The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Python skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Python over the 3 months to 27 April 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Python
UK
3 months to
27 Apr 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 23 34 62
Rank change year-on-year +11 +28  
Permanent jobs citing Python 6512 6339 4762
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.57% 6.11% 4.30%
As % of the Programming Languages category 13.64% 11.79% 8.45%
Number of salaries quoted 5432 5348 3951
Median salary £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +10.00%  
90% offered a salary of more than £35,000 £35,000 £32,500
10% offered a salary of more than £85,000 £80,000 £75,000
UK excluding London median salary £45,000 £45,000 £45,000

Python is in the programming language skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for programming language skills.

Programming Language Skills
UK
Permanent job vacancies with a requirement for programming language skills 47732 53746 56365
As % of all permanent IT job vacancies advertised in the UK 55.49% 51.80% 50.92%
Number of salaries quoted 40629 46442 47917
Median salary £47,500 £47,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +1.06% +4.44%  
90% offered a salary of more than £31,000 £30,000 £30,000
10% offered a salary of more than £72,500 £67,500 £70,000
UK excluding London median salary £41,500 £41,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year +1.21% +2.50%  

Python
Job Vacancy Trend

The job posting trend of jobs advertised citing Python as a proportion of all permanent or contract IT jobs with a match in the Programming Languages category.

Job vacancy trend for Python in the UK

Python
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing Python.

Salary trend for Python in the UK

Python
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing Python over the 3 months to 27 April 2017.

Salary histogram for Python in the UK

Python
Top 30 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Python within the UK over the 3 months to 27 April 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Last 3 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +12 6161 £56,500 +2.72% 1061
London +3 3501 £65,000 +8.33% 573
South East +23 947 £47,500 - 149
East of England +15 568 £45,000 -3.22% 128
City of London +1 556 £65,000 +8.33% 143
Cambridgeshire +17 430 £47,500 +5.55% 103
Cambridge +12 409 £47,500 +5.55% 95
Yorkshire +2 312 £52,500 +23.52% 54
North West +40 309 £46,000 +12.88% 65
South West +4 308 £40,000 -11.11% 60
Berkshire +32 285 £50,000 -4.76% 48
Manchester +43 257 £47,500 +5.55% 55
Scotland +33 231 £45,000 +38.46% 35
Surrey +28 183 £52,500 +14.13% 36
West Yorkshire -2 173 £50,000 +17.64% 35
Oxfordshire -4 173 £48,750 -11.36% 29
Reading +19 147 £47,500 -12.03% 19
Leeds +3 146 £52,500 +23.52% 27
Hampshire +1 125 £45,000 +5.88% 13
Edinburgh +28 119 £45,000 +28.57% 24
Bristol +11 115 £45,000 +2.85% 24
East Midlands +7 113 £40,000 +5.26% 12
Oxford -3 109 £45,000 -18.18% 16
Gloucestershire -2 99 £40,000 -20.00% 11
South Yorkshire +15 92 £57,500 +15.00% 14
West Midlands -10 90 £37,000 -22.10% 17
Glasgow +13 89 £45,000 +50.00% 9
Sheffield +13 69 £60,000 +20.00% 13
Hertfordshire -31 65 £50,000 -4.76% 15
Wales +3 62 £42,500 +13.33% 6

For the 6 months to 27 April 2017, IT jobs citing Python also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all job ads with a requirement for Python.

