Period
to 13 December 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 13 December 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
13 Dec 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 17 11 11
Rank change year-on-year -6 0 +7
Contract jobs citing Linux 8,705 9,189 9,482
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 8.26% 8.90% 9.23%
As % of the Operating Systems category 39.40% 42.75% 43.68%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,540 6,036 6,352
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £325 £319 £310
90th Percentile £650 £638 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 190 248 214
UK median hourly rate £43.00 £40.65 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +5.77% +1.63% +6.67%
10th Percentile £21.42 £21.25 £15.75
90th Percentile £52.55 £50.40 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £44.00 £41.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year +6.02% +3.75% +6.67%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 22,093 21,493 21,708
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.96% 20.82% 21.14%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,699 13,722 13,678
UK median daily rate £425 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +6.25% -
10th Percentile £163 £170 £193
90th Percentile £600 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £390 £375 £365
% change year-on-year +4.00% +2.74% +0.69%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,490 1,276 1,287
UK median hourly rate £17.43 £17.50 £16.29
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -0.40% +7.43% -1.27%
10th Percentile £11.00 £11.00 £10.61
90th Percentile £47.50 £47.50 £44.35
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.50 £16.62 £15.63
% change year-on-year -0.74% +6.38% -2.77%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Linux.

Contractor daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 13 December 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 13 December 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 13 December 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -4 8,033 £500 +5.26% 2,659
UK excluding London -3 4,699 £450 +5.88% 1,803
London -6 3,882 £525 +0.96% 1,001
South East -6 1,399 £450 +1.12% 471
North of England -5 1,005 £450 +5.88% 393
South West +12 660 £475 +15.15% 294
East of England +4 584 £450 +12.50% 295
Midlands -4 483 £425 - 205
Scotland 0 446 £425 - 73
North West -2 427 £450 +4.65% 210
Yorkshire -3 409 £425 -8.36% 148
West Midlands -7 321 £425 -9.57% 107
North East -1 176 £450 +18.42% 35
East Midlands -8 156 £411 +9.67% 96
Wales -12 96 £425 +3.03% 50
Northern Ireland -2 36 £425 -1.87% 22

For the 6 months to 13 December 2018, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 3,077 (35.35%) DevOps
2 2,715 (31.19%) Agile Software Development
3 2,596 (29.82%) Windows
4 2,578 (29.62%) Python
5 2,428 (27.89%) Amazon AWS
6 2,348 (26.97%) Java
7 2,266 (26.03%) Unix
8 2,124 (24.40%) Jenkins
9 2,067 (23.74%) Ansible
10 1,973 (22.67%) Git (software)
11 1,889 (21.70%) Docker
12 1,667 (19.15%) SQL
13 1,648 (18.93%) Puppet
14 1,559 (17.91%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 1,388 (15.94%) Finance
16 1,359 (15.61%) Red Hat
17 1,310 (15.05%) Terraform
18 1,301 (14.95%) Security Cleared
19 1,300 (14.93%) Continuous Integration
20 1,299 (14.92%) Oracle
21 1,273 (14.62%) Configuration Management
22 1,206 (13.85%) Bash Shell
23 1,101 (12.65%) VMware
24 1,099 (12.62%) Kubernetes
25 1,089 (12.51%) JavaScript
