Period
to 29 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 29 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
29 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 27 20 18
Rank change year-on-year -7 -2 -4
Contract jobs citing Linux 4,530 2,667 7,205
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.31% 7.26% 7.86%
As % of the Operating Systems category 40.98% 37.51% 38.84%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,002 1,831 4,570
10th Percentile £363 £320 £325
25th Percentile £425 £410 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +1.52%
75th Percentile £613 £588 £600
90th Percentile £696 £663 £660
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £460
% change year-on-year - +3.26% +3.95%
Number of hourly rates quoted 87 57 179
10th Percentile £29.20 £20.66 £21.10
25th Percentile £40.63 £32.00 £35.25
Median hourly rate £52.50 £46.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +12.90% +3.33% +12.50%
75th Percentile £64.50 £53.75 £50.00
90th Percentile £73.45 £57.70 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £54.00 £47.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year +14.89% +4.44% +12.50%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 11,055 7,111 18,552
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 15.40% 19.36% 20.24%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,287 4,676 11,889
10th Percentile £185 £155 £154
25th Percentile £350 £310 £300
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £438 £425
Median % change year-on-year +8.57% +2.94% -
75th Percentile £575 £538 £538
90th Percentile £650 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £400
Number of hourly rates quoted 585 422 1,154
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.78 £11.17
25th Percentile £13.40 £14.00 £13.02
Median hourly rate £17.50 £18.45 £17.50
Median % change year-on-year -5.16% +5.44% +2.94%
75th Percentile £42.00 £28.57 £34.88
90th Percentile £61.40 £48.12 £47.79
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.23 £17.50 £16.21
% change year-on-year -7.26% +7.99% +1.28%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 29 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -9 3,613 £525 +5.00% 1,918
London -4 1,962 £550 +6.80% 712
UK excluding London -9 1,668 £475 - 1,307
Work from Home +4 1,404 £525 +12.90% 378
South East -5 481 £490 +3.16% 350
North of England -14 301 £475 -4.04% 320
South West -4 243 £475 -5.00% 166
Midlands +6 236 £474 +5.33% 197
Scotland -10 214 £450 +5.88% 75
West Midlands +2 175 £475 -1.86% 119
North West -12 172 £475 +0.26% 184
East of England -6 142 £450 -5.26% 163
Yorkshire -12 110 £450 -14.29% 105
East Midlands +17 56 £419 +10.34% 77
Wales -4 32 £498 +24.38% 29
Northern Ireland +7 21 £472 +9.40% 8
North East -17 19 £450 -8.16% 31

For the 6 months to 29 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,563 (34.50%) DevOps
2 1,557 (34.37%) Windows
3 1,503 (33.18%) Python
4 1,275 (28.15%) AWS
5 1,248 (27.55%) Agile Software Development
6 1,125 (24.83%) Ansible
7 1,086 (23.97%) Azure
8 1,073 (23.69%) Java
9 1,033 (22.80%) Terraform
10 1,021 (22.54%) Docker
11 958 (21.15%) Unix
12 897 (19.80%) SQL
13 885 (19.54%) Kubernetes
14 856 (18.90%) Social Skills
15 830 (18.32%) Jenkins
16 803 (17.73%) Git (software)
17 781 (17.24%) Finance
18 733 (16.18%) Security Cleared
19 731 (16.14%) Oracle
20 637 (14.06%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
21 609 (13.44%) Bash Shell
22 603 (13.31%) VMware
