Period
to 9 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 9 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
9 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 22 16 10
Rank change year-on-year -6 -6 +1
Contract jobs citing Linux 4,059 7,895 8,833
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.70% 8.16% 8.75%
As % of the Operating Systems category 32.49% 39.78% 41.94%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,677 5,149 5,943
Median daily rate £488 £500 £490
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.50% +2.04% +8.89%
10th Percentile £318 £325 £325
90th Percentile £650 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £439
% change year-on-year - +2.56% +3.24%
Number of hourly rates quoted 125 180 193
Median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £20.20 £21.18 £14.50
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £62.20
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 12,492 19,848 21,061
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.62% 20.50% 20.87%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,661 12,538 13,440
Median daily rate £420 £425 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -1.18% - +2.41%
10th Percentile £136 £158 £180
90th Percentile £609 £613 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £388 £400 £400
% change year-on-year -3.13% - +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,035 1,194 1,267
Median hourly rate £17.50 £17.50 £17.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +2.94% +3.03%
10th Percentile £11.63 £11.17 £11.17
90th Percentile £48.75 £48.75 £47.50
Median hourly rate £17.00 £16.00 £15.86
% change year-on-year +6.25% +0.88% -0.88%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 9 April 2020.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 9 April 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 9 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 3,627 £499 -0.30% 1,555
UK excluding London -3 2,322 £450 - 1,101
London -11 1,647 £525 -3.71% 551
South East -12 553 £475 +5.56% 308
North of England -4 520 £450 -5.01% 204
South West -1 430 £461 -7.75% 165
Scotland 0 285 £455 +7.06% 64
North West -4 266 £450 -5.26% 118
East of England -1 254 £450 +5.88% 190
Midlands -11 207 £450 - 139
Yorkshire -10 182 £425 -5.56% 48
West Midlands -4 144 £453 +1.97% 86
Work from Home -4 111 £475 -2.56% 94
North East +1 79 £438 -7.89% 38
East Midlands -14 61 £425 -5.56% 53
Wales -5 59 £450 -1.10% 28
Northern Ireland +19 27 £375 -11.76% 5
Channel Islands - 2 - -

For the 6 months to 9 April 2020, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,323 (32.59%) Windows
2 1,292 (31.83%) DevOps
3 1,265 (31.17%) Python
4 1,193 (29.39%) Agile Software Development
5 1,042 (25.67%) AWS
6 991 (24.41%) Java
7 864 (21.29%) Docker
8 828 (20.40%) Jenkins
9 820 (20.20%) Ansible
10 814 (20.05%) Git (software)
11 812 (20.00%) Unix
12 794 (19.56%) Security Cleared
13 737 (18.16%) SQL
14 725 (17.86%) Azure
15 634 (15.62%) Oracle
16 617 (15.20%) Kubernetes
17 610 (15.03%) Terraform
18 592 (14.58%) SC Cleared
19 559 (13.77%) Microsoft
20 525 (12.93%) VMware
21 524 (12.91%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
22 513 (12.64%) Continuous Integration
23 509 (12.54%) Red Hat
24 502 (12.37%) Bash Shell
25 498 (12.27%) Puppet
26 480 (11.83%) Finance
27 463 (11.41%) JavaScript
28 456 (11.23%) JIRA
29 452 (11.14%) Configuration Management
