spark
3 459 (2.66%) Apache
4 407 (2.36%) Confluence
5 175 (1.01%) CMS
6 140 (0.81%) GemFire
7 110 (0.64%) Tomcat
8 105 (0.61%) nginx
9 94 (0.54%) Apache Airflow
10 79 (0.46%) SharePoint
11 77 (0.45%) GeoServer
12 70 (0.41%) SAS
13 69 (0.40%) JBoss
14 62 (0.36%) WordPress
15 60 (0.35%) WebLogic
16 56 (0.32%) Jupyter
17 42 (0.24%) IIS
18 38 (0.22%) Cloud Foundry
19 34 (0.20%) Ethereum
19 34 (0.20%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 100 (0.58%) Figma
2 91 (0.53%) Sketch
3 83 (0.48%) Microsoft Office
3 83 (0.48%) Simulink
4 63 (0.36%) Microsoft Excel
5 46 (0.27%) InVision
6 31 (0.18%) Photoshop
7 30 (0.17%) Adobe Illustrator
8 25 (0.14%) Spreadsheet
9 17 (0.098%) Chatbot
10 16 (0.093%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 15 (0.087%) GIMP
12 14 (0.081%) Adobe XD
13 10 (0.058%) MS Visio
14 9 (0.052%) Microsoft Project
14 9 (0.052%) Stateflow
15 7 (0.041%) Zeplin
16 6 (0.035%) Adobe Creative Suite
17 5 (0.029%) Fireworks
18 4 (0.023%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 77 (0.45%) Distributed Ledger
2 68 (0.39%) R3 Corda
3 51 (0.30%) Payment Gateway
3 51 (0.30%) Shopify
4 49 (0.28%) NetSuite
5 44 (0.25%) Magento
6 38 (0.22%) SAP Business ByDesign
7 25 (0.14%) Summit
8 23 (0.13%) Dynamics CRM
9 8 (0.046%) Sentinel
10 6 (0.035%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
11 5 (0.029%) Dynamics AX
11 5 (0.029%) Dynamics NAV
11 5 (0.029%) Oracle BPM
11 5 (0.029%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
11 5 (0.029%) RMDS
12 4 (0.023%) MetaTrader
13 3 (0.017%) Markit EDM
13 3 (0.017%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 3 (0.017%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 6,196 (35.88%) AWS
2 3,880 (22.47%) Azure
3 2,091 (12.11%) GCP
4 1,906 (11.04%) Serverless
5 1,224 (7.09%) GitHub
6 1,072 (6.21%) AWS Lambda
7 914 (5.29%) SaaS
8 594 (3.44%) Amazon S3
9 488 (2.83%) Amazon EC2
10 472 (2.73%) AWS CloudFormation
11 460 (2.66%) Amazon SQS
12 453 (2.62%) OpenShift
13 351 (2.03%) Amazon ECS
14 299 (1.73%) Amazon Kinesis
15 289 (1.67%) Cloud Computing
15 289 (1.67%) PaaS
16 244 (1.41%) Amazon EKS
17 241 (1.40%) npm
18 226 (1.31%) AWS Step Functions
19 159 (0.92%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 495 (2.87%) HTTP
2 306 (1.77%) Internet
3 281 (1.63%) Broadband
4 259 (1.50%) TCP/IP
5 120 (0.69%) Ethernet
6 101 (0.58%) Kerberos
7 98 (0.57%) Wireless
8 84 (0.49%) MQTT
9 83 (0.48%) Firewall
10 78 (0.45%) Wi-Fi
11 77 (0.45%) Bluetooth
12 74 (0.43%) DNS
13 68 (0.39%) Modbus
14 58 (0.34%) SSL
15 44 (0.25%) RS-422
15 44 (0.25%) SSH
15 44 (0.25%) VPN
16 42 (0.24%) HTTPS
17 40 (0.23%) RS-485
18 30 (0.17%) Network Security
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,666 (9.65%) PostgreSQL
2 1,488 (8.62%) NoSQL
3 1,189 (6.89%) SQL Server
4 1,034 (5.99%) MongoDB
4 1,034 (5.99%) MySQL
5 951 (5.51%) Relational Database
6 836 (4.84%) Amazon DynamoDB
7 723 (4.19%) Redis
8 694 (4.02%) Big Data
9 433 (2.51%) Amazon RDS
10 367 (2.13%) Hadoop
11 308 (1.78%) Amazon Aurora
12 244 (1.41%) Amazon Athena
13 226 (1.31%) Blockchain
14 200 (1.16%) MariaDB
15 178 (1.03%) Amazon Redshift
16 177 (1.03%) Apache Cassandra
16 177 (1.03%) HBase
17 168 (0.97%) RDBMS
18 159 (0.92%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 2,568 (14.87%) Git (software)
2 1,756 (10.17%) Jenkins
3 820 (4.75%) JIRA
4 554 (3.21%) Cypress.io
5 518 (3.00%) GitLab
6 399 (2.31%) JUnit
7 347 (2.01%) Maven
8 345 (2.00%) Selenium