23 589 (13.00%) SC Cleared
24 574 (12.67%) Red Hat
25 490 (10.82%) Microsoft
26 486 (10.73%) JIRA
27 482 (10.64%) Firewall
28 481 (10.62%) Software Engineering
29 480 (10.60%) Problem-Solving
30 470 (10.38%) PowerShell

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 304 (6.71%) Confluence
2 230 (5.08%) Apache
3 145 (3.20%) Tomcat
4 116 (2.56%) Apache Spark
5 112 (2.47%) WebLogic
6 101 (2.23%) Elasticsearch
7 96 (2.12%) WebSphere
8 82 (1.81%) SharePoint
9 78 (1.72%) IIS
10 76 (1.68%) JBoss
11 75 (1.66%) OpenStack
12 73 (1.61%) nginx
13 66 (1.46%) Mule
14 61 (1.35%) SAS
15 38 (0.84%) CMS
16 32 (0.71%) Red Hat Fuse
17 30 (0.66%) WebSphere Application Server
18 27 (0.60%) Cloud Foundry
19 26 (0.57%) Drupal
19 26 (0.57%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 76 (1.68%) Microsoft Office
2 53 (1.17%) Microsoft Excel
3 31 (0.68%) MS Visio
4 13 (0.29%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 12 (0.26%) Microsoft Project
6 11 (0.24%) Simulink
7 3 (0.066%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 2 (0.044%) Chatbot
8 2 (0.044%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.022%) SOLIDWORKS
9 1 (0.022%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 25 (0.55%) ION MarketView
2 23 (0.51%) Oracle EBS
3 16 (0.35%) Magento
3 16 (0.35%) Oracle Applications
3 16 (0.35%) Sentinel
4 12 (0.26%) assyst
4 12 (0.26%) Oracle ERP
5 11 (0.24%) Oracle EBS R12
5 11 (0.24%) SAP S/4HANA
6 10 (0.22%) Dynamics NAV
7 9 (0.20%) Dynamics CRM
8 7 (0.15%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
9 6 (0.13%) Oracle Financials
9 6 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
10 5 (0.11%) Eikon
10 5 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
10 5 (0.11%) SAP Oil and Gas
11 4 (0.088%) Markit EDM
12 3 (0.066%) Distributed Ledger
12 3 (0.066%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 1,275 (28.15%) AWS
2 1,086 (23.97%) Azure
3 319 (7.04%) PaaS
4 316 (6.98%) GCP
5 300 (6.62%) GitHub
6 287 (6.34%) IaaS
7 189 (4.17%) OpenShift
8 184 (4.06%) Serverless
9 167 (3.69%) SaaS
10 160 (3.53%) AWS CloudFormation
11 150 (3.31%) AWS Lambda
12 130 (2.87%) Microsoft 365
13 119 (2.63%) Amazon EC2
14 106 (2.34%) Amazon EKS
15 105 (2.32%) Amazon S3
16 68 (1.50%) Cloud Computing
17 61 (1.35%) Amazon ECS
18 59 (1.30%) Virtual Private Cloud
19 52 (1.15%) Azure Active Directory
20 49 (1.08%) Azure Cosmos DB
Communications & Networking
1 482 (10.64%) Firewall
2 295 (6.51%) DNS
3 241 (5.32%) TCP/IP
4 166 (3.66%) HTTP
5 143 (3.16%) SAN
6 133 (2.94%) SSL
7 129 (2.85%) VPN
8 117 (2.58%) DHCP
9 107 (2.36%) LAN
10 105 (2.32%) WAN
11 84 (1.85%) Network Security
12 73 (1.61%) Internet
13 66 (1.46%) Multicast
14 63 (1.39%) NAS
15 56 (1.24%) VLAN
16 54 (1.19%) Wi-Fi
17 53 (1.17%) Wireless
18 45 (0.99%) SNMP
19 42 (0.93%) IPv4
20 40 (0.88%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 364 (8.04%) SQL Server
2 307 (6.78%) MySQL
3 237 (5.23%) Big Data
4 235 (5.19%) PostgreSQL
5 225 (4.97%) Relational Database
6 210 (4.64%) MongoDB
7 180 (3.97%) NoSQL
8 169 (3.73%) Oracle Database
9 159 (3.51%) Hadoop
10 74 (1.63%) Apache Hive
11 71 (1.57%) Redis
12 67 (1.48%) Apache Cassandra
12 67 (1.48%) DB2
13 61 (1.35%) Data Warehouse
13 61 (1.35%) HBase
13 61 (1.35%) Oracle Database 12c
14 54 (1.19%) Oracle Database 11g
15 53 (1.17%) RDBMS
16 51 (1.13%) Amazon RDS
17 48 (1.06%) Azure SQL Database
Development Applications
1 830 (18.32%) Jenkins
2 803 (17.73%) Git (software)
3 486 (10.73%) JIRA
4 289 (6.38%) GitLab
5 200 (4.42%) Maven
