Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 20 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
20 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 29 26 23
Rank change year-on-year -3 -3 -6
Contract jobs citing Linux 5,563 3,733 3,308
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.30% 6.44% 6.79%
As % of the Operating Systems category 42.45% 41.36% 33.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,727 2,480 2,240
10th Percentile £400 £339 £316
25th Percentile £463 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year +15.00% +2.56% -2.50%
75th Percentile £670 £600 £588
90th Percentile £750 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £509 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +13.11% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 166 70 88
10th Percentile £33.75 £22.00 £20.69
25th Percentile £46.25 £40.00 £38.15
Median hourly rate £57.50 £50.00 £46.20
Median % change year-on-year +15.00% +8.23% +2.67%
75th Percentile £65.00 £60.19 £52.50
90th Percentile £73.75 £65.50 £55.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £60.00 £47.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year +26.32% +5.56% -

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 13,104 9,025 9,751
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 14.84% 15.58% 20.01%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,915 5,937 6,330
10th Percentile £175 £185 £143
25th Percentile £340 £338 £263
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £450 £425
Median % change year-on-year +11.11% +5.88% -1.16%
75th Percentile £613 £550 £525
90th Percentile £700 £638 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £400
% change year-on-year +6.25% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 594 446 726
10th Percentile £13.25 £11.64 £11.63
25th Percentile £15.89 £13.50 £13.81
Median hourly rate £22.50 £17.50 £17.50
Median % change year-on-year +28.57% - +4.48%
75th Percentile £52.50 £43.56 £23.50
90th Percentile £65.00 £59.38 £47.67
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.00 £16.50 £17.00
% change year-on-year +21.21% -2.94% +7.19%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 20 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 20 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 20 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England 0 4,606 £575 +15.00% 1,329
Work from Home -11 2,552 £550 +10.00% 606
London -4 2,450 £605 +13.51% 455
UK excluding London +1 2,072 £509 +13.11% 939
South East -7 576 £538 +16.22% 226
North of England +10 439 £525 +16.67% 203
South West -2 315 £525 +13.51% 146
North West +15 293 £586 +30.22% 107
Midlands +11 274 £495 +22.98% 110
West Midlands +23 228 £495 +20.73% 56
East of England +5 219 £498 +15.36% 177
Scotland -8 195 £500 +11.11% 60
Yorkshire -12 118 £510 +7.94% 60
North East +11 51 £525 +20.00% 36
East Midlands -21 46 £475 +18.75% 54
Wales -4 44 £450 -18.18% 19
Northern Ireland +2 17 £500 +11.11% 4
Isle of Man - 2 - -

For the 6 months to 20 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 2,069 (37.19%) Windows
2 1,874 (33.69%) Python
3 1,817 (32.66%) AWS
4 1,747 (31.40%) DevOps
5 1,421 (25.54%) Agile
6 1,407 (25.29%) Java
7 1,337 (24.03%) Unix
8 1,324 (23.80%) Azure
9 1,296 (23.30%) Ansible
10 1,295 (23.28%) Security Cleared
11 1,291 (23.21%) Terraform
12 1,239 (22.27%) CI/CD
13 1,231 (22.13%) Docker
14 1,208 (21.71%) Kubernetes
15 1,163 (20.91%) SQL
16 1,102 (19.81%) Social Skills
17 1,092 (19.63%) Git (software)