26 1,030 (11.83%) SC Cleared
27 1,011 (11.61%) Microsoft Azure
28 1,003 (11.52%) Opscode Chef
29 967 (11.11%) Test Automation
30 918 (10.55%) Perl

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 804 (9.24%) Apache
2 522 (6.00%) Confluence
3 405 (4.65%) Tomcat
4 345 (3.96%) Elasticsearch
5 329 (3.78%) nginx
6 317 (3.64%) JBoss
7 259 (2.98%) Apache Spark
8 224 (2.57%) IIS
8 224 (2.57%) WebLogic
9 207 (2.38%) WebSphere
10 174 (2.00%) OpenStack
11 136 (1.56%) MS Exchange
12 80 (0.92%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 77 (0.88%) SharePoint
14 76 (0.87%) CMS
14 76 (0.87%) Jetty
15 60 (0.69%) Mongrel
15 60 (0.69%) Oracle Service Bus
16 48 (0.55%) WordPress
17 45 (0.52%) Drupal
Applications
1 104 (1.19%) Microsoft Office
2 63 (0.72%) Microsoft Excel
3 39 (0.45%) MS Visio
4 18 (0.21%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 16 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
6 8 (0.092%) Chatbot
7 6 (0.069%) Photoshop
8 5 (0.057%) HipChat
8 5 (0.057%) Simulink
9 3 (0.034%) Houdini
9 3 (0.034%) Maya
9 3 (0.034%) NUKE
9 3 (0.034%) SPSS
10 2 (0.023%) Adobe Illustrator
10 2 (0.023%) Spreadsheet
11 1 (0.011%) AutoCAD
11 1 (0.011%) CATIA
11 1 (0.011%) Shockwave
11 1 (0.011%) Stata
11 1 (0.011%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 41 (0.47%) Remedy ITSM
2 23 (0.26%) ION MarketView
3 19 (0.22%) Magento
4 17 (0.20%) Oracle BPM
5 16 (0.18%) Maximo
6 13 (0.15%) Oracle EBS
7 12 (0.14%) Oracle Applications
8 11 (0.13%) Dynamics CRM
9 10 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 9 (0.10%) Oracle Utilities
10 9 (0.10%) Sentinel
10 9 (0.10%) Siebel CRM
11 8 (0.092%) Oracle Cash Management
11 8 (0.092%) Payment Gateway
12 7 (0.080%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
13 6 (0.069%) Remedy AR System
14 5 (0.057%) Dynamics AX
14 5 (0.057%) HFM
14 5 (0.057%) Oracle EBS R12
14 5 (0.057%) Oracle Retail
Cloud Services
1 2,428 (27.89%) Amazon AWS
2 1,011 (11.61%) Microsoft Azure
3 433 (4.97%) GitHub
4 410 (4.71%) Amazon EC2
5 394 (4.53%) AWS CloudFormation
6 342 (3.93%) PaaS
7 336 (3.86%) IaaS
8 334 (3.84%) Google Cloud Platform
9 256 (2.94%) Amazon S3
10 236 (2.71%) OpenShift
11 228 (2.62%) Virtual Private Cloud
12 191 (2.19%) Cloud Computing
12 191 (2.19%) Serverless
13 169 (1.94%) Office 365
14 155 (1.78%) SaaS
15 152 (1.75%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 140 (1.61%) AWS Lambda
17 126 (1.45%) Datadog
18 119 (1.37%) Route 53
19 105 (1.21%) Amazon ELB
Communications & Networking
1 708 (8.13%) Firewall
2 631 (7.25%) TCP/IP
3 617 (7.09%) HTTP
4 602 (6.92%) DNS
5 387 (4.45%) SSL
6 270 (3.10%) VPN
7 256 (2.94%) SAN
8 228 (2.62%) DHCP
9 197 (2.26%) WAN
10 196 (2.25%) LAN
11 178 (2.04%) Internet
12 143 (1.64%) FTP
13 138 (1.59%) Network Security
14 121 (1.39%) Kerberos
15 116 (1.33%) IPsec
16 100 (1.15%) Wireless
17 94 (1.08%) NAS
18 85 (0.98%) SSH
19 79 (0.91%) VoIP
20 72 (0.83%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 828 (9.51%) MySQL
2 762 (8.75%) SQL Server
3 608 (6.98%) MongoDB
4 597 (6.86%) PostgreSQL
5 559 (6.42%) Relational Database
6 498 (5.72%) Hadoop
7 491 (5.64%) NoSQL
8 477 (5.48%) Big Data
9 309 (3.55%) Oracle Database
10 203 (2.33%) Apache Cassandra
11 179 (2.06%) Amazon RDS
12 159 (1.83%) RDBMS
13 145 (1.67%) HBase
14 129 (1.48%) Apache Hive
15 128 (1.47%) Redis
16 101 (1.16%) Oracle Database 12c
17 99 (1.14%) DB2
18 95 (1.09%) Oracle Database 11g
19 85 (0.98%) Data Warehouse
20 80 (0.92%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 2,124 (24.40%) Jenkins