30 433 (10.67%) Test Automation

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 245 (6.04%) Confluence
2 207 (5.10%) Apache
3 188 (4.63%) Tomcat
4 136 (3.35%) nginx
5 106 (2.61%) Elasticsearch
6 105 (2.59%) WebLogic
6 105 (2.59%) WebSphere
7 101 (2.49%) Apache Spark
8 87 (2.14%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 82 (2.02%) OpenStack
10 79 (1.95%) IIS
11 62 (1.53%) SAS
12 53 (1.31%) JBoss
13 31 (0.76%) Jetty
13 31 (0.76%) SharePoint
14 28 (0.69%) Mongrel
14 28 (0.69%) MS Exchange
15 22 (0.54%) Red Hat Fuse
16 21 (0.52%) Cloud Foundry
17 20 (0.49%) CMS
Applications
1 98 (2.41%) Microsoft Office
2 35 (0.86%) Microsoft Excel
3 18 (0.44%) MS Visio
4 13 (0.32%) SPSS
5 9 (0.22%) Microsoft Project
6 4 (0.099%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 2 (0.049%) FileZilla
7 2 (0.049%) Photoshop
7 2 (0.049%) Simulink
7 2 (0.049%) Sketch
7 2 (0.049%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.025%) Abaqus
8 1 (0.025%) Acrobat
8 1 (0.025%) Chatbot
8 1 (0.025%) GNU Octave
8 1 (0.025%) InVision
8 1 (0.025%) Maya
8 1 (0.025%) Mozilla Thunderbird
8 1 (0.025%) PlantUML
8 1 (0.025%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 29 (0.71%) Oracle Applications
2 23 (0.57%) Magento
3 21 (0.52%) Oracle EBS
4 20 (0.49%) BusinessWorks
5 11 (0.27%) Oracle BPM
5 11 (0.27%) Remedy ITSM
6 9 (0.22%) Oracle ERP
7 8 (0.20%) Oracle AML
7 8 (0.20%) Oracle EBS R12
7 8 (0.20%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 5 (0.12%) assyst
8 5 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
9 4 (0.099%) SAP ERP
10 3 (0.074%) Dynamics CRM
10 3 (0.074%) Eikon
10 3 (0.074%) FINCAD Analytics
10 3 (0.074%) ION MarketView
10 3 (0.074%) Oracle 11i
10 3 (0.074%) Oracle Cash Management
10 3 (0.074%) Temenos T24
Cloud Services
1 1,042 (25.67%) AWS
2 725 (17.86%) Azure
3 270 (6.65%) GCP
4 251 (6.18%) Amazon EC2
5 197 (4.85%) GitHub
6 154 (3.79%) Serverless
7 150 (3.70%) Amazon S3
8 118 (2.91%) PaaS
9 117 (2.88%) AWS CloudFormation
10 111 (2.73%) Office 365
11 110 (2.71%) OpenShift
12 108 (2.66%) AWS Lambda
13 97 (2.39%) IaaS
14 75 (1.85%) Virtual Private Cloud
15 61 (1.50%) SaaS
16 51 (1.26%) Cloud Computing
17 48 (1.18%) Route 53
18 45 (1.11%) Amazon ELB
19 42 (1.03%) Amazon ECS
20 40 (0.99%) Amazon EKS
Communications & Networking
1 302 (7.44%) TCP/IP
2 299 (7.37%) Firewall
3 268 (6.60%) HTTP
4 246 (6.06%) DNS
5 140 (3.45%) DHCP
6 134 (3.30%) SSL
7 129 (3.18%) LAN
8 122 (3.01%) VPN
8 122 (3.01%) WAN
9 116 (2.86%) SAN
10 100 (2.46%) Internet
11 98 (2.41%) Ethernet
12 97 (2.39%) Network Security
13 83 (2.04%) Wireshark
14 71 (1.75%) Wi-Fi
15 66 (1.63%) HTTPS
15 66 (1.63%) IPv6
16 58 (1.43%) FTP
17 57 (1.40%) Wireless
18 56 (1.38%) IPsec
Database & Business Intelligence
1 364 (8.97%) MySQL
2 280 (6.90%) SQL Server
3 226 (5.57%) MongoDB
4 222 (5.47%) Oracle Database
5 172 (4.24%) PostgreSQL
6 170 (4.19%) NoSQL
7 162 (3.99%) Relational Database
8 161 (3.97%) Big Data
9 110 (2.71%) Hadoop
10 104 (2.56%) Amazon RDS
11 90 (2.22%) Oracle Database 12c
12 69 (1.70%) Oracle Database 11g
13 55 (1.36%) RDBMS
14 54 (1.33%) Apache Cassandra
15 53 (1.31%) DB2
16 51 (1.26%) Data Warehouse
17 48 (1.18%) Redis
18 44 (1.08%) Apache Hive
19 38 (0.94%) Amazon DynamoDB
20 36 (0.89%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 828 (20.40%) Jenkins
2 814 (20.05%) Git (software)
3 456 (11.23%) JIRA
4 163 (4.02%) GitLab
5 162 (3.99%) Maven
6 126 (3.10%) Selenium
