Period
to 13 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 13 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
13 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 20 22 15
Rank change year-on-year +2 -7 -5
Contract jobs citing Linux 3,556 4,009 7,903
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.77% 6.69% 8.19%
As % of the Operating Systems category 41.68% 32.52% 40.03%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,387 2,672 5,176
10th Percentile £325 £319 £325
25th Percentile £401 £400 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £490 £500
Median % change year-on-year +2.04% -2.00% +2.04%
75th Percentile £588 £588 £588
90th Percentile £675 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 74 108 150
10th Percentile £31.58 £18.50 £20.21
25th Percentile £40.00 £37.96 £37.63
Median hourly rate £46.50 £45.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +3.33% - +12.50%
75th Percentile £58.00 £51.06 £49.50
90th Percentile £62.25 £55.00 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.50 £45.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year +1.11% - +5.88%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 8,532 12,326 19,742
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 16.26% 20.58% 20.47%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,600 7,935 12,749
10th Percentile £180 £138 £158
25th Percentile £325 £243 £313
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £450 £420 £425
Median % change year-on-year +7.14% -1.18% -
75th Percentile £538 £525 £538
90th Percentile £625 £606 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £388 £388 £400
% change year-on-year - -3.13% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 453 969 1,132
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.61 £11.17
25th Percentile £14.13 £13.92 £13.00
Median hourly rate £18.00 £17.50 £16.95
Median % change year-on-year +2.86% +3.24% +3.67%
75th Percentile £43.00 £23.00 £27.50
90th Percentile £55.00 £47.83 £47.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.75 £17.00 £16.00
% change year-on-year -1.47% +6.25% +3.23%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 13 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +1 2,840 £500 - 1,753
London +2 1,480 £525 - 601
UK excluding London -3 1,389 £450 - 1,252
Work from Home +10 1,092 £500 +2.56% 365
South East +18 439 £460 -3.16% 335
South West +2 242 £463 -6.09% 173
North of England -14 223 £450 - 262
Scotland -17 175 £425 -5.56% 55
Midlands +3 158 £400 -11.11% 184
North West -8 127 £446 -0.89% 129
East of England -8 118 £425 -5.56% 194
West Midlands -1 100 £400 -13.51% 106
Yorkshire -15 79 £488 +14.71% 99
East Midlands +14 51 £400 -5.88% 77
Wales -4 29 £488 +5.41% 37
North East -11 17 £450 +2.86% 34
Northern Ireland -2 11 £431 +14.93% 14

For the 6 months to 13 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 1,229 (34.56%) DevOps
2 1,113 (31.30%) Windows
3 1,093 (30.74%) Python
4 932 (26.21%) AWS
5 904 (25.42%) Agile Software Development
6 863 (24.27%) Java
7 860 (24.18%) Docker
8 849 (23.88%) Ansible
9 785 (22.08%) Kubernetes
10 761 (21.40%) Unix
11 742 (20.87%) Azure
12 721 (20.28%) Terraform
13 689 (19.38%) Security Cleared
14 622 (17.49%) Jenkins
15 605 (17.01%) SQL
16 590 (16.59%) Git (software)
17 537 (15.10%) Finance
18 516 (14.51%) SC Cleared
19 506 (14.23%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
20 488 (13.72%) VMware
20 488 (13.72%) Oracle
21 443 (12.46%) Red Hat
22 419 (11.78%) Microsoft
23 411 (11.56%) Bash Shell
24 370 (10.40%) Software Engineering
25 368 (10.35%) Infrastructure as Code
26 366 (10.29%) PowerShell
