The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for COBOL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited COBOL over the 3 months to 27 March 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

3 months to
27 Mar 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
COBOL
UK
Rank 531 479 482
Rank change year-on-year -52 +3  
Contract jobs citing COBOL 52 164 149
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.12% 0.31% 0.28%
As % of the Programming Languages category 0.28% 0.81% 0.74%
Number of daily rates quoted 29 104 61
Median daily rate £375 £358 £350
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.89% +2.14%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £274 £250 £250
10% offered a daily rate of more than £535 £495 £479
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £350 £350
% change year-on-year +7.14% -  
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 0 5
Median hourly rate £25.00 - £39.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £25.00 - £39.50

COBOL is in the programming language skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for programming language skills.

Contract Programming Language Skills
UK
Contract job vacancies with a requirement for programming language skills 18501 20249 20069
As % of all contract IT job vacancies advertised in the UK 41.19% 38.04% 37.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 12729 13839 13005
Median daily rate £438 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £300 £300 £275
10% offered a daily rate of more than £600 £600 £551
UK excluding London median daily rate £390 £375 £350
% change year-on-year +4.00% +7.14%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 428 485 413
Median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £35.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +14.28%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £20.68 £15.00 £20.00
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £52.50 £50.00 £45.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.64 £40.00 £36.00
% change year-on-year +4.10% +11.11%  

COBOL
Job Vacancy Trend

The job posting trend of jobs advertised citing COBOL as a proportion of all contract or permanent IT jobs with a match in the Programming Languages category.

Job vacancy trend for COBOL in the UK

COBOL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing COBOL.

Contractor daily rate trend for COBOL in the UK

COBOL
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing COBOL over the 3 months to 27 March 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for COBOL in the UK

COBOL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing COBOL.

Contractor hourly rate trend for COBOL in the UK

COBOL
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing COBOL over the 3 months to 27 March 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for COBOL in the UK

COBOL
Top 30 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing COBOL within the UK over the 3 months to 27 March 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -60 51 £375 +4.16% 5
South East +5 14 £300 -29.41% 2
London +19 10 £450 +20.00%
Hampshire +21 9 £300 -
North West -31 8 £351 -12.37%
West Midlands +20 7 £388 -
Portsmouth - 6 £338 -
North East -20 5 £375 +23.96%
Newcastle upon Tyne -20 5 £375 +19.04%
Tyne and Wear -22 5 £375 +23.96%
Warwickshire - 4 - -
Manchester +8 3 £400 -
East Midlands -3 3 £301 - 1
South West -8 3 £525 +100.00% 1
Lancashire -18 3 £351 +14.35%
Preston - 3 £351 -
Leamington Spa - 3 - -
Berkshire +30 2 - -
Coventry +4 2 - -
Havant -3 2 - -
Oxfordshire -8 2 - -
Bracknell - 2 - -
Banbury - 2 - -
Scotland +20 1 £375 +11.94%
Cheshire +19 1 £220 -48.23%
Liverpool +2 1 - -
Merseyside +1 1 - -
Buckinghamshire -25 1 - - 2
Dorset - 1 £525 -
Birmingham - 1 £388 -

COBOL
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 27 March 2017, IT contractor jobs citing COBOL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for COBOL.

1 47 (34.06%) Mainframe
2 39 (28.26%) Oracle
3 37 (26.81%) Java
4 35 (25.36%) DB2
5 34 (24.64%) VME
6 30 (21.74%) JCL
7 26 (18.84%) Finance
8 24 (17.39%) ICL
9 23 (16.67%) Software Engineering
9 23 (16.67%) SQL
9 23 (16.67%) HP
10 22 (15.94%) IBM
10 22 (15.94%) Linux
11 21 (15.22%) CICS
12 20 (14.49%) Micro Focus
12 20 (14.49%) Analytical Skills
13 19 (13.77%) Virtual Machines
13 19 (13.77%) ITIL
13 19 (13.77%) Unix
13 19 (13.77%) C#
14 18 (13.04%) StarTeam
14 18 (13.04%) Agile Software Development
15 17 (12.32%) Oracle Database
16 16 (11.59%) C
17 15 (10.87%) XML
17 15 (10.87%) Microsoft
18 14 (10.14%) TDD
18 14 (10.14%) Banking
19 13 (9.42%) Web Services
19 13 (9.42%) MVS