1 5207 (41.65%) Linux
2 5126 (41.00%) Java
3 4207 (33.65%) Agile Software Development
4 3238 (25.90%) SQL
5 2918 (23.34%) DevOps
6 2844 (22.75%) JavaScript
7 2775 (22.19%) C++
8 2662 (21.29%) Ruby
9 2566 (20.52%) Degree
10 2441 (19.52%) Finance
11 2415 (19.32%) Amazon AWS
12 2383 (19.06%) Software Engineering
13 2304 (18.43%) Perl
14 2143 (17.14%) Bash Shell
15 2040 (16.32%) Puppet
16 2014 (16.11%) C#
17 1880 (15.04%) Computer Science
18 1829 (14.63%) Git (software)
19 1797 (14.37%) HTML
20 1689 (13.51%) Continuous Integration
21 1655 (13.24%) Windows
22 1631 (13.04%) Opscode Chef
23 1630 (13.04%) Ansible
24 1613 (12.90%) Big Data
25 1598 (12.78%) Unix
26 1595 (12.76%) Jenkins
27 1561 (12.49%) Analytics
28 1544 (12.35%) MySQL
29 1512 (12.09%) Docker
30 1422 (11.37%) TDD

Python
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 949 (7.59%) Apache Spark
2 736 (5.89%) Apache
3 605 (4.84%) Elasticsearch
4 451 (3.61%) Tomcat
5 438 (3.50%) OpenStack
6 412 (3.30%) SAS
7 308 (2.46%) nginx
8 224 (1.79%) Confluence
9 219 (1.75%) JBoss
10 207 (1.66%) WebSphere
11 197 (1.58%) Apache Pig
12 192 (1.54%) WebLogic
13 175 (1.40%) IIS
14 168 (1.34%) Apache Solr
15 152 (1.22%) Jetty
16 131 (1.05%) CloudStack
17 85 (0.68%) CMS
18 71 (0.57%) Drupal
19 56 (0.45%) WordPress
20 52 (0.42%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 202 (1.62%) Microsoft Excel
2 141 (1.13%) SPSS
3 60 (0.48%) Microsoft Office
4 27 (0.22%) Photoshop
5 24 (0.19%) Spreadsheet
5 24 (0.19%) SPSS Modeler
6 20 (0.16%) Simulink
7 19 (0.15%) Stata
8 18 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 17 (0.14%) MS Visio
10 10 (0.080%) GNU Octave
11 7 (0.056%) EViews
12 6 (0.048%) Final Cut Pro
12 6 (0.048%) Maple
12 6 (0.048%) Maya
12 6 (0.048%) Weka
13 5 (0.040%) NUKE
13 5 (0.040%) OmniGraffle
14 4 (0.032%) HipChat
14 4 (0.032%) Mathcad
Business Applications
1 103 (0.82%) SAP Oil and Gas
2 18 (0.14%) Dynamics NAV
2 18 (0.14%) Oracle BPM
3 16 (0.13%) SAP InfiniteInsight
4 14 (0.11%) Magento
4 14 (0.11%) Sentinel
5 13 (0.10%) Adobe Campaign
6 12 (0.096%) Dynamics CRM
7 8 (0.064%) Odoo
8 7 (0.056%) Remedy ITSM
9 5 (0.040%) Front Arena
10 4 (0.032%) Oracle CRM
11 3 (0.024%) Payment Gateway
11 3 (0.024%) Sage 200
12 2 (0.016%) CSG Singleview
12 2 (0.016%) Endur
12 2 (0.016%) Markit EDM
12 2 (0.016%) NetSuite
12 2 (0.016%) PeopleSoft CRM
12 2 (0.016%) Salesforce.com CRM
Cloud Services
1 2415 (19.32%) Amazon AWS
2 757 (6.05%) Microsoft Azure
3 514 (4.11%) SaaS
4 350 (2.80%) Google Cloud Platform
5 298 (2.38%) GitHub
6 217 (1.74%) Amazon EC2
7 193 (1.54%) AWS CloudFormation
8 192 (1.54%) PaaS
9 187 (1.50%) Cloud Computing
10 157 (1.26%) Amazon S3
11 138 (1.10%) IaaS
12 71 (0.57%) Google Analytics
13 63 (0.50%) Slack
14 62 (0.50%) Amazon Kinesis
15 60 (0.48%) Amazon ELB
15 60 (0.48%) OpenShift
16 56 (0.45%) Amazon SQS
16 56 (0.45%) Office 365
