Period
to 20 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Relational Database skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Relational Database over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Relational Database
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 131 116 139
Rank change year-on-year -15 +23 -37
Contract jobs citing Relational Database 1,572 640 1,701
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.99% 2.19% 1.92%
As % of the Database & Business Intelligence category 9.20% 9.61% 8.71%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,045 445 1,076
10th Percentile £380 £353 £350
25th Percentile £450 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - +4.17%
75th Percentile £650 £600 £575
90th Percentile £742 £690 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +4.65%
Number of hourly rates quoted 30 13 26
10th Percentile £22.95 £16.68 £18.80
25th Percentile £30.94 £19.98 £40.63
Median hourly rate £63.00 £21.00 £48.32
Median % change year-on-year +200.00% -56.54% +19.30%
75th Percentile £67.95 £53.75 £53.75
90th Percentile £72.67 £54.75 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £65.50 £20.57 £43.50
% change year-on-year +218.42% -52.71% +8.07%

Relational Database is in the Databases and Business Intelligence category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for database or business intelligence skills.

All Database and Business Intelligence Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for database or business intelligence skills 17,078 6,661 19,525
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 21.60% 22.84% 22.00%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,860 4,587 13,428
10th Percentile £350 £313 £320
25th Percentile £416 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £515 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +3.00% +5.26% +1.06%
75th Percentile £620 £600 £575
90th Percentile £713 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 226 109 249
10th Percentile £13.50 £12.63 £12.25
25th Percentile £20.45 £17.50 £17.09
Median hourly rate £30.00 £24.00 £30.00
Median % change year-on-year +25.00% -20.00% +11.52%
75th Percentile £52.44 £42.00 £50.00
90th Percentile £65.00 £55.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £27.50 £22.66 £30.00
% change year-on-year +21.36% -24.47% +20.00%

Relational Database
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Relational Database as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Relational Database in the UK

Relational Database
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Relational Database.

Daily rate trend for Relational Database in the UK

Relational Database
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Relational Database over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Relational Database in the UK

Relational Database
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Relational Database.

Hourly rate trend for Relational Database in the UK

Relational Database
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Relational Database over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Relational Database in the UK

Relational Database
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Relational Database within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -24 1,233 £550 +10.00% 464
London -1 794 £600 +14.29% 205
UK excluding London -51 469 £475 +5.56% 287
Work from Home -26 417 £525 +5.00% 102
South East -24 146 £545 +21.11% 59
Scotland -33 86 £463 +8.82% 22
North of England -101 71 £448 -0.56% 79
Midlands -36 61 £458 +21.03% 47
North West -77 54 £440 -2.22% 53
East of England -38 39 £431 -13.80% 34
West Midlands -38 38 £488 +28.29% 33
South West -29 36 £423 +0.60% 35
Wales -8 24 £498 +17.06% 8
East Midlands -18 22 £450 +19.05% 14
Yorkshire -41 12 £525 +16.56% 18
Northern Ireland -13 6 £475 +10.21% 5
North East -15 5 £439 -14.34% 8

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Relational Database also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Relational Database.

1 835 (53.12%) SQL
2 639 (40.65%) Agile Software Development
3 606 (38.55%) Java
4 508 (32.32%) Social Skills
5 502 (31.93%) RDBMS
6 480 (30.53%) Oracle
7 429 (27.29%) Finance
8 411 (26.15%) Python
9 377 (23.98%) AWS
10 344 (21.88%) SQL Server
11 324 (20.61%) JavaScript
12 317 (20.17%) Azure
13 316 (20.10%) Microservices
14 305 (19.40%) Spring
15 295 (18.77%) Banking
16 288 (18.32%) Git (software)
17 271 (17.24%) DevOps
18 262 (16.67%) PostgreSQL
19 258 (16.41%) Linux
20 246 (15.65%) Analytics
21 244 (15.52%) Docker
22 241 (15.33%) Jenkins
23 240 (15.27%) NoSQL
24 238 (15.14%) TDD
24 238 (15.14%) Unix
24 238 (15.14%) Problem-Solving
25 232 (14.76%) C#
26 231 (14.69%) Scrum
27 226 (14.38%) Analytical Skills
28 218 (13.87%) Test Automation