2 1,973 (22.67%) Git (software)
3 827 (9.50%) JIRA
4 496 (5.70%) Maven
5 487 (5.59%) Subversion
6 368 (4.23%) Selenium
7 348 (4.00%) GitLab
8 346 (3.97%) Cucumber
9 315 (3.62%) Sonatype Nexus
10 294 (3.38%) JUnit
11 267 (3.07%) Artifactory
12 233 (2.68%) Atlassian Bamboo
12 233 (2.68%) TeamCity
13 210 (2.41%) Bitbucket
14 184 (2.11%) Gradle
15 159 (1.83%) Ant
16 142 (1.63%) Hudson
17 140 (1.61%) Vagrant
18 130 (1.49%) Eclipse
19 120 (1.38%) Travis CI
General
1 1,388 (15.94%) Finance
2 633 (7.27%) Banking
3 244 (2.80%) Front Office
4 205 (2.35%) Telecoms
5 173 (1.99%) Investment Banking
6 164 (1.88%) Retail
7 118 (1.36%) Manufacturing
8 113 (1.30%) Marketing
9 93 (1.07%) Electronics
10 81 (0.93%) Financial Institution
11 75 (0.86%) Publishing
12 71 (0.82%) Law
13 59 (0.68%) Back Office
14 53 (0.61%) Games
15 49 (0.56%) Aerospace
16 45 (0.52%) Legal
17 37 (0.43%) Advertising
17 37 (0.43%) Automotive
18 34 (0.39%) Retail Banking
19 25 (0.29%) Military
Job Titles
1 1,953 (22.44%) Developer
2 1,872 (21.50%) DevOps Engineer
3 660 (7.58%) Java Developer
4 629 (7.23%) Linux Engineer
5 607 (6.97%) Architect
6 578 (6.64%) AWS Engineer
7 491 (5.64%) Administrator
8 465 (5.34%) AWS DevOps
9 425 (4.88%) AWS DevOps Engineer
10 419 (4.81%) Analyst
11 359 (4.12%) Software Engineer
12 317 (3.64%) Infrastructure Engineer
13 304 (3.49%) Cloud Engineer
14 286 (3.29%) Linux/Unix DevOps
15 267 (3.07%) Systems Administrator
16 266 (3.06%) Consultant
17 226 (2.60%) Linux DevOps Engineer
18 207 (2.38%) Linux Administrator
19 197 (2.26%) Python Developer
20 187 (2.15%) Senior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 709 (8.14%) Web Services
2 634 (7.28%) Spring
3 625 (7.18%) HTML
4 563 (6.47%) REST
5 513 (5.89%) JSON
6 501 (5.76%) CSS
7 498 (5.72%) Middleware
8 483 (5.55%) Node.js
9 427 (4.91%) XML
10 404 (4.64%) Kafka
11 395 (4.54%) Elastic Stack
12 386 (4.43%) AngularJS
13 381 (4.38%) RESTful
14 364 (4.18%) .NET
15 333 (3.83%) SOAP
16 297 (3.41%) React
17 288 (3.31%) J2EE
18 267 (3.07%) Spring Boot
19 251 (2.88%) HTML5
20 244 (2.80%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 507 (5.82%) Analytical Skills
2 452 (5.19%) Data Centre
3 307 (3.53%) Linux Command Line
4 243 (2.79%) Public Cloud
5 218 (2.50%) Greenfield Project
6 204 (2.34%) Self-Motivation
7 170 (1.95%) Clustering
8 167 (1.92%) Management Information System
9 135 (1.55%) Algorithms
10 116 (1.33%) Fixed Income
11 115 (1.32%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 110 (1.26%) User Experience
13 108 (1.24%) Enterprise Software
14 107 (1.23%) Replication
15 97 (1.11%) Hybrid Cloud
16 94 (1.08%) PKI
17 93 (1.07%) Private Cloud
18 87 (1.00%) Cloud Native
18 87 (1.00%) Virtual Team
19 82 (0.94%) Fintech
Operating Systems
1 2,596 (29.82%) Windows
2 2,266 (26.03%) Unix
3 1,559 (17.91%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 756 (8.68%) Windows Server
5 653 (7.50%) CentOS
6 385 (4.42%) Ubuntu
7 362 (4.16%) Solaris
8 199 (2.29%) Windows Server 2012
9 177 (2.03%) AIX
10 159 (1.83%) Windows Server 2008
11 119 (1.37%) Android
12 113 (1.30%) Mac OS X
13 98 (1.13%) Windows 7
14 90 (1.03%) Debian
15 88 (1.01%) Windows 10
16 85 (0.98%) Embedded Linux
17 83 (0.95%) Apple iOS
18 82 (0.94%) SUSE
19 63 (0.72%) Windows Server 2003
20 54 (0.62%) CoreOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,077 (35.35%) DevOps
2 2,715 (31.19%) Agile Software Development
3 1,300 (14.93%) Continuous Integration
4 1,273 (14.62%) Configuration Management
5 967 (11.11%) Test Automation
6 845 (9.71%) Open Source