18 1,086 (19.52%) SC Cleared
19 974 (17.51%) Jenkins
20 919 (16.52%) Finance
21 916 (16.47%) Oracle
22 851 (15.30%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23 817 (14.69%) VMware
24 808 (14.52%) Microsoft
25 746 (13.41%) Bash
26 704 (12.66%) Red Hat
27 698 (12.55%) JIRA
28 668 (12.01%) Problem-Solving
29 640 (11.50%) PowerShell
30 624 (11.22%) Configuration Management

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 412 (7.41%) Confluence
2 259 (4.66%) Apache
3 171 (3.07%) nginx
4 144 (2.59%) Tomcat
5 142 (2.55%) WebSphere
6 122 (2.19%) Apache Spark
7 120 (2.16%) WebLogic
8 113 (2.03%) Elasticsearch
9 106 (1.91%) IIS
10 97 (1.74%) OpenStack
11 86 (1.55%) JBoss
12 68 (1.22%) WebSphere Application Server
13 59 (1.06%) SharePoint
14 58 (1.04%) Red Hat Fuse
15 56 (1.01%) Mule
16 44 (0.79%) SAS
17 40 (0.72%) Apache Airflow
17 40 (0.72%) MS Exchange
18 36 (0.65%) Oracle Workflow
18 36 (0.65%) Traefik
Applications
1 109 (1.96%) Microsoft Office
2 81 (1.46%) Microsoft Excel
3 33 (0.59%) MS Visio
4 27 (0.49%) Simulink
5 26 (0.47%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 12 (0.22%) Microsoft Project
7 7 (0.13%) CATIA
8 2 (0.036%) AutoCAD
8 2 (0.036%) Spreadsheet
8 2 (0.036%) Stata
9 1 (0.018%) Adobe Captivate
9 1 (0.018%) Adobe XD
9 1 (0.018%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.018%) Pipeline Pilot
9 1 (0.018%) Snagit
9 1 (0.018%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 45 (0.81%) assyst
2 23 (0.41%) Oracle EBS
3 20 (0.36%) Oracle 11i
4 18 (0.32%) BusinessWorks
5 15 (0.27%) SAP FI-CA
5 15 (0.27%) SAP PSCD
6 14 (0.25%) RMDS
7 13 (0.23%) Magento
7 13 (0.23%) Oracle ERP
8 11 (0.20%) Oracle Applications
8 11 (0.20%) Shopify
8 11 (0.20%) Siebel CRM
9 8 (0.14%) SAP S/4HANA
10 7 (0.13%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
11 5 (0.090%) Oracle EBS R12
11 5 (0.090%) Salesforce.com CRM
12 4 (0.072%) Oracle Financials
13 3 (0.054%) SAP FI
13 3 (0.054%) Teamcenter
13 3 (0.054%) WebTrends
Cloud Services
1 1,817 (32.66%) AWS
2 1,324 (23.80%) Azure
3 428 (7.69%) GCP
4 314 (5.64%) PaaS
5 298 (5.36%) AWS CloudFormation
6 271 (4.87%) GitHub
7 265 (4.76%) Serverless
8 259 (4.66%) Amazon EC2
9 239 (4.30%) IaaS
10 215 (3.86%) Amazon S3
11 188 (3.38%) SaaS
12 184 (3.31%) Microsoft 365
12 184 (3.31%) OpenShift
13 168 (3.02%) AWS Lambda
14 160 (2.88%) Amazon CloudWatch
15 153 (2.75%) Amazon EKS
16 125 (2.25%) Virtual Private Cloud
17 114 (2.05%) Amazon ECS
18 98 (1.76%) Cloud Computing
19 96 (1.73%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 457 (8.21%) Firewall
2 447 (8.04%) DNS
3 283 (5.09%) TCP/IP
4 185 (3.33%) HTTP
5 181 (3.25%) VPN
6 173 (3.11%) DHCP
7 167 (3.00%) Network Security
8 143 (2.57%) SSL
9 124 (2.23%) WAN
10 123 (2.21%) SAN
11 106 (1.91%) Internet
12 99 (1.78%) SSH
13 83 (1.49%) LAN
14 72 (1.29%) IPsec
15 70 (1.26%) Ethernet
16 53 (0.95%) Kerberos
17 50 (0.90%) VLAN
18 46 (0.83%) NAS
19 45 (0.81%) Multicast
20 43 (0.77%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 502 (9.02%) SQL Server
2 371 (6.67%) MySQL
3 317 (5.70%) PostgreSQL
4 246 (4.42%) Relational Database
5 245 (4.40%) Oracle Database
6 214 (3.85%) MongoDB
7 190 (3.42%) NoSQL
8 153 (2.75%) Big Data
9 151 (2.71%) Amazon RDS
9 151 (2.71%) Hadoop
10 138 (2.48%) Data Warehouse
11 99 (1.78%) Oracle Database 12c
12 97 (1.74%) DB2
13 83 (1.49%) Redis
14 82 (1.47%) Pentaho
15 70 (1.26%) Oracle Database 11g
16 68 (1.22%) RDBMS
17 56 (1.01%) Apache Cassandra
17 56 (1.01%) Oracle Database 10g
18 53 (0.95%) Amazon DynamoDB
Development Applications
