Period
to 24 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 24 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
24 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 30 20 19
Rank change year-on-year -10 -1 -3
Contract jobs citing Linux 5,228 2,426 6,310
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.22% 7.62% 7.47%
As % of the Operating Systems category 40.81% 41.32% 35.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,589 1,597 3,954
10th Percentile £381 £319 £320
25th Percentile £450 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £543 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +8.50% - -
75th Percentile £638 £575 £588
90th Percentile £700 £650 £672
UK excluding London median daily rate £493 £450 £451
% change year-on-year +9.50% -0.14% +0.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 113 49 169
10th Percentile £36.25 £24.60 £20.00
25th Percentile £44.25 £30.54 £35.50
Median hourly rate £55.00 £40.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +37.50% -11.11% +5.88%
75th Percentile £70.25 £47.50 £50.00
90th Percentile £78.12 £57.50 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £60.00 £42.25 £44.75
% change year-on-year +42.01% -5.59% +5.29%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 12,810 5,871 17,643
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 15.23% 18.44% 20.88%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,755 3,792 11,217
10th Percentile £165 £170 £148
25th Percentile £339 £315 £263
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £438 £425
Median % change year-on-year +8.57% +2.94% -
75th Percentile £585 £538 £538
90th Percentile £675 £613 £616
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £390
% change year-on-year - +2.56% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 690 303 1,194
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.17 £11.17
25th Percentile £13.88 £13.25 £14.00
Median hourly rate £17.50 £18.00 £17.50
Median % change year-on-year -2.78% +2.86% +2.94%
75th Percentile £41.96 £37.00 £39.00
90th Percentile £63.00 £52.50 £48.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.83 £17.43 £16.50
% change year-on-year -3.47% +5.64% +3.13%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 24 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 24 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 24 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -10 4,197 £550 +10.00% 2,153
London -12 2,261 £575 +9.52% 853
UK excluding London -6 1,900 £493 +9.50% 1,418
Work from Home -1 1,581 £540 +8.00% 405
South East -11 477 £525 +9.38% 345
North of England -9 370 £475 -2.56% 351
South West +13 315 £488 +5.41% 196
Midlands +3 301 £475 +11.37% 208
West Midlands +1 234 £475 +9.95% 123
North West -3 202 £500 +2.56% 194
East of England -6 192 £513 +31.41% 179
Scotland -25 186 £475 +15.85% 83
Yorkshire -11 147 £450 -10.00% 114
East Midlands -10 60 £475 +25.08% 83
Wales -5 38 £498 +30.07% 39
Northern Ireland +10 28 £472 +9.40% 17
North East -10 23 £450 -5.26% 43

For the 6 months to 24 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,870 (35.77%) Windows
2 1,823 (34.87%) DevOps
3 1,732 (33.13%) Python
4 1,553 (29.71%) AWS
5 1,499 (28.67%) Agile Software Development
6 1,342 (25.67%) Ansible
7 1,310 (25.06%) Java
8 1,240 (23.72%) Azure
9 1,228 (23.49%) Terraform
10 1,193 (22.82%) Docker
11 1,104 (21.12%) Unix
12 1,102 (21.08%) SQL
13 1,080 (20.66%) Kubernetes
14 1,020 (19.51%) Jenkins
15 968 (18.52%) Social Skills
16 950 (18.17%) Git (software)
