Period
to 26 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 26 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
26 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 19 22 14
Rank change year-on-year +3 -8 -3
Contract jobs citing Linux 3,122 4,888 8,235
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 7.32% 6.88% 8.34%
As % of the Operating Systems category 41.11% 32.71% 39.86%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,587 3,256 5,482
Median daily rate £500 £500 £500
10th Percentile £325 £313 £325
90th Percentile £650 £661 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £430 £450 £450
% change year-on-year -4.44% - +2.97%
Number of hourly rates quoted 93 133 163
Median hourly rate £44.00 £44.50 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -1.12% -1.11% +12.50%
10th Percentile £30.00 £18.50 £26.02
90th Percentile £62.05 £53.75 £52.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £44.00 £44.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year - -2.22% +8.43%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 7,594 14,945 20,659
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 17.80% 21.04% 20.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,871 9,520 13,152
Median daily rate £431 £406 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.09% -4.41% -
10th Percentile £163 £140 £159
90th Percentile £600 £600 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £388 £400
% change year-on-year -3.23% -3.13% +5.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 438 1,124 1,302
Median hourly rate £18.00 £17.50 £17.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.86% +2.94% -
10th Percentile £11.17 £11.26 £11.00
90th Percentile £54.30 £48.00 £46.71
Median hourly rate £16.50 £16.50 £16.00
% change year-on-year - +3.13% -

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 26 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 26 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 26 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 2,565 £500 - 1,404
London +4 1,346 £525 -1.41% 464
UK excluding London 0 1,257 £430 -4.44% 1,054
Work from Home +8 810 £500 - 284
South East +14 374 £450 -5.26% 258
North of England -12 214 £450 - 236
South West -1 190 £438 -5.41% 153
Midlands +11 172 £420 -5.62% 135
Scotland -6 145 £425 -5.56% 67
East of England +4 135 £425 -5.56% 152
West Midlands +11 120 £425 -6.08% 73
North West -8 113 £450 - 130
Yorkshire -20 75 £525 +16.67% 82
East Midlands +11 46 £395 +0.20% 60
North East -4 26 £450 +4.65% 24
Wales -17 24 £475 -5.00% 24
Northern Ireland -17 9 £415 +3.75% 29

For the 6 months to 26 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,020 (32.67%) DevOps
2 989 (31.68%) Python
3 929 (29.76%) Windows
4 821 (26.30%) Agile Software Development
5 778 (24.92%) Java
5 778 (24.92%) AWS
6 731 (23.41%) Ansible
7 727 (23.29%) Docker
8 706 (22.61%) Kubernetes
9 662 (21.20%) Security Cleared
10 655 (20.98%) Unix
11 598 (19.15%) Terraform
12 585 (18.74%) Azure
13 562 (18.00%) Jenkins
14 514 (16.46%) Git (software)
15 508 (16.27%) SC Cleared
16 503 (16.11%) SQL
17 467 (14.96%) Oracle
18 443 (14.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
19 431 (13.81%) VMware
20 427 (13.68%) Finance
21 426 (13.65%) Bash Shell
22 387 (12.40%) Red Hat
23 366 (11.72%) Puppet
24 340 (10.89%) C++
25 324 (10.38%) Firewall
26 321 (10.28%) Microsoft
27 318 (10.19%) Test Automation