1 1,092 (19.63%) Git (software)
2 974 (17.51%) Jenkins
3 698 (12.55%) JIRA
4 461 (8.29%) GitLab
5 247 (4.44%) Bitbucket
6 162 (2.91%) Subversion
7 160 (2.88%) Artifactory
8 139 (2.50%) Maven
9 134 (2.41%) SonarQube
10 132 (2.37%) JUnit
11 126 (2.26%) Selenium
12 117 (2.10%) Sonatype Nexus
13 110 (1.98%) Cucumber
14 93 (1.67%) TeamCity
15 79 (1.42%) Eclipse
16 65 (1.17%) Visual Studio
17 60 (1.08%) Mockito
18 59 (1.06%) SoapUI
19 56 (1.01%) Gradle
20 54 (0.97%) Postman
General
1 1,102 (19.81%) Social Skills
2 919 (16.52%) Finance
3 452 (8.13%) Public Sector
4 426 (7.66%) Banking
5 416 (7.48%) Analytical Skills
6 267 (4.80%) Front Office
7 179 (3.22%) Investment Banking
8 157 (2.82%) Telecoms
9 126 (2.26%) Presentation Skills
10 92 (1.65%) Documentation Skills
11 77 (1.38%) Retail
12 65 (1.17%) Marketing
13 61 (1.10%) Financial Institution
14 54 (0.97%) Manufacturing
15 53 (0.95%) Electronics
16 46 (0.83%) Aerospace
17 41 (0.74%) Organisational Skills
18 40 (0.72%) Back Office
18 40 (0.72%) Games
19 39 (0.70%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 977 (17.56%) Developer
2 943 (16.95%) DevOps Engineer
3 458 (8.23%) Architect
4 339 (6.09%) Java Developer
5 320 (5.75%) AWS Engineer
6 303 (5.45%) Linux Engineer
7 263 (4.73%) Analyst
8 259 (4.66%) Infrastructure Engineer
9 242 (4.35%) Administrator
10 233 (4.19%) Software Engineer
11 189 (3.40%) AWS DevOps
12 182 (3.27%) Cloud Engineer
13 180 (3.24%) DBA
14 179 (3.22%) Python Developer
15 178 (3.20%) Consultant
16 174 (3.13%) AWS DevOps Engineer
17 173 (3.11%) Azure Engineer
18 168 (3.02%) Platform Engineer
19 138 (2.48%) Support Analyst
20 130 (2.34%) Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 304 (5.46%) Kafka
2 296 (5.32%) REST
3 270 (4.85%) Spring
4 259 (4.66%) Middleware
5 256 (4.60%) .NET
6 248 (4.46%) Elastic Stack
7 242 (4.35%) JSON
8 222 (3.99%) HTML
9 215 (3.86%) Web Services
10 198 (3.56%) React
11 189 (3.40%) CSS
12 169 (3.04%) Node.js
13 163 (2.93%) XML
14 156 (2.80%) RESTful
15 143 (2.57%) Django
16 120 (2.16%) Spring Boot
17 119 (2.14%) RabbitMQ
18 113 (2.03%) FIX Protocol
19 110 (1.98%) Flask
19 110 (1.98%) LDAP
Miscellaneous
1 319 (5.73%) Data Centre
2 250 (4.49%) Linux Command Line
3 211 (3.79%) Public Cloud
4 204 (3.67%) Clustering
5 144 (2.59%) Management Information System
6 141 (2.53%) Cloud Native
7 136 (2.44%) Algorithms
8 135 (2.43%) Data Protection Act
9 131 (2.35%) PKI
9 131 (2.35%) Self-Motivation
10 126 (2.26%) Replication
11 115 (2.07%) Private Cloud
12 105 (1.89%) Data Structures
13 100 (1.80%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 95 (1.71%) User Experience
15 75 (1.35%) Derivative
16 73 (1.31%) Hybrid Cloud
17 70 (1.26%) Fixed Income
18 69 (1.24%) Greenfield Project
19 63 (1.13%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 2,069 (37.19%) Windows
2 1,337 (24.03%) Unix
3 851 (15.30%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 503 (9.04%) Windows Server
5 290 (5.21%) CentOS
6 227 (4.08%) Ubuntu
7 172 (3.09%) Solaris
8 129 (2.32%) Windows 10
9 123 (2.21%) AIX
10 91 (1.64%) Windows Server 2019
11 82 (1.47%) Mac OS
12 75 (1.35%) Windows Server 2008
12 75 (1.35%) Windows Server 2012
12 75 (1.35%) Windows Server 2016
13 66 (1.19%) SUSE
14 57 (1.02%) Oracle Linux
15 55 (0.99%) Android
15 55 (0.99%) Mac OS X
15 55 (0.99%) VMS
16 45 (0.81%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,747 (31.40%) DevOps
2 1,421 (25.54%) Agile
3 1,239 (22.27%) CI/CD
4 668 (12.01%) Problem-Solving
5 624 (11.22%) Configuration Management
6 576 (10.35%) Infrastructure as Code