Relational Database
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 141 (8.97%) Apache Spark
2 61 (3.88%) Confluence
3 60 (3.82%) Mule
4 58 (3.69%) Tomcat
5 54 (3.44%) Elasticsearch
6 53 (3.37%) Apache
7 27 (1.72%) JBoss
8 26 (1.65%) Red Hat Fuse
9 23 (1.46%) SharePoint
9 23 (1.46%) WebLogic
10 21 (1.34%) Apache Airflow
10 21 (1.34%) CMS
11 20 (1.27%) Jupyter
12 19 (1.21%) Luigi
13 16 (1.02%) IIS
14 15 (0.95%) nginx
14 15 (0.95%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 13 (0.83%) Oracle Coherence
16 9 (0.57%) GemFire
17 8 (0.51%) SAS
Applications
1 76 (4.83%) Microsoft Excel
2 21 (1.34%) Microsoft Office
3 13 (0.83%) Spreadsheet
4 7 (0.45%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 2 (0.13%) Microsoft Project
5 2 (0.13%) MS Visio
6 1 (0.064%) SPSS
6 1 (0.064%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 35 (2.23%) SunGard Martini
2 11 (0.70%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
3 10 (0.64%) Dynamics AX
4 9 (0.57%) Dynamics CRM
4 9 (0.57%) Maximo
5 7 (0.45%) Oracle EBS
6 6 (0.38%) Endur
6 6 (0.38%) Oracle Applications
6 6 (0.38%) SAP Hybris
7 5 (0.32%) Oracle Financials
7 5 (0.32%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 4 (0.25%) Oracle EBS R12
9 3 (0.19%) Distributed Ledger
9 3 (0.19%) IBM Planning Analytics
9 3 (0.19%) Markit EDM
9 3 (0.19%) Oracle BPM
9 3 (0.19%) Workfront
10 2 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
10 2 (0.13%) SAP S/4HANA
11 1 (0.064%) Towers Watson Igloo
Cloud Services
1 377 (23.98%) AWS
2 317 (20.17%) Azure
3 144 (9.16%) Power Platform
4 121 (7.70%) GCP
5 89 (5.66%) Serverless
6 65 (4.13%) Amazon S3
7 52 (3.31%) GitHub
8 51 (3.24%) AWS Lambda
9 47 (2.99%) Azure Data Factory
10 35 (2.23%) PaaS
10 35 (2.23%) Snowflake
11 29 (1.84%) SaaS
12 28 (1.78%) IaaS
13 27 (1.72%) Amazon EC2
13 27 (1.72%) Azure Cosmos DB
13 27 (1.72%) Cloud Computing
14 26 (1.65%) AWS CloudFormation
15 25 (1.59%) OpenShift
16 24 (1.53%) Amazon EMR
17 22 (1.40%) npm
Communications & Networking
1 60 (3.82%) HTTP
2 35 (2.23%) TCP/IP
3 27 (1.72%) RTMP
4 18 (1.15%) Firewall
4 18 (1.15%) VPN
5 17 (1.08%) LAN
6 15 (0.95%) Internet
7 11 (0.70%) DNS
8 8 (0.51%) SSL
9 7 (0.45%) Kerberos
10 6 (0.38%) Network Security
11 4 (0.25%) FTP
11 4 (0.25%) Modbus
12 3 (0.19%) InfiniBand
12 3 (0.19%) Intranet
12 3 (0.19%) SAN
12 3 (0.19%) WAN
13 2 (0.13%) NX-OS
13 2 (0.13%) SMTP
13 2 (0.13%) X.500
Database & Business Intelligence
1 502 (31.93%) RDBMS
2 344 (21.88%) SQL Server
3 262 (16.67%) PostgreSQL
4 240 (15.27%) NoSQL
5 205 (13.04%) Data Warehouse
6 199 (12.66%) Big Data
7 190 (12.09%) MySQL
8 154 (9.80%) Oracle Database
9 147 (9.35%) Hadoop
10 132 (8.40%) Power BI
11 112 (7.12%) MongoDB
12 100 (6.36%) Tableau
13 82 (5.22%) Oracle Database 12c
14 80 (5.09%) Apache Hive
15 73 (4.64%) Data Lake
16 69 (4.39%) Apache Cassandra
17 65 (4.13%) Metadata
18 54 (3.44%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 50 (3.18%) Redis
20 47 (2.99%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 288 (18.32%) Git (software)
2 241 (15.33%) Jenkins
3 198 (12.60%) JIRA
4 128 (8.14%) Maven
5 126 (8.02%) Subversion
6 100 (6.36%) JUnit
7 79 (5.03%) TeamCity
8 75 (4.77%) Visual Studio
9 70 (4.45%) Bitbucket
10 54 (3.44%) Cucumber