17 850 (16.26%) Security Cleared
18 848 (16.22%) Finance
19 835 (15.97%) Bash Shell
20 829 (15.86%) Oracle
21 768 (14.69%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
22 714 (13.66%) SC Cleared
23 674 (12.89%) VMware
24 668 (12.78%) Red Hat
25 615 (11.76%) JIRA
26 595 (11.38%) Problem-Solving
27 570 (10.90%) Configuration Management
27 570 (10.90%) Test Automation
28 563 (10.77%) Microservices
29 545 (10.42%) Software Engineering

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 377 (7.21%) Confluence
2 246 (4.71%) Apache
3 166 (3.18%) Tomcat
4 131 (2.51%) Apache Spark
4 131 (2.51%) WebLogic
5 112 (2.14%) Elasticsearch
6 103 (1.97%) IIS
7 98 (1.87%) WebSphere
8 96 (1.84%) SharePoint
9 91 (1.74%) OpenStack
10 87 (1.66%) nginx
11 80 (1.53%) SAS
12 75 (1.43%) JBoss
13 63 (1.21%) Mule
14 44 (0.84%) CMS
15 36 (0.69%) MS Exchange
16 27 (0.52%) Cloud Foundry
17 25 (0.48%) Oracle Workflow
18 24 (0.46%) Red Hat Fuse
18 24 (0.46%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 87 (1.66%) Microsoft Office
2 60 (1.15%) Microsoft Excel
3 22 (0.42%) MS Visio
4 14 (0.27%) Simulink
5 10 (0.19%) Microsoft Project
6 9 (0.17%) Spreadsheet
7 7 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 6 (0.11%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 2 (0.038%) Chatbot
9 2 (0.038%) Doxygen
10 1 (0.019%) Houdini
10 1 (0.019%) Maya
10 1 (0.019%) NUKE
10 1 (0.019%) SOLIDWORKS
10 1 (0.019%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 25 (0.48%) SAP S/4HANA
2 17 (0.33%) Oracle ERP
3 15 (0.29%) ION MarketView
3 15 (0.29%) Magento
4 14 (0.27%) Oracle EBS
5 13 (0.25%) Oracle EBS R12
6 9 (0.17%) Oracle Financials
7 8 (0.15%) BusinessWorks
7 8 (0.15%) Sentinel
8 7 (0.13%) Oracle Applications
8 7 (0.13%) Oracle BPM
9 6 (0.11%) NetSuite
9 6 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
10 5 (0.096%) assyst
10 5 (0.096%) Dynamics CRM
10 5 (0.096%) SAP Oil and Gas
11 4 (0.077%) Markit EDM
11 4 (0.077%) Summit
12 3 (0.057%) Shopify
12 3 (0.057%) TIBCO iProcess
Cloud Services
1 1,553 (29.71%) AWS
2 1,240 (23.72%) Azure
3 402 (7.69%) GCP
4 369 (7.06%) GitHub
5 346 (6.62%) PaaS
6 297 (5.68%) IaaS
7 206 (3.94%) Serverless
8 204 (3.90%) AWS CloudFormation
9 196 (3.75%) SaaS
10 179 (3.42%) Amazon EC2
11 166 (3.18%) Amazon S3
12 161 (3.08%) OpenShift
13 150 (2.87%) Microsoft 365
14 148 (2.83%) AWS Lambda
15 130 (2.49%) Amazon EKS
16 115 (2.20%) Virtual Private Cloud
17 102 (1.95%) Cloud Computing
18 92 (1.76%) Azure Active Directory
19 90 (1.72%) Amazon ECS
20 72 (1.38%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 537 (10.27%) Firewall
2 377 (7.21%) DNS
3 264 (5.05%) TCP/IP
4 220 (4.21%) HTTP
5 158 (3.02%) SAN
6 154 (2.95%) Network Security
7 145 (2.77%) VPN
8 138 (2.64%) SSL
9 125 (2.39%) WAN
10 101 (1.93%) LAN
11 94 (1.80%) DHCP
12 80 (1.53%) Internet
13 65 (1.24%) NAS
14 57 (1.09%) IPv4
14 57 (1.09%) Wireless
15 53 (1.01%) Multicast
16 48 (0.92%) SNMP
16 48 (0.92%) SSH
17 47 (0.90%) Kerberos
17 47 (0.90%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 395 (7.56%) SQL Server
2 350 (6.69%) MySQL
3 264 (5.05%) Relational Database
4 251 (4.80%) Big Data
5 248 (4.74%) MongoDB
6 244 (4.67%) PostgreSQL
7 217 (4.15%) NoSQL
8 194 (3.71%) Oracle Database
9 177 (3.39%) Hadoop
10 100 (1.91%) Data Warehouse
11 99 (1.89%) Apache Hive
12 96 (1.84%) Apache Cassandra
13 92 (1.76%) Amazon RDS
14 81 (1.55%) Redis
15 73 (1.40%) HBase
15 73 (1.40%) RDBMS
16 71 (1.36%) DB2
17 65 (1.24%) Data Lake
18 58 (1.11%) Tableau
19 53 (1.01%) BusinessObjects
Development Applications
1 1,020 (19.51%) Jenkins