COBOL
Top Related IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 21 (15.22%) CICS
2 12 (8.70%) Tuxedo
3 7 (5.07%) WebLogic
4 2 (1.45%) MQSeries
5 1 (0.72%) Apache Solr
5 1 (0.72%) BizTalk Server
5 1 (0.72%) Commerce Server
5 1 (0.72%) Commerce Server 2007
5 1 (0.72%) EPiServer
5 1 (0.72%) Oracle SOA Suite
5 1 (0.72%) TPMS
Applications
1 8 (5.80%) MS Excel
1 8 (5.80%) MS PowerPoint
2 1 (0.72%) MS Office
Business Applications
1 1 (0.72%) Dynamics AX
1 1 (0.72%) Oracle Receivables
1 1 (0.72%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 2 (1.45%) IaaS
1 2 (1.45%) PaaS
1 2 (1.45%) SaaS
Communications & Networking
1 7 (5.07%) Internet
2 3 (2.17%) FTP
3 1 (0.72%) LDAP
3 1 (0.72%) SSL
3 1 (0.72%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 35 (25.36%) DB2
2 17 (12.32%) Oracle Database
3 8 (5.80%) RDBMS
3 8 (5.80%) Relational Database
4 5 (3.62%) Oracle Reports
5 3 (2.17%) Data Warehouse
5 3 (2.17%) Hadoop
5 3 (2.17%) Pentaho
5 3 (2.17%) SQL Server
6 2 (1.45%) Big Data
6 2 (1.45%) BusinessObjects
6 2 (1.45%) DataStage
6 2 (1.45%) IDMS
7 1 (0.72%) Apache Cassandra
7 1 (0.72%) Data Lake
7 1 (0.72%) Easytrieve
7 1 (0.72%) MongoDB
7 1 (0.72%) OLAP
7 1 (0.72%) OLTP
7 1 (0.72%) Oracle Database 10g
Development Applications
1 18 (13.04%) StarTeam
2 8 (5.80%) Visual Studio
3 4 (2.90%) Dreamweaver
3 4 (2.90%) Eclipse
4 2 (1.45%) ChangeMan
4 2 (1.45%) ERwin
4 2 (1.45%) Team Foundation Server
5 1 (0.72%) MagicDraw
5 1 (0.72%) Oracle Forms
5 1 (0.72%) PowerBuilder
5 1 (0.72%) Rhino Mocks
5 1 (0.72%) Selenium
5 1 (0.72%) Synon
5 1 (0.72%) Toad
General
1 26 (18.84%) Finance
2 14 (10.14%) Banking
3 5 (3.62%) Telecoms
4 4 (2.90%) Manufacturing
5 2 (1.45%) Back Office
5 2 (1.45%) French Language
5 2 (1.45%) Retail
6 1 (0.72%) Billing
6 1 (0.72%) Dutch Language
6 1 (0.72%) Electronics
6 1 (0.72%) Marketing
6 1 (0.72%) Wholesale Banking
Job Titles
1 69 (50.00%) Developer
2 38 (27.54%) COBOL Developer
3 24 (17.39%) Analyst
4 10 (7.25%) Lead Developer
4 10 (7.25%) Programmer
5 8 (5.80%) Operations Engineer
5 8 (5.80%) Senior Developer
5 8 (5.80%) Senior Operations Engineer
6 7 (5.07%) Architect
6 7 (5.07%) Business Analyst
7 6 (4.35%) COBOL Analyst
7 6 (4.35%) Test Analyst
8 5 (3.62%) Analyst Programmer
8 5 (3.62%) DBA
8 5 (3.62%) Software Engineer
9 4 (2.90%) Consultant
9 4 (2.90%) Mainframe Developer
9 4 (2.90%) Project Manager
9 4 (2.90%) Senior Analyst
9 4 (2.90%) Solutions Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 15 (10.87%) XML
2 13 (9.42%) Web Services
3 12 (8.70%) .NET
4 8 (5.80%) HTML
5 5 (3.62%) .NET Framework
6 3 (2.17%) ASP.NET
7 2 (1.45%) ASP.NET MVC
7 2 (1.45%) ISPF
8 1 (0.72%) ADO.NET
8 1 (0.72%) CSS
8 1 (0.72%) jQuery
8 1 (0.72%) JSON
8 1 (0.72%) Lucene
8 1 (0.72%) REST
8 1 (0.72%) SOAP
8 1 (0.72%) WCF
8 1 (0.72%) XML Schema
Miscellaneous