16 56 (0.45%) Virtual Private Cloud
17 55 (0.44%) AWS Lambda
Communications & Networking
1 425 (3.40%) Firewall
2 418 (3.34%) Internet
3 395 (3.16%) TCP/IP
4 392 (3.14%) DNS
5 363 (2.90%) HTTP
6 248 (1.98%) Wireless
7 144 (1.15%) VPN
7 144 (1.15%) WAN
8 130 (1.04%) LDAP
9 126 (1.01%) Network Security
10 117 (0.94%) SSL
11 115 (0.92%) SAN
12 110 (0.88%) LAN
13 106 (0.85%) Wi-Fi
14 102 (0.82%) DHCP
15 100 (0.80%) BGP
16 88 (0.70%) Bluetooth
17 84 (0.67%) Ethernet
18 77 (0.62%) OSPF
19 76 (0.61%) NAS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1613 (12.90%) Big Data
2 1544 (12.35%) MySQL
3 1207 (9.65%) Hadoop
4 1173 (9.38%) NoSQL
5 1031 (8.25%) MongoDB
6 831 (6.65%) PostgreSQL
7 821 (6.57%) Relational Database
8 812 (6.49%) SQL Server
9 488 (3.90%) Apache Cassandra
10 398 (3.18%) Redis
11 358 (2.86%) Apache Hive
12 314 (2.51%) RDBMS
13 268 (2.14%) Data Warehouse
14 263 (2.10%) Data Mining
15 183 (1.46%) HBase
16 158 (1.26%) Amazon Redshift
16 158 (1.26%) QlikView
17 126 (1.01%) Neo4j
18 122 (0.98%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 113 (0.90%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 1829 (14.63%) Git (software)
2 1595 (12.76%) Jenkins
3 733 (5.86%) JIRA
4 694 (5.55%) Selenium
5 537 (4.29%) Subversion
6 426 (3.41%) Atlassian Bamboo
7 407 (3.26%) Maven
8 346 (2.77%) Cucumber
9 272 (2.18%) JUnit
10 270 (2.16%) TeamCity
11 257 (2.06%) Vagrant
12 189 (1.51%) Ant
13 171 (1.37%) WebDriver
14 158 (1.26%) Team Foundation Server
15 155 (1.24%) Visual Studio
16 150 (1.20%) JMeter
17 134 (1.07%) GoCD
18 128 (1.02%) Bitbucket
19 127 (1.02%) Octopus Deploy
20 125 (1.00%) Hudson
General
1 2441 (19.52%) Finance
2 965 (7.72%) Banking
3 621 (4.97%) Telecoms
4 608 (4.86%) Marketing
5 520 (4.16%) Retail
6 446 (3.57%) Games
7 321 (2.57%) Electronics
8 291 (2.33%) Investment Banking
9 259 (2.07%) Front Office
10 193 (1.54%) Advertising
11 166 (1.33%) Manufacturing
12 143 (1.14%) Financial Institution
13 111 (0.89%) Publishing
14 107 (0.86%) Legal
15 70 (0.56%) Automotive
16 49 (0.39%) Back Office
17 45 (0.36%) Aerospace
18 44 (0.35%) Law
19 41 (0.33%) Military
20 37 (0.30%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 4262 (34.09%) Developer
2 1531 (12.25%) Python Developer
3 1455 (11.64%) DevOps Engineer
4 1185 (9.48%) Software Engineer
5 971 (7.77%) Java Developer
6 831 (6.65%) Linux Engineer
7 675 (5.40%) Data Scientist
8 637 (5.09%) Analyst
9 635 (5.08%) Software Developer
10 589 (4.71%) Senior Developer
11 442 (3.54%) Junior
12 417 (3.34%) Administrator
13 395 (3.16%) Linux/Unix DevOps
14 385 (3.08%) Graduate
15 377 (3.02%) Test Engineer
16 375 (3.00%) AWS Engineer
17 370 (2.96%) C# Developer
18 369 (2.95%) Architect
19 364 (2.91%) C++ Developer
20 361 (2.89%) Java Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1797 (14.37%) HTML
2 1392 (11.13%) CSS
