Period
to 25 September 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 25 September 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
25 Sep 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 21 18 16
Rank change year-on-year -3 -2 -4
Contract jobs citing Linux 2,210 6,811 8,503
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 7.43% 7.71% 8.27%
As % of the Operating Systems category 40.45% 37.30% 39.90%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,534 4,316 5,579
Median daily rate £500 £500 £500
10th Percentile £313 £325 £325
90th Percentile £650 £656 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £463 £450
% change year-on-year -2.70% +2.78% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 71 205 214
Median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.22% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £25.00 £20.00 £17.50
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £53.53
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £45.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year -11.11% +5.88% +6.25%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 5,463 18,259 21,310
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 18.38% 20.67% 20.72%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,302 11,389 13,200
Median daily rate £438 £425 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.94% - -
10th Percentile £180 £150 £170
90th Percentile £625 £619 £606
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £390
% change year-on-year - +2.56% +4.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 326 1,240 1,526
Median hourly rate £20.00 £17.50 £17.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +14.29% +2.94% -2.86%
10th Percentile £11.62 £11.17 £11.00
90th Percentile £47.83 £50.00 £47.50
Median hourly rate £19.00 £16.56 £16.00
% change year-on-year +14.75% +3.48% -3.03%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 25 September 2020.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 25 September 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 25 September 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 1,977 £500 - 1,202
London +5 1,110 £513 -6.82% 444
UK excluding London -6 951 £450 -2.70% 841
Work from Home -11 281 £486 -2.75% 206
South East +4 273 £463 - 196
North of England -6 224 £490 +3.16% 192
South West -15 128 £481 +1.21% 148
North West -2 114 £500 +6.67% 115
Scotland -10 104 £425 -10.53% 53
East of England -5 103 £390 -8.24% 114
Midlands -3 95 £428 -4.89% 101
Yorkshire -6 83 £450 -5.26% 64
West Midlands -2 72 £435 -5.95% 71
North East 0 27 £495 +5.88% 13
East Midlands -15 22 £380 -15.56% 30
Wales -16 13 £400 -15.79% 26
Northern Ireland -8 11 £431 -15.90% 12

For the 6 months to 25 September 2020, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 713 (32.26%) Python
2 681 (30.81%) Windows
3 635 (28.73%) DevOps
4 603 (27.29%) Unix
5 595 (26.92%) Java
5 595 (26.92%) Agile Software Development
6 531 (24.03%) AWS
7 505 (22.85%) Security Cleared
8 487 (22.04%) Docker
9 454 (20.54%) Kubernetes
10 436 (19.73%) Azure
11 413 (18.69%) SQL
12 405 (18.33%) Oracle
12 405 (18.33%) SC Cleared
13 404 (18.28%) Ansible
14 393 (17.78%) Git (software)
15 373 (16.88%) Terraform
16 357 (16.15%) Jenkins
17 342 (15.48%) Finance
18 330 (14.93%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
19 325 (14.71%) Bash Shell
20 303 (13.71%) Test Automation
21 292 (13.21%) Puppet