7 547 (9.83%) Test Automation
8 537 (9.65%) Software Engineering
9 523 (9.40%) Continuous Integration
10 455 (8.18%) Microservices
11 410 (7.37%) Scrum
12 401 (7.21%) Migration
13 387 (6.96%) Infrastructure Engineering
14 385 (6.92%) ITIL
15 346 (6.22%) TDD
16 311 (5.59%) Analytics
17 298 (5.36%) Continuous Delivery
18 275 (4.94%) High Availability
19 273 (4.91%) Cybersecurity
20 266 (4.78%) Platform Engineering
Programming Languages
1 1,874 (33.69%) Python
2 1,407 (25.29%) Java
3 1,163 (20.91%) SQL
4 746 (13.41%) Bash
5 640 (11.50%) PowerShell
6 484 (8.70%) JavaScript
7 438 (7.87%) Shell Script
8 401 (7.21%) C++
9 302 (5.43%) C#
10 289 (5.20%) Perl
11 288 (5.18%) C
12 255 (4.58%) Go
13 235 (4.22%) Ruby
14 200 (3.60%) PL/SQL
15 140 (2.52%) Scala
16 136 (2.44%) Groovy
17 98 (1.76%) PHP
17 98 (1.76%) TypeScript
18 55 (0.99%) R
19 43 (0.77%) Korn
Qualifications
1 1,295 (23.28%) Security Cleared
2 1,086 (19.52%) SC Cleared
3 277 (4.98%) Degree
4 223 (4.01%) DV Cleared
5 102 (1.83%) AWS Certification
6 93 (1.67%) Computer Science Degree
7 85 (1.53%) BPSS Clearance
8 71 (1.28%) Cisco Certification
9 58 (1.04%) CISSP
10 54 (0.97%) Microsoft Certification
11 51 (0.92%) RHCE
12 41 (0.74%) CCNA
13 31 (0.56%) Master's Degree
14 30 (0.54%) ISTQB
15 29 (0.52%) MCSE
16 26 (0.47%) CCNP
17 25 (0.45%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
17 25 (0.45%) PhD
17 25 (0.45%) RHCSA
18 24 (0.43%) ISEB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 180 (3.24%) QA
2 76 (1.37%) SLA
3 60 (1.08%) GDPR
4 54 (0.97%) NIST
5 43 (0.77%) NCSC
6 41 (0.74%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 33 (0.59%) Accessibility
8 26 (0.47%) Data Quality
9 22 (0.40%) COBIT
10 17 (0.31%) PCI DSS
11 14 (0.25%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 12 (0.22%) Disclosure Scotland
12 12 (0.22%) SEPA
13 9 (0.16%) HL7
13 9 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27005
13 9 (0.16%) JSP 440
13 9 (0.16%) PMO
14 8 (0.14%) Cyber Essentials
14 8 (0.14%) DICOM
14 8 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 1,231 (22.13%) Docker
2 580 (10.43%) VMware Infrastructure
3 529 (9.51%) Active Directory
4 129 (2.32%) vSphere
5 118 (2.12%) Virtual Machines
6 106 (1.91%) VMware ESXi
7 105 (1.89%) Oracle RAC
8 100 (1.80%) Hyper-V
9 75 (1.35%) NFS
10 63 (1.13%) HDFS
11 62 (1.11%) VMware NSX
12 41 (0.74%) Virtual Servers
13 32 (0.58%) Firmware
14 28 (0.50%) KVM
15 23 (0.41%) vCloud
15 23 (0.41%) XenApp
16 22 (0.40%) Virtual Desktop
17 21 (0.38%) Citrix Hypervisor
17 21 (0.38%) VMware Workstation
18 19 (0.34%) Ceph
Systems Management
1 1,296 (23.30%) Ansible
2 1,291 (23.21%) Terraform
3 1,208 (21.71%) Kubernetes
4 478 (8.59%) Puppet
5 253 (4.55%) Prometheus
6 221 (3.97%) Opscode Chef
7 209 (3.76%) Grafana
8 164 (2.95%) Packer
9 118 (2.12%) Consul
10 109 (1.96%) Docker Swarm
11 106 (1.91%) SCCM
12 98 (1.76%) Data Guard
13 84 (1.51%) Nagios
14 83 (1.49%) vRealize
15 79 (1.42%) Kibana
15 79 (1.42%) ZABBIX
16 67 (1.20%) Istio
17 62 (1.11%) Oracle RMAN
18 58 (1.04%) HAProxy
19 56 (1.01%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 916 (16.47%) Oracle
2 817 (14.69%) VMware
3 808 (14.52%) Microsoft
4 704 (12.66%) Red Hat
5 347 (6.24%) Splunk
6 264 (4.75%) IBM
7 254 (4.57%) Cisco
8 229 (4.12%) Google
9 165 (2.97%) Citrix
10 154 (2.77%) Atlassian
11 137 (2.46%) ServiceNow
12 134 (2.41%) SAP
13 102 (1.83%) Dell
14 96 (1.73%) HP
15 85 (1.53%) AppDynamics
16 79 (1.42%) NetApp
17 77 (1.38%) Sybase
18 74 (1.33%) SolarWinds
19 73 (1.31%) Cloudera
20 63 (1.13%) Informatica