6 174 (3.84%) Bitbucket
7 131 (2.89%) Subversion
8 120 (2.65%) Sonatype Nexus
9 116 (2.56%) Artifactory
10 110 (2.43%) JUnit
11 88 (1.94%) TeamCity
12 67 (1.48%) Visual Studio
13 61 (1.35%) SonarQube
14 58 (1.28%) Eclipse
15 56 (1.24%) Selenium
16 51 (1.13%) Mockito
17 50 (1.10%) Cucumber
18 48 (1.06%) Atlassian Bamboo
19 47 (1.04%) Gradle
20 37 (0.82%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 856 (18.90%) Social Skills
2 781 (17.24%) Finance
3 461 (10.18%) Banking
4 271 (5.98%) Public Sector
5 268 (5.92%) Analytical Skills
6 203 (4.48%) Investment Banking
7 178 (3.93%) Front Office
8 143 (3.16%) Telecoms
9 74 (1.63%) Electronics
10 73 (1.61%) Presentation Skills
11 69 (1.52%) Manufacturing
12 67 (1.48%) Marketing
13 55 (1.21%) Documentation Skills
14 46 (1.02%) Law
14 46 (1.02%) Retail
15 34 (0.75%) Financial Institution
15 34 (0.75%) Legal
16 33 (0.73%) Influencing Skills
17 32 (0.71%) Games
18 30 (0.66%) Billing
Job Titles
1 937 (20.68%) Developer
2 788 (17.40%) DevOps Engineer
3 362 (7.99%) Java Developer
4 348 (7.68%) Architect
5 262 (5.78%) AWS Engineer
6 252 (5.56%) Azure Engineer
7 203 (4.48%) Linux Engineer
8 197 (4.35%) Consultant
9 192 (4.24%) AWS DevOps
10 187 (4.13%) Cloud Engineer
11 183 (4.04%) Software Engineer
12 178 (3.93%) Administrator
13 172 (3.80%) Infrastructure Engineer
14 169 (3.73%) AWS DevOps Engineer
15 163 (3.60%) Senior Developer
16 151 (3.33%) Analyst
16 151 (3.33%) Azure DevOps Engineer
17 112 (2.47%) Python Developer
18 111 (2.45%) C++ Developer
19 102 (2.25%) Platform Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 355 (7.84%) Spring
2 316 (6.98%) REST
3 294 (6.49%) Web Services
4 257 (5.67%) Kafka
5 234 (5.17%) JSON
6 207 (4.57%) Middleware
7 201 (4.44%) .NET
8 189 (4.17%) HTML
9 166 (3.66%) Node.js
10 165 (3.64%) XML
11 152 (3.36%) Spring Boot
12 148 (3.27%) React
13 134 (2.96%) Elastic Stack
14 132 (2.91%) CSS
15 117 (2.58%) RESTful
16 115 (2.54%) AngularJS
17 111 (2.45%) J2EE
17 111 (2.45%) SOAP
18 106 (2.34%) Apache Camel
19 101 (2.23%) YAML
Miscellaneous
1 252 (5.56%) Data Centre
2 185 (4.08%) Public Cloud
3 156 (3.44%) Management Information System
4 148 (3.27%) Algorithms
5 129 (2.85%) Data Structures
5 129 (2.85%) Linux Command Line
6 119 (2.63%) Clustering
7 104 (2.30%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 100 (2.21%) Cloud Native
9 90 (1.99%) Self-Motivation
10 78 (1.72%) Fixed Income
11 76 (1.68%) Data Protection Act
12 75 (1.66%) PKI
13 71 (1.57%) Replication
14 66 (1.46%) Derivative
15 65 (1.43%) Enterprise Software
16 57 (1.26%) Private Cloud
17 55 (1.21%) User Experience
18 49 (1.08%) Hybrid Cloud
19 45 (0.99%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 1,557 (34.37%) Windows
2 958 (21.15%) Unix
3 637 (14.06%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 390 (8.61%) Windows Server
5 229 (5.06%) CentOS
6 169 (3.73%) Ubuntu
7 162 (3.58%) Solaris
8 140 (3.09%) AIX
9 87 (1.92%) VMS
10 64 (1.41%) Windows Server 2012
11 61 (1.35%) Windows Server 2016
12 57 (1.26%) Windows 10
13 48 (1.06%) SUSE
14 42 (0.93%) Debian
15 41 (0.91%) Android
15 41 (0.91%) Embedded Linux
15 41 (0.91%) Oracle Linux
15 41 (0.91%) Windows Server 2019
16 40 (0.88%) Mac OS X
17 34 (0.75%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,563 (34.50%) DevOps
2 1,248 (27.55%) Agile Software Development
3 481 (10.62%) Software Engineering
4 480 (10.60%) Problem-Solving
5 470 (10.38%) Test Automation
6 468 (10.33%) Infrastructure as Code
7 466 (10.29%) Microservices