2 950 (18.17%) Git (software)
3 615 (11.76%) JIRA
4 369 (7.06%) GitLab
5 252 (4.82%) Maven
6 236 (4.51%) Bitbucket
7 157 (3.00%) Sonatype Nexus
8 145 (2.77%) Artifactory
9 135 (2.58%) JUnit
10 124 (2.37%) Subversion
11 111 (2.12%) SonarQube
12 94 (1.80%) TeamCity
13 88 (1.68%) Selenium
14 70 (1.34%) Mockito
14 70 (1.34%) Visual Studio
15 66 (1.26%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 63 (1.21%) Eclipse
17 62 (1.19%) Gradle
18 60 (1.15%) Cucumber
19 43 (0.82%) Postman
General
1 968 (18.52%) Social Skills
2 848 (16.22%) Finance
3 469 (8.97%) Banking
4 376 (7.19%) Public Sector
5 321 (6.14%) Analytical Skills
6 207 (3.96%) Investment Banking
7 176 (3.37%) Front Office
8 124 (2.37%) Telecoms
9 87 (1.66%) Presentation Skills
10 66 (1.26%) Electronics
11 64 (1.22%) Documentation Skills
12 61 (1.17%) Marketing
13 59 (1.13%) Law
14 58 (1.11%) Retail
15 57 (1.09%) Financial Institution
16 56 (1.07%) Games
17 54 (1.03%) Legal
18 48 (0.92%) Manufacturing
19 34 (0.65%) Organisational Skills
20 33 (0.63%) Military
Job Titles
1 1,074 (20.54%) Developer
2 872 (16.68%) DevOps Engineer
3 406 (7.77%) Java Developer
4 378 (7.23%) Architect
5 255 (4.88%) Administrator
6 253 (4.84%) AWS Engineer
7 246 (4.71%) Consultant
8 233 (4.46%) Linux Engineer
9 219 (4.19%) Azure Engineer
10 205 (3.92%) Software Engineer
11 183 (3.50%) Python Developer
12 180 (3.44%) Senior Developer
13 179 (3.42%) Cloud Engineer
14 170 (3.25%) Infrastructure Engineer
15 164 (3.14%) AWS DevOps
16 161 (3.08%) Analyst
17 149 (2.85%) AWS DevOps Engineer
18 134 (2.56%) Platform Engineer
19 127 (2.43%) Systems Administrator
20 123 (2.35%) Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 394 (7.54%) Spring
2 339 (6.48%) REST
3 328 (6.27%) Web Services
4 286 (5.47%) Kafka
5 271 (5.18%) JSON
6 229 (4.38%) Node.js
7 214 (4.09%) Middleware
8 205 (3.92%) .NET
9 193 (3.69%) HTML
10 188 (3.60%) Spring Boot
11 187 (3.58%) XML
12 186 (3.56%) Elastic Stack
13 175 (3.35%) RESTful
14 142 (2.72%) CSS
15 135 (2.58%) SOAP
16 134 (2.56%) React
17 123 (2.35%) J2EE
18 122 (2.33%) Apache Camel
19 111 (2.12%) AngularJS
19 111 (2.12%) LDAP
Miscellaneous
1 302 (5.78%) Data Centre
2 194 (3.71%) Public Cloud
3 166 (3.18%) Linux Command Line
4 149 (2.85%) Data Protection Act
5 146 (2.79%) Algorithms
6 144 (2.75%) Clustering
7 126 (2.41%) Management Information System
8 122 (2.33%) Data Structures
9 104 (1.99%) Self-Motivation
10 96 (1.84%) Cloud Native
11 91 (1.74%) Derivative
11 91 (1.74%) Fixed Income
12 90 (1.72%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 85 (1.63%) PKI
14 81 (1.55%) Private Cloud
15 78 (1.49%) Replication
16 75 (1.43%) User Experience
17 68 (1.30%) Hybrid Cloud
18 59 (1.13%) Enterprise Software
19 50 (0.96%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 1,870 (35.77%) Windows
2 1,104 (21.12%) Unix
3 768 (14.69%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 433 (8.28%) Windows Server
5 219 (4.19%) CentOS
6 203 (3.88%) Ubuntu
7 163 (3.12%) Solaris
8 125 (2.39%) AIX
9 99 (1.89%) VMS
10 76 (1.45%) Windows Server 2016
11 72 (1.38%) Windows 10
12 69 (1.32%) Windows Server 2012
13 63 (1.21%) Windows Server 2019
14 61 (1.17%) Mac OS
15 54 (1.03%) Mac OS X
16 53 (1.01%) SUSE
17 47 (0.90%) Debian
18 36 (0.69%) Android
19 34 (0.65%) HPUX
20 33 (0.63%) Amazon Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,823 (34.87%) DevOps
2 1,499 (28.67%) Agile Software Development
3 595 (11.38%) Problem-Solving
4 570 (10.90%) Configuration Management
4 570 (10.90%) Test Automation
5 563 (10.77%) Microservices