28 313 (10.03%) Active Directory
29 308 (9.87%) Continuous Integration

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 181 (5.80%) Apache
2 158 (5.06%) Confluence
3 100 (3.20%) JBoss
3 100 (3.20%) Tomcat
4 98 (3.14%) Elasticsearch
5 71 (2.27%) Mule
6 70 (2.24%) SharePoint
6 70 (2.24%) WebLogic
7 62 (1.99%) IIS
8 60 (1.92%) WebSphere
9 55 (1.76%) nginx
9 55 (1.76%) Red Hat Fuse
10 53 (1.70%) Apache Spark
11 44 (1.41%) OpenStack
12 39 (1.25%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 37 (1.19%) MS Exchange
14 36 (1.15%) SAS
15 24 (0.77%) WebSphere Application Server
16 14 (0.45%) Jupyter
17 10 (0.32%) Skype for Business
Applications
1 42 (1.35%) Microsoft Office
2 41 (1.31%) Microsoft Excel
3 22 (0.70%) MS Visio
4 9 (0.29%) SOLIDWORKS
5 8 (0.26%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 5 (0.16%) Microsoft Project
7 4 (0.13%) Simulink
8 2 (0.064%) SPSS
9 1 (0.032%) Adobe Illustrator
9 1 (0.032%) InVision
9 1 (0.032%) Notepad++
9 1 (0.032%) Photoshop
9 1 (0.032%) Sketch
9 1 (0.032%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 38 (1.22%) Oracle Applications
2 30 (0.96%) Oracle EBS
3 17 (0.54%) Magento
4 16 (0.51%) Oracle EBS R12
5 12 (0.38%) ION MarketView
6 10 (0.32%) SAP FI-CA
7 5 (0.16%) Remedy ITSM
7 5 (0.16%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 4 (0.13%) assyst
8 4 (0.13%) Oracle BPM
8 4 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
8 4 (0.13%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 3 (0.096%) Infor M3
9 3 (0.096%) SAP Hybris
9 3 (0.096%) SAP PSCD
9 3 (0.096%) SAP S/4HANA
9 3 (0.096%) SunGard Martini
10 2 (0.064%) Fredhopper
10 2 (0.064%) R3 Corda
10 2 (0.064%) Salerio
Cloud Services
1 778 (24.92%) AWS
2 585 (18.74%) Azure
3 195 (6.25%) GitHub
4 188 (6.02%) GCP
5 136 (4.36%) Amazon EC2
6 125 (4.00%) PaaS
7 124 (3.97%) Serverless
8 119 (3.81%) OpenShift
9 116 (3.72%) IaaS
10 110 (3.52%) AWS CloudFormation
11 95 (3.04%) AWS Lambda
12 91 (2.91%) Amazon S3
13 85 (2.72%) Office 365
14 68 (2.18%) Cloud Computing
15 62 (1.99%) Virtual Private Cloud
16 59 (1.89%) Amazon EKS
17 55 (1.76%) SaaS
18 51 (1.63%) Amazon ECS
19 42 (1.35%) Amazon CloudWatch
19 42 (1.35%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 324 (10.38%) Firewall
2 231 (7.40%) DNS
3 219 (7.01%) TCP/IP
4 136 (4.36%) HTTP
5 117 (3.75%) DHCP
6 111 (3.56%) WAN
7 89 (2.85%) LAN
8 88 (2.82%) SSL
9 87 (2.79%) VPN
10 84 (2.69%) SAN
11 76 (2.43%) VLAN
12 57 (1.83%) IPv6
13 52 (1.67%) VSAN
14 50 (1.60%) Network Security
15 48 (1.54%) Wi-Fi
16 47 (1.51%) SNMP
17 46 (1.47%) Multicast
18 44 (1.41%) Ethernet
19 42 (1.35%) SMTP
20 41 (1.31%) IPv4
Database & Business Intelligence
1 271 (8.68%) SQL Server
2 246 (7.88%) MySQL
3 223 (7.14%) Relational Database
4 153 (4.90%) PostgreSQL
5 129 (4.13%) MongoDB
6 125 (4.00%) Oracle Database
7 124 (3.97%) NoSQL
8 119 (3.81%) Big Data
9 85 (2.72%) Hadoop
10 58 (1.86%) Amazon RDS
10 58 (1.86%) Data Warehouse
10 58 (1.86%) RDBMS
11 54 (1.73%) DB2
12 37 (1.19%) Apache Hive
13 35 (1.12%) Amazon Aurora
13 35 (1.12%) Redis
14 34 (1.09%) Apache Cassandra
14 34 (1.09%) Oracle Database 11g
15 33 (1.06%) HBase
16 31 (0.99%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 562 (18.00%) Jenkins
2 514 (16.46%) Git (software)
3 294 (9.42%) JIRA
4 227 (7.27%) GitLab
5 133 (4.26%) Maven
6 114 (3.65%) Atlassian Bamboo
7 105 (3.36%) Bitbucket
8 85 (2.72%) Artifactory
9 83 (2.66%) Cucumber