3 1252 (10.01%) .NET
4 1034 (8.27%) Web Services
5 1000 (8.00%) AngularJS
6 976 (7.81%) Django
7 871 (6.97%) Node.js
8 664 (5.31%) REST
9 599 (4.79%) HTML5
10 596 (4.77%) RESTful
11 520 (4.16%) Spring
12 513 (4.10%) XML
13 481 (3.85%) React
14 477 (3.82%) jQuery
15 423 (3.38%) Flask
16 420 (3.36%) LAMP
17 386 (3.09%) CSS3
18 322 (2.58%) ASP.NET
19 309 (2.47%) SOAP
20 302 (2.42%) Kafka
Miscellaneous
1 1880 (15.04%) Computer Science
2 1015 (8.12%) Analytical Skills
3 910 (7.28%) Algorithms
4 541 (4.33%) Greenfield Project
5 540 (4.32%) Fintech
6 348 (2.78%) User Experience
7 344 (2.75%) Mobile App
8 294 (2.35%) Data Centre
9 291 (2.33%) Data Structures
10 287 (2.30%) Hedge funds
11 213 (1.70%) Enterprise Software
12 178 (1.42%) Linux Command Line
13 169 (1.35%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 163 (1.30%) Derivative
15 140 (1.12%) Management Information System
16 136 (1.09%) Fixed Income
17 120 (0.96%) Equities
18 112 (0.90%) Client/Server
18 112 (0.90%) Public Cloud
19 86 (0.69%) Embedded Systems
Operating Systems
1 5207 (41.65%) Linux
2 1655 (13.24%) Windows
3 1598 (12.78%) Unix
4 636 (5.09%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 544 (4.35%) CentOS
6 461 (3.69%) Android
7 419 (3.35%) Ubuntu
8 325 (2.60%) Apple iOS
9 243 (1.94%) Windows Server
10 237 (1.90%) Debian
11 192 (1.54%) Solaris
12 82 (0.66%) Mac OS X
13 70 (0.56%) Embedded Linux
14 67 (0.54%) CoreOS
15 66 (0.53%) Windows Server 2008
15 66 (0.53%) Windows Server 2012
16 54 (0.43%) AIX
17 53 (0.42%) Mac OS
18 40 (0.32%) Windows Embedded Compact
19 35 (0.28%) VxWorks
Processes & Methodologies
1 4207 (33.65%) Agile Software Development
2 2918 (23.34%) DevOps
3 2383 (19.06%) Software Engineering
4 1689 (13.51%) Continuous Integration
5 1561 (12.49%) Analytics
6 1422 (11.37%) TDD
7 1421 (11.37%) Scrum
8 1346 (10.77%) Machine Learning
9 1291 (10.33%) Mathematics
10 1196 (9.57%) Open Source
11 1146 (9.17%) Configuration Management
12 1109 (8.87%) OO
13 805 (6.44%) SDLC
14 748 (5.98%) E-Commerce
15 685 (5.48%) Web Development
16 661 (5.29%) BDD
17 616 (4.93%) Business Intelligence
18 605 (4.84%) Continuous Delivery
19 578 (4.62%) Microservices
20 566 (4.53%) Physics
Programming Languages
1 5126 (41.00%) Java
2 3238 (25.90%) SQL
3 2844 (22.75%) JavaScript
4 2775 (22.19%) C++
5 2662 (21.29%) Ruby
6 2304 (18.43%) Perl
7 2143 (17.14%) Bash Shell
8 2014 (16.11%) C#
9 1422 (11.37%) PHP
10 1365 (10.92%) C
11 1115 (8.92%) R
12 1095 (8.76%) Scala
13 742 (5.93%) PowerShell
14 652 (5.21%) Go
15 576 (4.61%) Shell Script
16 433 (3.46%) MATLAB
17 235 (1.88%) Groovy
18 173 (1.38%) VBA
19 133 (1.06%) PL/SQL
20 120 (0.96%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 2566 (20.52%) Degree
2 693 (5.54%) PhD
3 495 (3.96%) Security Cleared
4 221 (1.77%) DV Cleared
5 164 (1.31%) ISTQB
6 162 (1.30%) SC Cleared
7 151 (1.21%) ISEB