1 47 (34.06%) Mainframe
2 20 (14.49%) Analytical Skills
3 12 (8.70%) IBM Mainframe
4 7 (5.07%) Client/Server
5 6 (4.35%) Clustering
6 5 (3.62%) Computer Science
6 5 (3.62%) VSAM
7 3 (2.17%) iSeries
7 3 (2.17%) Management Information System
8 2 (1.45%) AS400
8 2 (1.45%) Data Centre
9 1 (0.72%) Data Structures
9 1 (0.72%) Enterprise Software
9 1 (0.72%) iPad
9 1 (0.72%) Mobile App
9 1 (0.72%) PDA
9 1 (0.72%) Reference Data
9 1 (0.72%) Replication
9 1 (0.72%) Taxonomies
9 1 (0.72%) VAX
Operating Systems
1 34 (24.64%) VME
2 22 (15.94%) Linux
3 19 (13.77%) Unix
4 13 (9.42%) MVS
5 9 (6.52%) Windows
6 3 (2.17%) AIX
6 3 (2.17%) SUSE
6 3 (2.17%) zOS
7 2 (1.45%) Windows Server 2012
8 1 (0.72%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 23 (16.67%) Software Engineering
2 19 (13.77%) ITIL
3 18 (13.04%) Agile Software Development
4 14 (10.14%) TDD
5 13 (9.42%) Service Management
6 12 (8.70%) Integration Testing
6 12 (8.70%) Migration
7 11 (7.97%) Data Management
7 11 (7.97%) Unit Testing
8 10 (7.25%) ITSM
9 9 (6.52%) Change Management
10 8 (5.80%) Performance Tuning
11 7 (5.07%) Continuous Delivery
11 7 (5.07%) DevOps
11 7 (5.07%) High Availability
12 6 (4.35%) Business Analysis
12 6 (4.35%) Systems Analysis
13 5 (3.62%) Problem Management
13 5 (3.62%) Test Scripting
13 5 (3.62%) User Acceptance Testing
Programming Languages
1 37 (26.81%) Java
2 30 (21.74%) JCL
3 23 (16.67%) SQL
4 19 (13.77%) C#
5 16 (11.59%) C
6 7 (5.07%) C++
6 7 (5.07%) VB
6 7 (5.07%) VC++
7 6 (4.35%) Bash Shell
7 6 (4.35%) Shell Script
8 5 (3.62%) Assembly Language
9 4 (2.90%) PL/SQL
10 3 (2.17%) R
10 3 (2.17%) RPG
11 2 (1.45%) LINC
11 2 (1.45%) REXX
12 1 (0.72%) Fortran
12 1 (0.72%) JavaScript
12 1 (0.72%) SPARQL
12 1 (0.72%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 6 (4.35%) BPSS Clearance
2 5 (3.62%) Security Cleared
3 3 (2.17%) Degree
4 1 (0.72%) ISEB
4 1 (0.72%) ISTQB
4 1 (0.72%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
4 1 (0.72%) SC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 6 (4.35%) QA
2 5 (3.62%) Disclosure Scotland
3 3 (2.17%) SLA
4 1 (0.72%) Data Quality
System Software
1 19 (13.77%) Virtual Machines
2 3 (2.17%) Job Entry Subsystem
2 3 (2.17%) Time Sharing Option
2 3 (2.17%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
3 1 (0.72%) RACF
Systems Management
1 3 (2.17%) Tivoli
2 2 (1.45%) CA Endevor
2 2 (1.45%) HP Quality Center
3 1 (0.72%) OMEGAMON
Vendors
1 39 (28.26%) Oracle
2 24 (17.39%) ICL
3 23 (16.67%) HP
4 22 (15.94%) IBM
5 20 (14.49%) Micro Focus
6 15 (10.87%) Microsoft
7 7 (5.07%) Informatica
8 3 (2.17%) Fujitsu
8 3 (2.17%) JD Edwards
8 3 (2.17%) SAP
8 3 (2.17%) ServiceNow
8 3 (2.17%) Unisys
9 2 (1.45%) Ab Initio
9 2 (1.45%) Infor
9 2 (1.45%) Remedy
9 2 (1.45%) Teradata
9 2 (1.45%) TIBCO
10 1 (0.72%) BMC
10 1 (0.72%) Compuware
10 1 (0.72%) webMethods