11 49 (3.12%) Artifactory
11 49 (3.12%) Selenium
12 47 (2.99%) Oracle APEX
13 37 (2.35%) IntelliJ
14 34 (2.16%) CppUnit
14 34 (2.16%) GitLab
15 32 (2.04%) Sonatype Nexus
16 29 (1.84%) Gradle
17 28 (1.78%) Robot Framework
18 24 (1.53%) Mockito
General
1 508 (32.32%) Social Skills
2 429 (27.29%) Finance
3 295 (18.77%) Banking
4 226 (14.38%) Analytical Skills
5 160 (10.18%) Investment Banking
6 131 (8.33%) Front Office
7 104 (6.62%) Public Sector
8 61 (3.88%) Presentation Skills
9 40 (2.54%) Documentation Skills
10 35 (2.23%) Marketing
11 31 (1.97%) Retail
12 24 (1.53%) Pharmaceutical
13 20 (1.27%) Retail Banking
13 20 (1.27%) Telecoms
14 18 (1.15%) Back Office
15 16 (1.02%) Games
16 14 (0.89%) Electronics
17 13 (0.83%) Manufacturing
17 13 (0.83%) Organisational Skills
18 10 (0.64%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 759 (48.28%) Developer
2 252 (16.03%) Java Developer
3 174 (11.07%) Data Engineer
4 138 (8.78%) Architect
5 121 (7.70%) Analyst
6 114 (7.25%) Senior Developer
7 73 (4.64%) Full Stack Developer
7 73 (4.64%) Python Developer
8 58 (3.69%) C# Developer
9 57 (3.63%) Solutions Architect
10 56 (3.56%) Integration Developer
11 48 (3.05%) Data Architect
11 48 (3.05%) Senior Java Developer
12 47 (2.99%) .NET Developer
12 47 (2.99%) SQL Developer
13 46 (2.93%) Software Engineer
14 39 (2.48%) DBA
15 37 (2.35%) C++ Developer
16 36 (2.29%) Consultant
16 36 (2.29%) JavaScript Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 305 (19.40%) Spring
2 205 (13.04%) REST
3 200 (12.72%) .NET
3 200 (12.72%) HTML
4 171 (10.88%) Web Services
5 169 (10.75%) React
6 167 (10.62%) AngularJS
7 166 (10.56%) XML
8 159 (10.11%) RESTful
9 155 (9.86%) CSS
10 140 (8.91%) JSON
11 139 (8.84%) Node.js
12 137 (8.72%) Spring Boot
13 135 (8.59%) Kafka
14 86 (5.47%) HTML5
15 82 (5.22%) Apache Camel
16 81 (5.15%) J2EE
16 81 (5.15%) Middleware
17 74 (4.71%) SOAP
18 65 (4.13%) Hibernate
Miscellaneous
1 88 (5.60%) Data Structures
2 63 (4.01%) Management Information System
3 47 (2.99%) Fixed Income
4 42 (2.67%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 36 (2.29%) Algorithms
6 34 (2.16%) Client/Server
7 33 (2.10%) Enterprise Software
8 32 (2.04%) Data Protection Act
8 32 (2.04%) User Experience
9 30 (1.91%) Self-Motivation
10 29 (1.84%) Data Centre
10 29 (1.84%) Replication
11 26 (1.65%) NHS
11 26 (1.65%) Reference Data
12 25 (1.59%) Clustering
12 25 (1.59%) Public Cloud
13 24 (1.53%) Derivative
13 24 (1.53%) FMCG
14 23 (1.46%) Legacy Systems
15 19 (1.21%) Cloud Native
Operating Systems
1 258 (16.41%) Linux
2 238 (15.14%) Unix
3 192 (12.21%) Windows
4 31 (1.97%) Windows Server
5 13 (0.83%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 12 (0.76%) Windows Server 2016
7 10 (0.64%) Mac OS X
7 10 (0.64%) VMS
8 7 (0.45%) Android
8 7 (0.45%) Solaris
8 7 (0.45%) Windows Server 2012
9 5 (0.32%) Apple iOS
10 3 (0.19%) AIX
10 3 (0.19%) Windows 7
10 3 (0.19%) Windows Server 2008
11 1 (0.064%) Debian
11 1 (0.064%) HPUX
11 1 (0.064%) Oracle Linux
11 1 (0.064%) Ubuntu
11 1 (0.064%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 639 (40.65%) Agile Software Development
2 316 (20.10%) Microservices
3 271 (17.24%) DevOps
4 246 (15.65%) Analytics
5 238 (15.14%) Problem-Solving
5 238 (15.14%) TDD
6 231 (14.69%) Scrum