8 139 (1.11%) Cisco Certification
9 88 (0.70%) CCNP
9 88 (0.70%) CISSP
10 72 (0.58%) CCNA
11 65 (0.52%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 64 (0.51%) Microsoft Certification
13 58 (0.46%) AWS Certification
14 49 (0.39%) CEH
15 46 (0.37%) CISM
15 46 (0.37%) RHCE
16 45 (0.36%) CREST Certified
17 39 (0.31%) CCIE
18 37 (0.30%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 746 (5.97%) QA
2 92 (0.74%) PCI DSS
3 91 (0.73%) Data Quality
4 74 (0.59%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 62 (0.50%) SLA
6 58 (0.46%) SDET
7 38 (0.30%) GCP
8 37 (0.30%) COBIT
9 14 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 13 (0.10%) IEC 61508
11 12 (0.096%) MISRA
12 11 (0.088%) HL7
13 10 (0.080%) JTAG
13 10 (0.080%) MiFID
14 9 (0.072%) HMG Security Policy Framework
15 8 (0.064%) Cyber Essentials
15 8 (0.064%) GPG13
16 7 (0.056%) ISO 9001
17 5 (0.040%) ISO13485
18 4 (0.032%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
System Software
1 1512 (12.09%) Docker
2 518 (4.14%) VMware Infrastructure
3 244 (1.95%) Active Directory
4 208 (1.66%) Xen
5 191 (1.53%) vSphere
6 148 (1.18%) Hyper-V
7 138 (1.10%) XenServer
8 121 (0.97%) Firmware
9 108 (0.86%) KVM
10 91 (0.73%) Virtual Machines
11 78 (0.62%) HDFS
11 78 (0.62%) NFS
12 74 (0.59%) Varnish
13 63 (0.50%) VirtualBox
14 61 (0.49%) Apache Flume
15 53 (0.42%) iptables
16 48 (0.38%) Apache ZooKeeper
17 37 (0.30%) LXC
17 37 (0.30%) Snort
18 30 (0.24%) Postfix
Systems Management
1 2040 (16.32%) Puppet
2 1631 (13.04%) Opscode Chef
3 1630 (13.04%) Ansible
4 518 (4.14%) Kubernetes
5 438 (3.50%) Nagios
6 333 (2.66%) Terraform
7 295 (2.36%) Salt
8 188 (1.50%) Kibana
9 159 (1.27%) logstash
10 149 (1.19%) Mesos
11 123 (0.98%) Graphite
12 111 (0.89%) Tivoli
13 110 (0.88%) ZABBIX
14 108 (0.86%) Cobbler
15 85 (0.68%) Grafana
16 75 (0.60%) Docker Swarm
17 65 (0.52%) HAProxy
18 57 (0.46%) HP Quality Center
19 55 (0.44%) CFEngine
20 49 (0.39%) Nessus
Vendors
1 1054 (8.43%) Oracle
2 835 (6.68%) Red Hat
3 700 (5.60%) VMware
4 611 (4.89%) Microsoft
5 583 (4.66%) Google
6 380 (3.04%) Tableau
7 314 (2.51%) Splunk
8 228 (1.82%) Cisco
9 173 (1.38%) HP
10 170 (1.36%) SAP
11 158 (1.26%) New Relic
12 149 (1.19%) SaltStack
13 146 (1.17%) Atlassian
14 123 (0.98%) IBM
15 113 (0.90%) EnterpriseDB
16 102 (0.82%) Sybase
17 92 (0.74%) Juniper
17 92 (0.74%) TIBCO
18 79 (0.63%) AppDynamics
19 77 (0.62%) Talend
Manchester, Lancashire
Mortimer Spinks
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + 10% performance bonus
Posted: 6 hours ago
Reading, Berkshire
Austin Fraser
Salary: £55000 - £60000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 6 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Oho Group Ltd.
Salary: £30000 - £55000 per annum, Benefits Equity, Pension
Posted: 7 hours ago
Basingstoke, Hampshire
Resource Group