7 787 (9.04%) Software Engineering
8 770 (8.85%) Scrum
9 755 (8.67%) TDD
10 743 (8.54%) Problem-Solving
11 662 (7.60%) Microservices
12 580 (6.66%) Migration
13 578 (6.64%) ITIL
14 542 (6.23%) Continuous Delivery
15 502 (5.77%) BDD
16 438 (5.03%) Infrastructure Engineering
17 421 (4.84%) Deployment Automation
18 402 (4.62%) OO
19 380 (4.37%) Kanban
20 344 (3.95%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 2,578 (29.62%) Python
2 2,348 (26.97%) Java
3 1,667 (19.15%) SQL
4 1,206 (13.85%) Bash Shell
5 1,089 (12.51%) JavaScript
6 918 (10.55%) Perl
7 791 (9.09%) Ruby
8 663 (7.62%) C++
9 658 (7.56%) Shell Script
10 582 (6.69%) PowerShell
11 450 (5.17%) C#
12 404 (4.64%) PHP
13 400 (4.60%) C
14 292 (3.35%) Scala
15 289 (3.32%) Go
16 234 (2.69%) Java 8
17 179 (2.06%) Groovy
18 155 (1.78%) PL/SQL
19 97 (1.11%) R
20 79 (0.91%) TypeScript
Qualifications
1 1,301 (14.95%) Security Cleared
2 1,030 (11.83%) SC Cleared
3 529 (6.08%) Degree
4 186 (2.14%) DV Cleared
5 134 (1.54%) Computer Science Degree
6 132 (1.52%) AWS Certification
7 130 (1.49%) Cisco Certification
8 119 (1.37%) BPSS Clearance
9 106 (1.22%) RHCE
10 80 (0.92%) Microsoft Certification
11 78 (0.90%) CCNP
12 68 (0.78%) CCNA
13 65 (0.75%) CISSP
14 54 (0.62%) MCSE
15 52 (0.60%) ISTQB
16 44 (0.51%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
17 42 (0.48%) CISM
17 42 (0.48%) ISEB
18 37 (0.43%) Master's Degree
19 31 (0.36%) ITIL Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 250 (2.87%) QA
2 94 (1.08%) SLA
3 77 (0.88%) GDPR
3 77 (0.88%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 61 (0.70%) PCI DSS
5 59 (0.68%) Data Quality
6 29 (0.33%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 28 (0.32%) Disclosure Scotland
8 25 (0.29%) JSP 440
9 22 (0.25%) HMG Infosec
9 22 (0.25%) HMG Security Policy Framework
10 19 (0.22%) FINRA
11 14 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
11 14 (0.16%) MiFID
12 9 (0.10%) COBIT
12 9 (0.10%) ISO 9001
13 8 (0.092%) Cyber Essentials
13 8 (0.092%) ISAE 3402
13 8 (0.092%) ISO 22301
13 8 (0.092%) ISO/IEC 27005
System Software
1 1,889 (21.70%) Docker
2 717 (8.24%) Active Directory
3 663 (7.62%) VMware Infrastructure
4 186 (2.14%) Virtual Machines
5 166 (1.91%) vSphere
6 162 (1.86%) Hyper-V
7 157 (1.80%) VMware ESXi
8 116 (1.33%) HDFS
9 107 (1.23%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 98 (1.13%) NFS
11 95 (1.09%) Oracle RAC
12 84 (0.96%) XenApp
13 82 (0.94%) Xen
14 76 (0.87%) Virtual Servers
15 62 (0.71%) KVM
16 52 (0.60%) Firmware
16 52 (0.60%) VirtualBox
17 49 (0.56%) XenDesktop
18 36 (0.41%) vCloud
19 35 (0.40%) Postfix
Systems Management
1 2,067 (23.74%) Ansible
2 1,648 (18.93%) Puppet
3 1,310 (15.05%) Terraform
4 1,099 (12.62%) Kubernetes
5 1,003 (11.52%) Opscode Chef
6 273 (3.14%) Nagios
7 224 (2.57%) Grafana
8 201 (2.31%) Kibana
9 191 (2.19%) Packer
10 176 (2.02%) Prometheus
11 165 (1.90%) SCCM
12 140 (1.61%) Docker Swarm
13 125 (1.44%) Salt
14 122 (1.40%) ZABBIX
15 116 (1.33%) logstash
16 112 (1.29%) Hadoop YARN
17 106 (1.22%) SCOM
18 92 (1.06%) Rancher
19 88 (1.01%) HAProxy
20 84 (0.96%) Consul
Vendors
1 1,359 (15.61%) Red Hat
2 1,299 (14.92%) Oracle
3 1,101 (12.65%) VMware
4 884 (10.16%) Microsoft
5 541 (6.21%) Google
6 435 (5.00%) Cisco
7 423 (4.86%) Splunk
8 323 (3.71%) IBM
9 225 (2.58%) HP
10 208 (2.39%) Atlassian
11 207 (2.38%) Citrix
12 172 (1.98%) NetApp
13 148 (1.70%) SAP
14 147 (1.69%) Sybase
15 109 (1.25%) ServiceNow
16 108 (1.24%) EMC
16 108 (1.24%) New Relic
17 99 (1.14%) F5
18 94 (1.08%) Cloudera
19 89 (1.02%) Hortonworks