7 123 (3.03%) Bitbucket
8 106 (2.61%) Eclipse
9 101 (2.49%) JUnit
10 100 (2.46%) Subversion
11 88 (2.17%) Artifactory
12 87 (2.14%) Sonatype Nexus
13 85 (2.09%) Visual Studio
14 79 (1.95%) Cucumber
15 70 (1.72%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 61 (1.50%) Gradle
17 60 (1.48%) SonarQube
18 59 (1.45%) TeamCity
19 51 (1.26%) Ant
20 50 (1.23%) Mockito
General
1 480 (11.83%) Finance
2 319 (7.86%) Public Sector
3 198 (4.88%) Banking
4 118 (2.91%) Telecoms
5 63 (1.55%) Retail
6 60 (1.48%) Military
7 52 (1.28%) Front Office
8 50 (1.23%) Marketing
9 47 (1.16%) Electronics
9 47 (1.16%) Investment Banking
10 44 (1.08%) Manufacturing
11 41 (1.01%) Aerospace
12 40 (0.99%) Law
13 33 (0.81%) Games
14 15 (0.37%) Back Office
14 15 (0.37%) Financial Institution
14 15 (0.37%) Legal
15 12 (0.30%) German Language
16 11 (0.27%) Pharmaceutical
17 9 (0.22%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 850 (20.94%) Developer
2 710 (17.49%) DevOps Engineer
3 242 (5.96%) Architect
4 228 (5.62%) Java Developer
5 203 (5.00%) Analyst
5 203 (5.00%) Linux Engineer
6 195 (4.80%) AWS Engineer
7 184 (4.53%) Software Engineer
8 179 (4.41%) Administrator
9 158 (3.89%) Cloud Engineer
10 156 (3.84%) Consultant
11 154 (3.79%) Infrastructure Engineer
12 138 (3.40%) Senior DevOps
13 133 (3.28%) AWS DevOps
14 125 (3.08%) AWS DevOps Engineer
15 108 (2.66%) Senior DevOps Engineer
16 106 (2.61%) Platform Engineer
17 100 (2.46%) DBA
18 96 (2.37%) Systems Engineer
19 95 (2.34%) Network Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 269 (6.63%) Web Services
2 266 (6.55%) .NET
3 235 (5.79%) REST
4 222 (5.47%) HTML
5 213 (5.25%) Node.js
6 210 (5.17%) Spring
7 193 (4.75%) Kafka
8 175 (4.31%) SOAP
9 172 (4.24%) XML
10 167 (4.11%) JSON
11 163 (4.02%) CSS
12 147 (3.62%) AngularJS
13 146 (3.60%) Middleware
13 146 (3.60%) RESTful
14 125 (3.08%) Elastic Stack
15 115 (2.83%) Spring Boot
16 111 (2.73%) RabbitMQ
17 100 (2.46%) LDAP
18 87 (2.14%) React
19 80 (1.97%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 345 (8.50%) Analytical Skills
2 245 (6.04%) Data Centre
3 154 (3.79%) Linux Command Line
4 87 (2.14%) Self-Motivation
5 82 (2.02%) Public Cloud
6 80 (1.97%) Management Information System
7 78 (1.92%) Clustering
8 68 (1.68%) Algorithms
9 56 (1.38%) Data Structures
10 54 (1.33%) Cloud Native
10 54 (1.33%) Replication
11 53 (1.31%) User Experience
12 52 (1.28%) Greenfield Project
13 50 (1.23%) Device Driver
14 48 (1.18%) PKI
15 42 (1.03%) Hybrid Cloud
16 41 (1.01%) Enterprise Software
17 34 (0.84%) Mobile App
18 33 (0.81%) Private Cloud
19 32 (0.79%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 1,323 (32.59%) Windows
2 812 (20.00%) Unix
3 524 (12.91%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 383 (9.44%) Windows Server
5 234 (5.76%) CentOS
6 183 (4.51%) Ubuntu
7 122 (3.01%) Solaris
8 104 (2.56%) Windows Server 2012
9 90 (2.22%) Windows Server 2008
10 79 (1.95%) Windows Server 2016
11 77 (1.90%) Windows 10
12 75 (1.85%) Mac OS X
13 74 (1.82%) AIX
14 64 (1.58%) Embedded Linux
15 63 (1.55%) Mac OS
16 62 (1.53%) Android
16 62 (1.53%) Windows 7
17 51 (1.26%) Amazon Linux
18 46 (1.13%) Oracle Linux
19 45 (1.11%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,292 (31.83%) DevOps
2 1,193 (29.39%) Agile Software Development
3 513 (12.64%) Continuous Integration
4 452 (11.14%) Configuration Management
5 433 (10.67%) Test Automation
6 382 (9.41%) Software Engineering
7 377 (9.29%) Scrum