Salary: £60000 - £70000 per annum, Benefits Benefits
Posted: 6 hours ago
London
Mortimer Spinks
Posted: 6 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
The Bridge Ltd
Salary: From £35,000 to £40,000 per annum
Posted: 4 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Oscar
Salary: £30000 - £40000 per annum + Competitive Benefits
Posted: 6 hours ago
Slough, Berkshire
Austin Fraser
Salary: £65000 - £70000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 6 hours ago
Glasgow, Lanarkshire
Search Consultancy
Salary: Excellent benefits
Posted: 6 hours ago
Leicester, Leicestershire
Mindera
Salary: From £40,000 to £50,000 per annum Quarterly Pay Review - Bonus (every
Posted: 3 hours ago
Exeter, Devon
set2recruit
Salary: Unspecified DOE + Benefits
Posted: 5 hours ago
Edinburgh, Midlothian
HAYS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Salary: £37000.00 - £45000.00 per annum
Posted: 7 hours ago
Slough, Berkshire
Austin Fraser
Salary: £35000 - £50000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 6 hours ago
City, London
GTA
Salary: competitive package
Posted: 3 hours ago
London
Oliver Bernard
Salary: £40000 - £45000 per annum + Bonus & Benefits
Posted: 5 hours ago
South East London
The Bridge Ltd
Salary: From £40,000 to £54,000 per annum
Posted: 3 hours ago
Leicester, Leicestershire
Mindera
Salary: From £28,000 to £32,000 per annum Quarterly Pay Review - Bonus (every
Posted: 3 hours ago
Kings Langley, Hertfordshire
Client Server
Salary: £30k to £40k + benefits
Posted: 3 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 45-55k + Share Scheme + 25 days holiday + Flexi time + work from home
Posted: 6 hours ago
Surrey
Argo IT Solutions
Salary: Up to £65,000 per annum Bonus, Pension, Training and development plan.
Posted: 4 hours ago
Southampton, Hampshire
Spectrum IT Recruitment (South) Ltd
Salary: £50000 - £65000 per annum
Posted: 3 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 60k-70k + benefits
Posted: 2 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Burns Sheehan
Salary: £30000.00 - £34000.00 per annum + Bonus
Posted: 6 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 50,000 - 55,000, 10% bonus, Pension, Training, Incentives
Posted: 3 hours ago
Uxbridge, Middlesex
CPS Group UK
Salary: £26 - £45000 per annum
Posted: 4 hours ago
London
Energon People
Salary: £75000.00 - £85000.00 per annum + Amazing Package
Posted: 4 hours ago
Gloucester, Gloucestershire
Greywood Associates Limited
Salary: £35000 - £45000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 4 hours ago
London
Haybrook IT Resourcing Ltd
Salary: Up to £85,000 per annum
Posted: 3 hours ago
City, London
Huxley Associates
Salary: £85000 - £115000 per annum + competitive
Posted: 3 hours ago
Surrey
Argo IT Solutions
Salary: Up to £60,000 per annum Base £45-58k, Bonus, Pension, Training plan,
Posted: 4 hours ago