8 345 (2.00%) webpack
9 330 (1.91%) Cucumber
10 303 (1.75%) Octopus Deploy
11 280 (1.62%) TeamCity
12 267 (1.55%) Gradle
13 260 (1.51%) Subversion
14 254 (1.47%) Storybook
15 245 (1.42%) Visual Studio
16 241 (1.40%) Eclipse
17 234 (1.36%) Bitbucket
17 234 (1.36%) Mockito
18 214 (1.24%) SonarQube
General
1 3,760 (21.77%) Finance
2 3,156 (18.28%) Social Skills
3 1,076 (6.23%) Banking
4 907 (5.25%) Analytical Skills
5 766 (4.44%) Inclusion and Diversity
6 718 (4.16%) Front Office
7 675 (3.91%) Marketing
8 673 (3.90%) Retail
9 630 (3.65%) Games
10 470 (2.72%) Law
11 434 (2.51%) Public Sector
12 375 (2.17%) Electronics
13 284 (1.64%) Telecoms
14 257 (1.49%) Presentation Skills
15 253 (1.47%) Legal
16 251 (1.45%) Manufacturing
17 187 (1.08%) Automotive
18 185 (1.07%) Publishing
19 182 (1.05%) Financial Institution
20 169 (0.98%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 8,120 (47.02%) Software Engineer
2 5,266 (30.50%) Developer
3 2,423 (14.03%) Senior Software Engineer
4 1,170 (6.78%) Senior Developer
5 1,006 (5.83%) Java Engineer
6 991 (5.74%) Developer/Software Engineer
7 865 (5.01%) Software Developer
8 854 (4.95%) Java Software Engineer
9 806 (4.67%) Java Developer
10 785 (4.55%) Python Engineer
11 760 (4.40%) Python Developer
12 674 (3.90%) React Developer
13 633 (3.67%) C# Developer
14 593 (3.43%) Full Stack Developer
15 585 (3.39%) Python Software Engineer
16 575 (3.33%) Lead Software Engineer
17 512 (2.97%) Principal Engineer
18 508 (2.94%) Architect
19 478 (2.77%) Lead Developer
20 462 (2.68%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,070 (29.36%) React
2 3,276 (18.97%) Node.js
3 3,133 (18.14%) .NET
4 2,442 (14.14%) AngularJS
5 2,161 (12.51%) CSS
6 2,052 (11.88%) Web Services
7 1,977 (11.45%) HTML
8 1,539 (8.91%) Spring
9 1,484 (8.59%) RESTful
10 1,449 (8.39%) REST
11 1,389 (8.04%) Kafka
12 1,249 (7.23%) .NET Core
13 1,211 (7.01%) Vue.js
14 1,026 (5.94%) GraphQL
15 954 (5.52%) Spring Boot
16 883 (5.11%) Redux
17 696 (4.03%) HTML5
18 619 (3.58%) Django
19 604 (3.50%) JSON
20 592 (3.43%) ASP.NET
Miscellaneous
1 1,665 (9.64%) User Experience
2 1,173 (6.79%) Algorithms
3 898 (5.20%) Greenfield Project
4 654 (3.79%) Cloud Native
5 644 (3.73%) Mobile App
6 610 (3.53%) Data Structures
7 608 (3.52%) Hedge funds
8 571 (3.31%) Self-Motivation
9 464 (2.69%) Equities
10 416 (2.41%) Enterprise Software
11 414 (2.40%) Derivative
12 406 (2.35%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 365 (2.11%) Virtual Team
14 362 (2.10%) Fixed Income
15 337 (1.95%) Social Media
16 262 (1.52%) Linux Command Line
17 220 (1.27%) Blog
18 200 (1.16%) Legacy Systems
19 199 (1.15%) Management Information System
20 193 (1.12%) Embedded Systems
Operating Systems
1 2,142 (12.40%) Linux
2 661 (3.83%) Windows
3 631 (3.65%) Unix
4 612 (3.54%) Apple iOS
5 568 (3.29%) Android
6 129 (0.75%) CentOS
7 121 (0.70%) Ubuntu
8 111 (0.64%) Embedded Linux
9 108 (0.63%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 92 (0.53%) Windows Server
11 64 (0.37%) Mac OS
12 34 (0.20%) Mesosphere
13 32 (0.19%) Debian
14 26 (0.15%) VMS
14 26 (0.15%) Windows 10
15 24 (0.14%) VxWorks
16 23 (0.13%) Solaris
17 17 (0.098%) FreeRTOS
18 14 (0.081%) ThreadX
19 11 (0.064%) Windows Embedded Compact
Processes & Methodologies
1 8,724 (50.52%) Agile Software Development
2 4,172 (24.16%) DevOps
3 3,512 (20.34%) Microservices
4 3,271 (18.94%) Full Stack Development
5 2,974 (17.22%) TDD
6 2,614 (15.14%) Computer Science