22 270 (12.22%) Red Hat
23 265 (11.99%) VMware
24 257 (11.63%) JavaScript
25 246 (11.13%) Microservices
26 241 (10.90%) JIRA
27 235 (10.63%) Configuration Management
28 230 (10.41%) Shell Script

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 157 (7.10%) Confluence
2 117 (5.29%) Apache
3 96 (4.34%) Tomcat
4 71 (3.21%) JBoss
5 69 (3.12%) WebLogic
6 57 (2.58%) Oracle SOA Suite
7 54 (2.44%) WebSphere
8 52 (2.35%) Elasticsearch
9 43 (1.95%) nginx
10 37 (1.67%) Mule
11 36 (1.63%) SharePoint
12 34 (1.54%) Apache Spark
12 34 (1.54%) OpenStack
13 28 (1.27%) Red Hat Fuse
14 25 (1.13%) WebSphere Application Server
15 23 (1.04%) IIS
16 15 (0.68%) Jupyter
17 14 (0.63%) MS Exchange
18 13 (0.59%) Apache Geronimo
18 13 (0.59%) Apache TomEE
Applications
1 29 (1.31%) Microsoft Office
2 22 (1.00%) Microsoft Excel
3 6 (0.27%) MS Visio
4 4 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
5 3 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.14%) SOLIDWORKS
6 2 (0.090%) Doxygen
6 2 (0.090%) LaTeX
7 1 (0.045%) EngageOne
7 1 (0.045%) Notepad++
7 1 (0.045%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.045%) SPSS
7 1 (0.045%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 30 (1.36%) Oracle Applications
2 12 (0.54%) Oracle EBS
3 11 (0.50%) Magento
3 11 (0.50%) Oracle ERP
4 10 (0.45%) Oracle EBS R12
4 10 (0.45%) SAP FI-CA
4 10 (0.45%) Sentinel
5 7 (0.32%) Documaker
5 7 (0.32%) ION MarketView
6 5 (0.23%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 4 (0.18%) Oracle BPM
7 4 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
7 4 (0.18%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 3 (0.14%) SAP S/4HANA
8 3 (0.14%) SunGard Martini
9 2 (0.090%) assyst
9 2 (0.090%) BusinessWorks
9 2 (0.090%) ResourceLink
9 2 (0.090%) Siebel CRM
10 1 (0.045%) HiPortfolio
Cloud Services
1 531 (24.03%) AWS
2 436 (19.73%) Azure
3 120 (5.43%) GitHub
4 106 (4.80%) Amazon EC2
5 104 (4.71%) GCP
5 104 (4.71%) PaaS
6 92 (4.16%) Amazon S3
7 91 (4.12%) OpenShift
8 84 (3.80%) Serverless
9 75 (3.39%) AWS CloudFormation
10 70 (3.17%) AWS Lambda
11 67 (3.03%) IaaS
12 58 (2.62%) SaaS
13 54 (2.44%) Amazon CloudWatch
14 50 (2.26%) Virtual Private Cloud
15 43 (1.95%) Office 365
16 37 (1.67%) Amazon ECS
17 33 (1.49%) Route 53
18 30 (1.36%) Cloud Computing
19 27 (1.22%) Datadog
Communications & Networking
1 200 (9.05%) Firewall
2 199 (9.00%) DNS
3 131 (5.93%) TCP/IP
4 110 (4.98%) HTTP
5 97 (4.39%) DHCP
6 78 (3.53%) VPN
7 69 (3.12%) WAN
8 56 (2.53%) Internet
8 56 (2.53%) LAN
9 48 (2.17%) SNMP
10 47 (2.13%) SSL
11 46 (2.08%) SAN
12 45 (2.04%) Network Security
13 40 (1.81%) VLAN
14 35 (1.58%) SSH
15 32 (1.45%) OSPF
16 27 (1.22%) Kerberos
16 27 (1.22%) Reverse Proxy
16 27 (1.22%) Wi-Fi
17 26 (1.18%) DMZ
Database & Business Intelligence
1 223 (10.09%) MySQL
2 176 (7.96%) SQL Server
3 170 (7.69%) MongoDB
4 144 (6.52%) Relational Database
5 118 (5.34%) Oracle Database
6 106 (4.80%) PostgreSQL
7 98 (4.43%) NoSQL
8 82 (3.71%) Big Data
9 80 (3.62%) Hadoop
10 63 (2.85%) Amazon RDS
11 45 (2.04%) RDBMS
12 43 (1.95%) Oracle Database 12c
13 38 (1.72%) Data Warehouse
14 30 (1.36%) Oracle Database 11g
15 29 (1.31%) DB2
16 27 (1.22%) Redis
16 27 (1.22%) SQL Server Integration Services
17 24 (1.09%) Data Lake
18 23 (1.04%) MariaDB
19 22 (1.00%) Oracle ODI
Development Applications
1 393 (17.78%) Git (software)
2 357 (16.15%) Jenkins
3 241 (10.90%) JIRA
4 100 (4.52%) GitLab
4 100 (4.52%) Subversion