7 218 (13.87%) Test Automation
8 216 (13.74%) ETL
9 211 (13.42%) Business Intelligence
10 201 (12.79%) Data Modelling
11 168 (10.69%) Continuous Integration
12 162 (10.31%) OO
13 159 (10.11%) SDLC
14 143 (9.10%) Software Engineering
15 129 (8.21%) Migration
16 126 (8.02%) BDD
17 121 (7.70%) Full Stack Development
18 116 (7.38%) Visualisation
19 115 (7.32%) Data Pipeline
Programming Languages
1 835 (53.12%) SQL
2 606 (38.55%) Java
3 411 (26.15%) Python
4 324 (20.61%) JavaScript
5 232 (14.76%) C#
6 107 (6.81%) Scala
7 102 (6.49%) Java 8
8 91 (5.79%) TypeScript
9 86 (5.47%) C++
10 69 (4.39%) PL/SQL
11 65 (4.13%) R
12 64 (4.07%) Shell Script
13 58 (3.69%) PowerShell
14 53 (3.37%) T-SQL
15 49 (3.12%) Perl
16 47 (2.99%) VBA
17 38 (2.42%) Bash Shell
17 38 (2.42%) Java 11
18 35 (2.23%) PHP
19 34 (2.16%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 136 (8.65%) Degree
2 131 (8.33%) Security Cleared
3 93 (5.92%) SC Cleared
4 32 (2.04%) Computer Science Degree
5 27 (1.72%) BPSS Clearance
6 10 (0.64%) ISTQB
6 10 (0.64%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 10 (0.64%) Master's Degree
7 9 (0.57%) OCP
7 9 (0.57%) Oracle Certification
8 8 (0.51%) Numerate Degree
8 8 (0.51%) OCPJP
8 8 (0.51%) Sun Certification
9 7 (0.45%) DBS Check
10 6 (0.38%) ISEB
11 4 (0.25%) AWS Certification
11 4 (0.25%) DV Cleared
11 4 (0.25%) GIAC
11 4 (0.25%) TOGAF Certification
12 3 (0.19%) OSCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 62 (3.94%) Data Quality
2 42 (2.67%) QA
3 24 (1.53%) GDPR
4 19 (1.21%) Accessibility
5 7 (0.45%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 7 (0.45%) Sarbanes-Oxley
6 4 (0.25%) Disclosure Scotland
6 4 (0.25%) Dodd-Frank
6 4 (0.25%) NIST
7 3 (0.19%) Basel II
7 3 (0.19%) HL7
8 2 (0.13%) Dublin Core
8 2 (0.13%) PCI DSS
9 1 (0.064%) ISO/IEC 20000
9 1 (0.064%) PSD2
System Software
1 244 (15.52%) Docker
2 39 (2.48%) HDFS
3 31 (1.97%) Active Directory
4 15 (0.95%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 14 (0.89%) Oracle RAC
6 7 (0.45%) Apache Flume
7 5 (0.32%) VMware Infrastructure
8 4 (0.25%) Hyper-V
9 3 (0.19%) Postfix
9 3 (0.19%) VMware ESXi
10 2 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
11 1 (0.064%) Firmware
11 1 (0.064%) Shibboleth
11 1 (0.064%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 179 (11.39%) Kubernetes
2 85 (5.41%) Terraform
3 82 (5.22%) Ansible
4 26 (1.65%) Prometheus
5 23 (1.46%) Kibana
6 21 (1.34%) BladeLogic
7 20 (1.27%) Data Guard
7 20 (1.27%) logstash
8 19 (1.21%) Grafana
8 19 (1.21%) Single Sign-On
9 17 (1.08%) Istio
10 16 (1.02%) Oracle RMAN
11 13 (0.83%) Oozie
11 13 (0.83%) Rancher
12 11 (0.70%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
12 11 (0.70%) Puppet
13 9 (0.57%) Control-M
13 9 (0.57%) Graphite
13 9 (0.57%) ITRS Geneos
14 8 (0.51%) Docker Swarm
Vendors
1 480 (30.53%) Oracle
2 171 (10.88%) Microsoft
3 68 (4.33%) Sybase
4 66 (4.20%) Google
5 54 (3.44%) SAP
6 51 (3.24%) Databricks
7 41 (2.61%) Cloudera
7 41 (2.61%) Salesforce.com
8 36 (2.29%) Informatica
9 35 (2.23%) FIS
9 35 (2.23%) SunGard
10 34 (2.16%) Alteryx
11 31 (1.97%) IBM
11 31 (1.97%) Teradata
12 28 (1.78%) TIBCO
13 27 (1.72%) Dataiku
14 26 (1.65%) Murex
14 26 (1.65%) Splunk
15 18 (1.15%) Talend
16 17 (1.08%) MuleSoft