8 360 (8.87%) Microservices
9 355 (8.75%) Problem-Solving
10 320 (7.88%) Migration
11 284 (7.00%) Open Source
12 272 (6.70%) ITIL
13 244 (6.01%) Infrastructure as Code
14 240 (5.91%) TDD
15 186 (4.58%) Infrastructure Engineering
16 178 (4.39%) Continuous Delivery
17 159 (3.92%) Analytics
18 157 (3.87%) Kanban
18 157 (3.87%) Mentoring
19 142 (3.50%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 1,265 (31.17%) Python
2 991 (24.41%) Java
3 737 (18.16%) SQL
4 502 (12.37%) Bash Shell
5 463 (11.41%) JavaScript
6 378 (9.31%) PowerShell
7 333 (8.20%) C++
8 296 (7.29%) Shell Script
9 283 (6.97%) C
10 239 (5.89%) Perl
11 219 (5.40%) Ruby
12 216 (5.32%) C#
13 190 (4.68%) PHP
14 141 (3.47%) PL/SQL
15 113 (2.78%) Java 8
16 111 (2.73%) Go
17 72 (1.77%) Groovy
18 62 (1.53%) Scala
19 54 (1.33%) TypeScript
20 53 (1.31%) Embedded C
Qualifications
1 794 (19.56%) Security Cleared
2 592 (14.58%) SC Cleared
3 240 (5.91%) Degree
4 159 (3.92%) DV Cleared
5 101 (2.49%) Cisco Certification
6 73 (1.80%) CCNA
7 66 (1.63%) AWS Certification
8 55 (1.36%) CCNP
9 49 (1.21%) BPSS Clearance
10 48 (1.18%) Computer Science Degree
10 48 (1.18%) Microsoft Certification
11 36 (0.89%) CISSP
12 33 (0.81%) ISTQB
13 26 (0.64%) ISEB
14 22 (0.54%) CCIE
15 21 (0.52%) MCSE
16 19 (0.47%) GIAC
17 18 (0.44%) CISM
17 18 (0.44%) CREST Certified
18 17 (0.42%) Network+ Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 141 (3.47%) QA
2 59 (1.45%) SLA
3 36 (0.89%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 34 (0.84%) PCI DSS
5 25 (0.62%) Data Quality
6 23 (0.57%) NIST
7 14 (0.34%) Disclosure Scotland
7 14 (0.34%) NCSC
8 12 (0.30%) GDPR
8 12 (0.30%) RMADS
8 12 (0.30%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 9 (0.22%) ISO/IEC 20000
9 9 (0.22%) WCAG
10 7 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
10 7 (0.17%) JSP 440
11 6 (0.15%) COBIT
11 6 (0.15%) Cyber Essentials
11 6 (0.15%) PMO
11 6 (0.15%) WAI
12 4 (0.099%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 864 (21.29%) Docker
2 354 (8.72%) Active Directory
3 293 (7.22%) VMware Infrastructure
4 129 (3.18%) Virtual Machines
5 93 (2.29%) Hyper-V
6 63 (1.55%) VMware ESXi
7 59 (1.45%) vSphere
8 57 (1.40%) Oracle RAC
9 41 (1.01%) VMware NSX
10 37 (0.91%) XenApp
11 32 (0.79%) Xen
12 29 (0.71%) NFS
13 24 (0.59%) HDFS
13 24 (0.59%) Virtual Servers
14 22 (0.54%) KVM
14 22 (0.54%) LXC
15 20 (0.49%) Firmware
16 18 (0.44%) Snort
17 16 (0.39%) Citrix Hypervisor
18 15 (0.37%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 820 (20.20%) Ansible
2 617 (15.20%) Kubernetes
3 610 (15.03%) Terraform
4 498 (12.27%) Puppet
5 278 (6.85%) Opscode Chef
6 89 (2.19%) Grafana
7 79 (1.95%) Packer
8 75 (1.85%) Prometheus
9 71 (1.75%) SCCM
10 51 (1.26%) Nagios
11 50 (1.23%) Data Guard
12 46 (1.13%) Kibana
12 46 (1.13%) vCenter Server
13 44 (1.08%) logstash
14 42 (1.03%) Salt
15 41 (1.01%) Docker Swarm
16 39 (0.96%) SCOM
17 38 (0.94%) Consul
18 36 (0.89%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
18 36 (0.89%) Oracle RMAN
Vendors
1 634 (15.62%) Oracle
2 559 (13.77%) Microsoft
3 525 (12.93%) VMware
4 509 (12.54%) Red Hat
5 217 (5.35%) Google
6 200 (4.93%) Cisco
7 140 (3.45%) Splunk
8 128 (3.15%) IBM
9 113 (2.78%) HP
10 90 (2.22%) Dell
11 87 (2.14%) SAP
12 83 (2.04%) Atlassian
13 74 (1.82%) Juniper
14 73 (1.80%) Citrix
15 58 (1.43%) NetApp
16 55 (1.36%) EMC
17 47 (1.16%) Cloudera
18 45 (1.11%) TIBCO
19 44 (1.08%) Informatica
19 44 (1.08%) McAfee