5 95 (4.30%) Maven
6 89 (4.03%) Bitbucket
7 72 (3.26%) Atlassian Bamboo
8 64 (2.90%) Mockito
9 61 (2.76%) Cucumber
10 60 (2.71%) JUnit
11 55 (2.49%) SonarQube
12 52 (2.35%) Selenium
12 52 (2.35%) TeamCity
13 46 (2.08%) Sonatype Nexus
14 44 (1.99%) Artifactory
14 44 (1.99%) Gradle
15 42 (1.90%) JMeter
16 32 (1.45%) Jasmine
16 32 (1.45%) Visual Studio
General
1 342 (15.48%) Finance
2 189 (8.55%) Public Sector
3 187 (8.46%) Banking
4 105 (4.75%) Front Office
5 103 (4.66%) Investment Banking
6 61 (2.76%) Telecoms
7 32 (1.45%) Electronics
7 32 (1.45%) Manufacturing
7 32 (1.45%) Marketing
8 22 (1.00%) Aerospace
9 20 (0.90%) Law
10 18 (0.81%) French Language
10 18 (0.81%) Retail
11 15 (0.68%) Financial Institution
12 14 (0.63%) Back Office
12 14 (0.63%) Military
13 7 (0.32%) Advertising
14 6 (0.27%) Games
14 6 (0.27%) Pharmaceutical
15 5 (0.23%) Legal
Job Titles
1 603 (27.29%) Developer
2 321 (14.52%) DevOps Engineer
3 206 (9.32%) Java Developer
4 155 (7.01%) Linux Engineer
5 140 (6.33%) Administrator
6 137 (6.20%) AWS Engineer
7 115 (5.20%) Analyst
8 111 (5.02%) Architect
9 100 (4.52%) AWS DevOps
10 95 (4.30%) Cloud Engineer
11 92 (4.16%) AWS DevOps Engineer
12 88 (3.98%) Senior Developer
13 77 (3.48%) Systems Administrator
14 73 (3.30%) Infrastructure Engineer
15 72 (3.26%) DBA
16 69 (3.12%) Python Developer
17 67 (3.03%) Consultant
18 65 (2.94%) C++ Developer
19 60 (2.71%) Software Engineer
20 56 (2.53%) Oracle DBA
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 161 (7.29%) HTML
2 148 (6.70%) Web Services
3 147 (6.65%) REST
4 135 (6.11%) Middleware
5 122 (5.52%) Spring
6 109 (4.93%) Node.js
7 106 (4.80%) CSS
8 105 (4.75%) .NET
9 97 (4.39%) Kafka
10 87 (3.94%) XML
11 70 (3.17%) JSON
12 68 (3.08%) RESTful
13 66 (2.99%) JAX-RS
14 65 (2.94%) RabbitMQ
15 63 (2.85%) LDAP
16 62 (2.81%) AngularJS
17 61 (2.76%) LAMP
18 59 (2.67%) Elastic Stack
18 59 (2.67%) jQuery
19 58 (2.62%) Oracle Fusion
Miscellaneous
1 170 (7.69%) Analytical Skills
2 106 (4.80%) Linux Command Line
3 81 (3.67%) Data Centre
4 69 (3.12%) Public Cloud
5 59 (2.67%) Fixed Income
6 54 (2.44%) Clustering
7 51 (2.31%) User Experience
8 47 (2.13%) Management Information System
9 45 (2.04%) Algorithms
10 38 (1.72%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 35 (1.58%) PKI
11 35 (1.58%) Self-Motivation
12 33 (1.49%) Cloud Native
12 33 (1.49%) Derivative
12 33 (1.49%) Private Cloud
13 32 (1.45%) Greenfield Project
14 29 (1.31%) Data Structures
14 29 (1.31%) Device Driver
15 28 (1.27%) Virtual Team
16 26 (1.18%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 681 (30.81%) Windows
2 603 (27.29%) Unix
3 330 (14.93%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 147 (6.65%) Windows Server
5 143 (6.47%) CentOS
6 115 (5.20%) Mac OS X
7 83 (3.76%) Solaris
8 70 (3.17%) Ubuntu
9 50 (2.26%) Windows 10
10 48 (2.17%) AIX
10 48 (2.17%) Windows Server 2016
11 39 (1.76%) Debian
12 27 (1.22%) Windows Server 2012
13 25 (1.13%) Oracle Linux
14 23 (1.04%) Android
14 23 (1.04%) Windows Server 2019
15 21 (0.95%) Embedded Linux
16 20 (0.90%) SUSE
17 17 (0.77%) Apple iOS
18 16 (0.72%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 635 (28.73%) DevOps
2 595 (26.92%) Agile Software Development
3 303 (13.71%) Test Automation
4 246 (11.13%) Microservices
5 235 (10.63%) Configuration Management
6 230 (10.41%) Continuous Integration
7 225 (10.18%) TDD
8 216 (9.77%) Problem-Solving
9 176 (7.96%) Scrum