8 449 (9.91%) Scrum
9 447 (9.87%) Configuration Management
10 407 (8.98%) Continuous Integration
11 398 (8.79%) Migration
12 311 (6.87%) TDD
13 265 (5.85%) ITIL
14 253 (5.58%) Infrastructure Engineering
15 241 (5.32%) High Availability
16 213 (4.70%) Performance Tuning
17 211 (4.66%) Cybersecurity
18 200 (4.42%) Open Source
19 193 (4.26%) OO
20 185 (4.08%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 1,503 (33.18%) Python
2 1,073 (23.69%) Java
3 897 (19.80%) SQL
4 609 (13.44%) Bash Shell
5 470 (10.38%) PowerShell
6 406 (8.96%) JavaScript
7 372 (8.21%) C++
8 333 (7.35%) Shell Script
9 222 (4.90%) Perl
10 208 (4.59%) C
11 167 (3.69%) Java 8
11 167 (3.69%) PL/SQL
12 166 (3.66%) C#
13 146 (3.22%) Scala
14 144 (3.18%) PHP
15 141 (3.11%) Go
16 132 (2.91%) Ruby
17 109 (2.41%) Groovy
17 109 (2.41%) TypeScript
18 40 (0.88%) Java 11
Qualifications
1 733 (16.18%) Security Cleared
2 589 (13.00%) SC Cleared
3 255 (5.63%) Degree
4 134 (2.96%) DV Cleared
5 74 (1.63%) Cisco Certification
6 71 (1.57%) Computer Science Degree
7 59 (1.30%) CCNA
8 54 (1.19%) CISSP
9 52 (1.15%) AWS Certification
9 52 (1.15%) Microsoft Certification
10 37 (0.82%) CCNP
11 36 (0.79%) ITIL Certification
12 32 (0.71%) RHCE
13 31 (0.68%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
14 29 (0.64%) GIAC
15 26 (0.57%) CISM
16 25 (0.55%) Master's Degree
16 25 (0.55%) MCSE
17 22 (0.49%) CEH
18 21 (0.46%) BPSS Clearance
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 136 (3.00%) QA
2 60 (1.32%) SLA
3 46 (1.02%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 40 (0.88%) PCI DSS
5 35 (0.77%) GDPR
6 33 (0.73%) Accessibility
7 32 (0.71%) NIST
8 20 (0.44%) Data Quality
8 20 (0.44%) GRC
9 13 (0.29%) NCSC
10 10 (0.22%) PMO
11 9 (0.20%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
11 9 (0.20%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 8 (0.18%) COBIT
12 8 (0.18%) Disclosure Scotland
13 7 (0.15%) ISO 9001
14 6 (0.13%) Cyber Essentials
14 6 (0.13%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
14 6 (0.13%) HIPAA
14 6 (0.13%) JTAG
System Software
1 1,021 (22.54%) Docker
2 395 (8.72%) VMware Infrastructure
3 370 (8.17%) Active Directory
4 133 (2.94%) Virtual Machines
5 95 (2.10%) VMware ESXi
6 89 (1.96%) Hyper-V
7 85 (1.88%) vSphere
8 65 (1.43%) HDFS
9 49 (1.08%) NFS
10 47 (1.04%) VMware NSX
11 43 (0.95%) Oracle RAC
12 39 (0.86%) Virtual Desktop
13 33 (0.73%) KVM
14 30 (0.66%) Virtual Servers
15 22 (0.49%) Xen
16 19 (0.42%) iptables
16 19 (0.42%) Varnish
17 16 (0.35%) Firmware
17 16 (0.35%) SRDF
18 14 (0.31%) Veritas Cluster Server
Systems Management
1 1,125 (24.83%) Ansible
2 1,033 (22.80%) Terraform
3 885 (19.54%) Kubernetes
4 443 (9.78%) Puppet
5 248 (5.47%) Opscode Chef
6 135 (2.98%) Grafana
7 114 (2.52%) Prometheus
8 94 (2.08%) Packer
9 57 (1.26%) Red Hat Satellite
9 57 (1.26%) vRealize
10 56 (1.24%) Kibana
11 50 (1.10%) Istio
12 49 (1.08%) Docker Swarm
12 49 (1.08%) SCCM
13 42 (0.93%) Data Guard
14 41 (0.91%) Oracle RMAN
15 38 (0.84%) Nagios
16 33 (0.73%) Salt
17 32 (0.71%) Microsoft Intune
17 32 (0.71%) vCenter Server
Vendors
1 731 (16.14%) Oracle
2 603 (13.31%) VMware
3 574 (12.67%) Red Hat
4 490 (10.82%) Microsoft
5 215 (4.75%) Cisco
6 211 (4.66%) Google
7 176 (3.89%) Splunk
8 175 (3.86%) IBM
9 154 (3.40%) SAP
10 102 (2.25%) Citrix
11 97 (2.14%) Informatica
12 94 (2.08%) HP
13 93 (2.05%) EMC
14 82 (1.81%) Cloudera
15 73 (1.61%) NetApp
15 73 (1.61%) Sybase
16 71 (1.57%) ServiceNow
17 70 (1.55%) Atlassian
18 67 (1.48%) Dell
19 52 (1.15%) Veritas