10 79 (2.53%) Subversion
11 78 (2.50%) TeamCity
12 71 (2.27%) JUnit
13 61 (1.95%) Selenium
14 60 (1.92%) Sonatype Nexus
15 59 (1.89%) GDB
16 56 (1.79%) JMeter
17 47 (1.51%) FishEye
18 43 (1.38%) GCC
18 43 (1.38%) SonarQube
19 38 (1.22%) Vagrant
General
1 427 (13.68%) Finance
2 273 (8.74%) Banking
3 229 (7.34%) Public Sector
4 120 (3.84%) Front Office
5 106 (3.40%) Investment Banking
6 90 (2.88%) Telecoms
7 53 (1.70%) Marketing
8 47 (1.51%) Law
8 47 (1.51%) Manufacturing
9 43 (1.38%) Electronics
10 33 (1.06%) Retail
11 23 (0.74%) Aerospace
12 21 (0.67%) Pharmaceutical
13 16 (0.51%) Financial Institution
13 16 (0.51%) Military
14 15 (0.48%) Games
14 15 (0.48%) Publishing
15 14 (0.45%) Back Office
15 14 (0.45%) French Language
16 13 (0.42%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 737 (23.61%) Developer
2 493 (15.79%) DevOps Engineer
3 235 (7.53%) Architect
4 226 (7.24%) Java Developer
5 192 (6.15%) Linux Engineer
6 173 (5.54%) AWS Engineer
7 169 (5.41%) AWS DevOps
8 140 (4.48%) Cloud Engineer
9 139 (4.45%) Consultant
10 137 (4.39%) Software Engineer
11 134 (4.29%) AWS DevOps Engineer
12 128 (4.10%) Infrastructure Engineer
13 127 (4.07%) Administrator
14 116 (3.72%) Senior Developer
15 114 (3.65%) Analyst
15 114 (3.65%) C++ Developer
16 102 (3.27%) Azure Engineer
17 82 (2.63%) Senior DevOps
18 78 (2.50%) Senior DevOps Engineer
19 75 (2.40%) Platform Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 235 (7.53%) Spring
2 220 (7.05%) REST
3 201 (6.44%) Middleware
4 193 (6.18%) Web Services
5 168 (5.38%) Kafka
6 141 (4.52%) HTML
7 128 (4.10%) .NET
8 125 (4.00%) JSON
9 123 (3.94%) Elastic Stack
10 121 (3.88%) Node.js
11 116 (3.72%) XML
12 109 (3.49%) Apache Camel
12 109 (3.49%) RESTful
13 91 (2.91%) AngularJS
14 89 (2.85%) CSS
15 88 (2.82%) Spring Boot
16 75 (2.40%) RabbitMQ
17 68 (2.18%) J2EE
17 68 (2.18%) Spring Integration
18 65 (2.08%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 182 (5.83%) Analytical Skills
2 131 (4.20%) Data Centre
3 106 (3.40%) Linux Command Line
4 94 (3.01%) Public Cloud
5 77 (2.47%) Greenfield Project
6 75 (2.40%) Clustering
7 62 (1.99%) Fixed Income
8 61 (1.95%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 54 (1.73%) Algorithms
9 54 (1.73%) Enterprise Software
9 54 (1.73%) Private Cloud
10 52 (1.67%) Management Information System
10 52 (1.67%) Self-Motivation
10 52 (1.67%) User Experience
11 43 (1.38%) Cloud Native
12 41 (1.31%) Virtual Team
13 39 (1.25%) Replication
14 37 (1.19%) Device Driver
15 36 (1.15%) PKI
16 35 (1.12%) EMC VNX
Operating Systems
1 929 (29.76%) Windows
2 655 (20.98%) Unix
3 443 (14.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 218 (6.98%) Windows Server
5 196 (6.28%) CentOS
6 128 (4.10%) Ubuntu
7 118 (3.78%) Solaris
8 83 (2.66%) Windows 10
9 67 (2.15%) AIX
10 66 (2.11%) Windows Server 2012
11 47 (1.51%) Windows Server 2016
12 46 (1.47%) Oracle Linux
13 44 (1.41%) Embedded Linux
14 43 (1.38%) Android
15 41 (1.31%) Mac OS X
16 36 (1.15%) SUSE
17 33 (1.06%) Debian
18 30 (0.96%) Windows Server 2008
19 27 (0.86%) Apple iOS
20 26 (0.83%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,020 (32.67%) DevOps
2 821 (26.30%) Agile Software Development
3 318 (10.19%) Test Automation
4 308 (9.87%) Continuous Integration
5 299 (9.58%) Infrastructure as Code
6 296 (9.48%) Microservices
7 295 (9.45%) Problem-Solving
8 287 (9.19%) Configuration Management
9 285 (9.13%) Software Engineering