10 172 (7.78%) Infrastructure as Code
11 157 (7.10%) Migration
12 146 (6.61%) Software Engineering
13 139 (6.29%) Continuous Deployment
14 133 (6.02%) Open Source
15 121 (5.48%) Continuous Delivery
16 111 (5.02%) BDD
17 108 (4.89%) Performance Tuning
18 106 (4.80%) Analytics
19 105 (4.75%) ITIL
20 96 (4.34%) Infrastructure Engineering
Programming Languages
1 713 (32.26%) Python
2 595 (26.92%) Java
3 413 (18.69%) SQL
4 325 (14.71%) Bash Shell
5 257 (11.63%) JavaScript
6 230 (10.41%) Shell Script
7 197 (8.91%) C++
8 189 (8.55%) Perl
9 171 (7.74%) PowerShell
10 151 (6.83%) C
11 112 (5.07%) C#
12 109 (4.93%) Java 8
13 103 (4.66%) Ruby
14 77 (3.48%) PL/SQL
15 75 (3.39%) PHP
16 50 (2.26%) Scala
17 49 (2.22%) Go
18 40 (1.81%) Groovy
19 28 (1.27%) T-SQL
20 19 (0.86%) TypeScript
Qualifications
1 505 (22.85%) Security Cleared
2 405 (18.33%) SC Cleared
3 103 (4.66%) DV Cleared
4 89 (4.03%) Degree
5 39 (1.76%) Computer Science Degree
6 38 (1.72%) BPSS Clearance
7 35 (1.58%) Cisco Certification
8 29 (1.31%) AWS Certification
9 26 (1.18%) CCNA
10 24 (1.09%) CISSP
10 24 (1.09%) DBS Check
11 23 (1.04%) ISTQB
12 22 (1.00%) ISEB
13 18 (0.81%) CCNP
13 18 (0.81%) GIAC
14 16 (0.72%) CCIE
15 15 (0.68%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
16 14 (0.63%) Microsoft Certification
17 12 (0.54%) Master's Degree
17 12 (0.54%) RHCE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 99 (4.48%) QA
2 33 (1.49%) SLA
3 29 (1.31%) WCAG
4 17 (0.77%) NIST
5 15 (0.68%) PCI DSS
6 13 (0.59%) GDPR
7 12 (0.54%) Disclosure Scotland
8 9 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 9 (0.41%) NCSC
9 8 (0.36%) PMO
10 5 (0.23%) COBIT
10 5 (0.23%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 4 (0.18%) Government Security Classifications
11 4 (0.18%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
12 3 (0.14%) Cyber Essentials
12 3 (0.14%) Data Quality
12 3 (0.14%) ISO 20022
12 3 (0.14%) ISO 9001
12 3 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 3 (0.14%) JSP 440
System Software
1 487 (22.04%) Docker
2 204 (9.23%) Active Directory
3 176 (7.96%) VMware Infrastructure
4 83 (3.76%) Virtual Machines
5 53 (2.40%) VMware ESXi
6 48 (2.17%) vSphere
7 35 (1.58%) Hyper-V
8 25 (1.13%) Oracle RAC
9 23 (1.04%) NFS
10 18 (0.81%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 16 (0.72%) HDFS
12 14 (0.63%) VMware NSX
13 13 (0.59%) KVM
14 12 (0.54%) LXC
14 12 (0.54%) Xen
15 10 (0.45%) Samba
15 10 (0.45%) Virtual Desktop
16 9 (0.41%) Firmware
16 9 (0.41%) XenApp
17 8 (0.36%) BitLocker
Systems Management
1 454 (20.54%) Kubernetes
2 404 (18.28%) Ansible
3 373 (16.88%) Terraform
4 292 (13.21%) Puppet
5 175 (7.92%) Opscode Chef
6 67 (3.03%) Packer
7 62 (2.81%) Grafana
8 50 (2.26%) Prometheus
9 46 (2.08%) Nagios
10 36 (1.63%) ZABBIX
11 35 (1.58%) Data Guard
12 34 (1.54%) SCOM
12 34 (1.54%) Single Sign-On
13 32 (1.45%) Kibana
14 28 (1.27%) Oracle RMAN
15 25 (1.13%) Salt
16 24 (1.09%) Red Hat Satellite
17 22 (1.00%) SCCM
18 19 (0.86%) vCenter Server
19 17 (0.77%) Consul
Vendors
1 405 (18.33%) Oracle
2 270 (12.22%) Red Hat
3 265 (11.99%) VMware
4 223 (10.09%) Microsoft
5 140 (6.33%) Splunk
6 99 (4.48%) Cisco
7 95 (4.30%) IBM
8 77 (3.48%) Atlassian
9 68 (3.08%) SAP
10 64 (2.90%) Sybase
11 54 (2.44%) Dell
11 54 (2.44%) Google
12 51 (2.31%) HP
13 48 (2.17%) NetApp
14 42 (1.90%) Juniper
15 31 (1.40%) Informatica
16 29 (1.31%) CheckPoint
16 29 (1.31%) SolarWinds
17 28 (1.27%) Cloudera
17 28 (1.27%) Hortonworks