6 545 (10.42%) Software Engineering
7 499 (9.54%) Infrastructure as Code
8 476 (9.10%) Continuous Integration
9 475 (9.09%) Scrum
10 472 (9.03%) Migration
11 381 (7.29%) TDD
12 299 (5.72%) ITIL
13 279 (5.34%) Infrastructure Engineering
14 256 (4.90%) Analytics
15 248 (4.74%) Cybersecurity
16 243 (4.65%) Site Reliability Engineering
17 231 (4.42%) OO
18 228 (4.36%) Open Source
19 222 (4.25%) High Availability
Programming Languages
1 1,732 (33.13%) Python
2 1,310 (25.06%) Java
3 1,102 (21.08%) SQL
4 835 (15.97%) Bash Shell
5 532 (10.18%) PowerShell
6 499 (9.54%) JavaScript
7 403 (7.71%) Shell Script
8 368 (7.04%) C++
9 284 (5.43%) Perl
10 224 (4.28%) C#
11 220 (4.21%) C
12 195 (3.73%) PL/SQL
13 188 (3.60%) Ruby
14 180 (3.44%) Java 8
15 174 (3.33%) Go
16 169 (3.23%) Scala
17 152 (2.91%) Groovy
18 147 (2.81%) PHP
19 101 (1.93%) TypeScript
20 78 (1.49%) Java 11
Qualifications
1 850 (16.26%) Security Cleared
2 714 (13.66%) SC Cleared
3 285 (5.45%) Degree
4 162 (3.10%) DV Cleared
5 91 (1.74%) Computer Science Degree
6 78 (1.49%) Cisco Certification
7 63 (1.21%) BPSS Clearance
8 60 (1.15%) AWS Certification
9 57 (1.09%) CCNA
10 48 (0.92%) Microsoft Certification
11 47 (0.90%) CISSP
12 37 (0.71%) RHCE
13 32 (0.61%) MCSE
14 31 (0.59%) CCNP
15 29 (0.55%) MCSA
16 27 (0.52%) CEH
16 27 (0.52%) ITIL Certification
17 25 (0.48%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
18 24 (0.46%) Master's Degree
18 24 (0.46%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 115 (2.20%) QA
2 66 (1.26%) SLA
3 55 (1.05%) GDPR
4 45 (0.86%) Accessibility
4 45 (0.86%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 42 (0.80%) NCSC
6 34 (0.65%) PCI DSS
7 32 (0.61%) NIST
8 28 (0.54%) Data Quality
9 20 (0.38%) GRC
10 14 (0.27%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 12 (0.23%) COBIT
11 12 (0.23%) Cyber Essentials
11 12 (0.23%) ISO 9001
12 11 (0.21%) Disclosure Scotland
13 9 (0.17%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
13 9 (0.17%) PMO
14 8 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 27005
15 6 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 20000
15 6 (0.11%) JTAG
System Software
1 1,193 (22.82%) Docker
2 472 (9.03%) Active Directory
3 439 (8.40%) VMware Infrastructure
4 148 (2.83%) Virtual Machines
5 111 (2.12%) vSphere
6 92 (1.76%) Hyper-V
7 91 (1.74%) VMware ESXi
8 88 (1.68%) NFS
9 69 (1.32%) HDFS
10 60 (1.15%) VMware NSX
11 46 (0.88%) Oracle RAC
12 44 (0.84%) Virtual Servers
13 33 (0.63%) KVM
14 24 (0.46%) Firmware
14 24 (0.46%) Virtual Desktop
15 18 (0.34%) Xen
16 17 (0.33%) Ceph
17 15 (0.29%) LXC
18 14 (0.27%) Veritas Volume Manager
19 13 (0.25%) SRDF
Systems Management
1 1,342 (25.67%) Ansible
2 1,228 (23.49%) Terraform
3 1,080 (20.66%) Kubernetes
4 465 (8.89%) Puppet
5 241 (4.61%) Opscode Chef
6 183 (3.50%) Grafana
7 174 (3.33%) Prometheus
8 119 (2.28%) Packer
9 80 (1.53%) Kibana
10 73 (1.40%) Docker Swarm
11 68 (1.30%) Istio
12 67 (1.28%) SCCM
13 60 (1.15%) Nagios
14 53 (1.01%) Red Hat Satellite
15 51 (0.98%) vRealize
16 49 (0.94%) vCenter Server
17 48 (0.92%) ZABBIX
18 46 (0.88%) Data Guard
18 46 (0.88%) Nessus
18 46 (0.88%) NetBackup
Vendors
1 829 (15.86%) Oracle
2 674 (12.89%) VMware
3 668 (12.78%) Red Hat
4 540 (10.33%) Microsoft
5 252 (4.82%) Splunk
6 211 (4.04%) Cisco
7 204 (3.90%) Google
8 183 (3.50%) IBM
9 167 (3.19%) SAP
10 129 (2.47%) Citrix
11 125 (2.39%) Informatica
12 113 (2.16%) Atlassian
13 104 (1.99%) HP
14 95 (1.82%) NetApp
15 94 (1.80%) EMC
16 90 (1.72%) ServiceNow
17 83 (1.59%) Sybase
18 81 (1.55%) Dell
19 75 (1.43%) Cloudera
20 68 (1.30%) F5