10 275 (8.81%) Scrum
11 237 (7.59%) TDD
12 196 (6.28%) Migration
13 188 (6.02%) Open Source
14 173 (5.54%) Infrastructure Engineering
15 141 (4.52%) Performance Tuning
16 135 (4.32%) High Availability
17 126 (4.04%) Computer Science
17 126 (4.04%) Continuous Delivery
18 123 (3.94%) ITIL
19 122 (3.91%) Cybersecurity
Programming Languages
1 989 (31.68%) Python
2 778 (24.92%) Java
3 503 (16.11%) SQL
4 426 (13.65%) Bash Shell
5 340 (10.89%) C++
6 307 (9.83%) PowerShell
7 294 (9.42%) JavaScript
8 237 (7.59%) Perl
9 223 (7.14%) Shell Script
10 177 (5.67%) C
11 152 (4.87%) C#
12 138 (4.42%) Ruby
13 128 (4.10%) PL/SQL
14 108 (3.46%) Go
15 97 (3.11%) Scala
16 94 (3.01%) PHP
17 72 (2.31%) Java 8
18 56 (1.79%) Groovy
19 29 (0.93%) TypeScript
20 25 (0.80%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 662 (21.20%) Security Cleared
2 508 (16.27%) SC Cleared
3 160 (5.12%) Degree
4 156 (5.00%) DV Cleared
5 77 (2.47%) Cisco Certification
6 56 (1.79%) CCNA
7 51 (1.63%) CCNP
8 49 (1.57%) Computer Science Degree
9 38 (1.22%) AWS Certification
10 32 (1.02%) Microsoft Certification
11 28 (0.90%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
12 27 (0.86%) CISSP
13 24 (0.77%) Master's Degree
14 23 (0.74%) RHCE
15 19 (0.61%) BPSS Clearance
15 19 (0.61%) CompTIA Security+
16 18 (0.58%) Novell Certification
17 17 (0.54%) RHCSA
18 16 (0.51%) ISEB
18 16 (0.51%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 97 (3.11%) QA
2 51 (1.63%) NIST
3 48 (1.54%) SLA
4 35 (1.12%) GDPR
5 26 (0.83%) PCI DSS
6 19 (0.61%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 14 (0.45%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 13 (0.42%) COBIT
9 12 (0.38%) Disclosure Scotland
10 10 (0.32%) Data Quality
10 10 (0.32%) JTAG
10 10 (0.32%) NCSC
10 10 (0.32%) WCAG
11 8 (0.26%) RMADS
12 7 (0.22%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
13 6 (0.19%) HIPAA
14 5 (0.16%) OASIS TOSCA
15 4 (0.13%) Cyber Essentials
15 4 (0.13%) ISO 26262
16 3 (0.096%) JSP 440
System Software
1 727 (23.29%) Docker
2 313 (10.03%) Active Directory
3 297 (9.51%) VMware Infrastructure
4 110 (3.52%) Virtual Machines
5 101 (3.24%) VMware ESXi
6 89 (2.85%) vSphere
7 62 (1.99%) VMware NSX
8 60 (1.92%) Hyper-V
9 37 (1.19%) HDFS
10 36 (1.15%) Oracle RAC
11 31 (0.99%) GlusterFS
12 26 (0.83%) NFS
13 20 (0.64%) KVM
14 14 (0.45%) Apache ZooKeeper
14 14 (0.45%) Firmware
14 14 (0.45%) Xen
15 12 (0.38%) Virtual Servers
16 11 (0.35%) LXC
17 10 (0.32%) VirtualBox
18 9 (0.29%) Veritas Cluster Server
Systems Management
1 731 (23.41%) Ansible
2 706 (22.61%) Kubernetes
3 598 (19.15%) Terraform
4 366 (11.72%) Puppet
5 208 (6.66%) Opscode Chef
6 143 (4.58%) Grafana
7 122 (3.91%) Prometheus
8 66 (2.11%) Kibana
9 53 (1.70%) vCenter Server
10 52 (1.67%) Packer
10 52 (1.67%) SCCM
11 49 (1.57%) Nagios
12 42 (1.35%) Consul
13 40 (1.28%) Single Sign-On
14 36 (1.15%) Oracle RMAN
15 35 (1.12%) Microsoft Intune
16 30 (0.96%) Salt
17 29 (0.93%) vRealize
18 27 (0.86%) Rancher
19 26 (0.83%) Red Hat Satellite
Vendors
1 467 (14.96%) Oracle
2 431 (13.81%) VMware
3 387 (12.40%) Red Hat
4 321 (10.28%) Microsoft
5 195 (6.25%) Splunk
6 182 (5.83%) Cisco
7 127 (4.07%) IBM
8 110 (3.52%) SAP
9 108 (3.46%) Google
10 105 (3.36%) Atlassian
11 100 (3.20%) Dell
12 88 (2.82%) EMC
13 79 (2.53%) HP
14 71 (2.27%) Sybase
15 64 (2.05%) NetApp
16 57 (1.83%) F5
17 56 (1.79%) Citrix
18 54 (1.73%) Fortinet
19 52 (1.67%) Juniper
20 49 (1.57%) AppDynamics