7 2,361 (13.67%) Scrum
8 2,311 (13.38%) Test Automation
9 2,248 (13.02%) Problem-Solving
10 2,221 (12.86%) Mentoring
11 1,931 (11.18%) Continuous Integration
12 1,701 (9.85%) Analytics
13 1,634 (9.46%) OO
14 1,514 (8.77%) SDLC
15 1,398 (8.10%) Fintech
16 1,339 (7.75%) Machine Learning
17 1,323 (7.66%) Artificial Intelligence
18 1,291 (7.48%) Unit Testing
19 1,209 (7.00%) Data Science
20 1,206 (6.98%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 5,889 (34.10%) Java
2 5,852 (33.89%) JavaScript
3 5,445 (31.53%) Python
4 4,089 (23.68%) C#
5 3,637 (21.06%) SQL
6 2,925 (16.94%) TypeScript
7 2,006 (11.62%) C++
8 1,402 (8.12%) Go
9 1,215 (7.04%) C
10 978 (5.66%) PHP
11 967 (5.60%) Scala
12 963 (5.58%) Kotlin
13 646 (3.74%) Ruby
14 464 (2.69%) ES6
15 428 (2.48%) Java 8
16 341 (1.97%) Bash Shell
17 312 (1.81%) Shell Script
18 302 (1.75%) T-SQL
19 286 (1.66%) Apple Swift
20 277 (1.60%) R
Qualifications
1 2,981 (17.26%) Degree
2 965 (5.59%) Computer Science Degree
3 751 (4.35%) Security Cleared
4 538 (3.12%) SC Cleared
5 250 (1.45%) Master's Degree
6 214 (1.24%) PhD
7 170 (0.98%) HND
8 149 (0.86%) Oracle Certification
9 148 (0.86%) OCP
10 108 (0.63%) HNC
11 88 (0.51%) DV Cleared
12 73 (0.42%) Numerate Degree
13 72 (0.42%) AWS Certification
14 45 (0.26%) Microsoft Certification
15 41 (0.24%) DBS Check
16 32 (0.19%) BPSS Clearance
17 26 (0.15%) ISTQB
17 26 (0.15%) Postgraduate
18 24 (0.14%) ISEB
19 22 (0.13%) SAFe Agilist
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,453 (8.41%) QA
2 255 (1.48%) Accessibility
3 102 (0.59%) MISRA
4 96 (0.56%) GDPR
5 74 (0.43%) Data Quality
6 55 (0.32%) MISRA C
7 49 (0.28%) SLA
8 46 (0.27%) WCAG
9 39 (0.23%) ISO 13485
10 38 (0.22%) ISO 9001
11 37 (0.21%) ECSS
12 35 (0.20%) PCI DSS
13 33 (0.19%) IEC 61508
14 31 (0.18%) Def Stans
15 30 (0.17%) GxP
16 26 (0.15%) ISO 26262
17 24 (0.14%) DO-254
18 21 (0.12%) ISO/IEC 27001
19 19 (0.11%) PSD2
20 16 (0.093%) DO-178B
System Software
1 4,347 (25.17%) Docker
2 186 (1.08%) Firmware
3 175 (1.01%) HDFS
4 173 (1.00%) VMware Infrastructure
5 62 (0.36%) Virtual Machines
6 59 (0.34%) Active Directory
7 47 (0.27%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 26 (0.15%) VirtualBox
9 13 (0.075%) Hyper-V
10 12 (0.069%) KVM
11 9 (0.052%) ISA Server
11 9 (0.052%) NFS
11 9 (0.052%) Virtual Servers
12 8 (0.046%) VMware ESXi
13 4 (0.023%) LXC
13 4 (0.023%) Microsoft App-V
14 3 (0.017%) Apache Flume
14 3 (0.017%) vSphere
15 2 (0.012%) iptables
15 2 (0.012%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 3,591 (20.80%) Kubernetes
2 1,812 (10.49%) Terraform
3 887 (5.14%) Ansible
4 343 (1.99%) Opscode Chef
5 322 (1.86%) Grafana
6 282 (1.63%) Prometheus
7 213 (1.23%) Puppet
8 101 (0.58%) Kibana
9 84 (0.49%) Istio
10 69 (0.40%) Consul
11 51 (0.30%) Docker Swarm
12 46 (0.27%) Packer
13 40 (0.23%) logstash
13 40 (0.23%) Single Sign-On
14 34 (0.20%) Automic
15 33 (0.19%) Graphite
16 30 (0.17%) Apache Brooklyn
17 26 (0.15%) Rancher
18 22 (0.13%) HP Fortify
19 19 (0.11%) Control-M
Vendors
1 1,218 (7.05%) Microsoft
2 1,027 (5.95%) Google
3 703 (4.07%) Oracle
4 241 (1.40%) VMware
5 169 (0.98%) Okta
6 168 (0.97%) SAP
7 142 (0.82%) Atlassian
8 138 (0.80%) Xamarin
9 123 (0.71%) Splunk
10 119 (0.69%) New Relic
11 112 (0.65%) Salesforce.com
12 106 (0.61%) Apple
13 105 (0.61%) IBM
14 103 (0.60%) Red Hat
15 99 (0.57%) Adobe
16 95 (0.55%) Samsung
17 91 (0.53%) Facebook
18 87 (0.50%) LexisNexis
19 74 (0.43%) Databricks
20 63 (0.36%) Dell