27 365 (10.26%) Test Automation
28 359 (10.10%) Puppet
29 352 (9.90%) Firewall

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 200 (5.62%) Apache
2 173 (4.87%) Confluence
3 104 (2.92%) Elasticsearch
4 100 (2.81%) Tomcat
5 96 (2.70%) Apache Spark
6 75 (2.11%) SharePoint
7 66 (1.86%) IIS
7 66 (1.86%) JBoss
7 66 (1.86%) WebLogic
7 66 (1.86%) WebSphere
8 62 (1.74%) Mule
9 61 (1.72%) nginx
10 44 (1.24%) OpenStack
11 42 (1.18%) SAS
12 40 (1.12%) MS Exchange
12 40 (1.12%) Red Hat Fuse
13 29 (0.82%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 25 (0.70%) WebSphere Application Server
15 18 (0.51%) CMS
16 15 (0.42%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 45 (1.27%) Microsoft Excel
2 44 (1.24%) Microsoft Office
3 31 (0.87%) MS Visio
4 11 (0.31%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 9 (0.25%) Microsoft Project
6 4 (0.11%) SOLIDWORKS
7 3 (0.084%) Simulink
8 2 (0.056%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 1 (0.028%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 30 (0.84%) Oracle Applications
1 30 (0.84%) Oracle EBS
2 15 (0.42%) ION MarketView
3 13 (0.37%) Sentinel
4 11 (0.31%) Dynamics NAV
5 10 (0.28%) Magento
6 8 (0.22%) Oracle EBS R12
7 6 (0.17%) assyst
8 5 (0.14%) Eikon
8 5 (0.14%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
8 5 (0.14%) Remedy ITSM
9 4 (0.11%) Dynamics CRM
9 4 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
9 4 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
9 4 (0.11%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
10 3 (0.084%) Distributed Ledger
10 3 (0.084%) Oracle 11i
10 3 (0.084%) SAP Oil and Gas
11 2 (0.056%) R3 Corda
11 2 (0.056%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 932 (26.21%) AWS
2 742 (20.87%) Azure
3 217 (6.10%) GCP
4 201 (5.65%) GitHub
5 180 (5.06%) PaaS
6 167 (4.70%) IaaS
7 144 (4.05%) OpenShift
8 139 (3.91%) Serverless
9 134 (3.77%) AWS CloudFormation
10 115 (3.23%) Amazon EC2
11 110 (3.09%) Microsoft 365
12 107 (3.01%) AWS Lambda
13 86 (2.42%) SaaS
14 85 (2.39%) Amazon S3
15 76 (2.14%) Amazon EKS
16 70 (1.97%) Cloud Computing
17 53 (1.49%) Amazon ECS
18 43 (1.21%) Virtual Private Cloud
19 38 (1.07%) Azure Active Directory
20 30 (0.84%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 352 (9.90%) Firewall
2 226 (6.36%) DNS
3 190 (5.34%) TCP/IP
4 124 (3.49%) HTTP
5 118 (3.32%) WAN
6 110 (3.09%) SAN
7 97 (2.73%) DHCP
7 97 (2.73%) LAN
8 91 (2.56%) VPN
9 89 (2.50%) SSL
10 70 (1.97%) VLAN
11 58 (1.63%) Multicast
12 54 (1.52%) Internet
13 53 (1.49%) Network Security
14 45 (1.27%) IPv6
15 44 (1.24%) Ethernet
16 43 (1.21%) SNMP
17 39 (1.10%) Wireless
18 37 (1.04%) Wireshark
19 36 (1.01%) VSAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 307 (8.63%) SQL Server
2 206 (5.79%) MySQL
2 206 (5.79%) Relational Database
3 187 (5.26%) PostgreSQL
4 144 (4.05%) Big Data
5 142 (3.99%) NoSQL
6 141 (3.97%) MongoDB
7 139 (3.91%) Oracle Database
8 134 (3.77%) Hadoop
9 62 (1.74%) DB2
10 61 (1.72%) Data Warehouse
11 56 (1.57%) Apache Hive
12 55 (1.55%) RDBMS
13 54 (1.52%) HBase
14 52 (1.46%) Apache Cassandra
15 50 (1.41%) Oracle Database 11g
16 49 (1.38%) Amazon RDS
17 45 (1.27%) Oracle Database 12c
18 38 (1.07%) Redis
19 35 (0.98%) Azure SQL Database
Development Applications
1 622 (17.49%) Jenkins
2 590 (16.59%) Git (software)
3 320 (9.00%) JIRA
4 269 (7.56%) GitLab
5 140 (3.94%) Maven
6 121 (3.40%) Bitbucket
7 104 (2.92%) Artifactory
8 93 (2.62%) TeamCity
9 92 (2.59%) Subversion
10 87 (2.45%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 86 (2.42%) Sonatype Nexus
12 73 (2.05%) JUnit
13 65 (1.83%) Cucumber
14 63 (1.77%) SonarQube
15 54 (1.52%) Selenium
16 50 (1.41%) Gradle
17 43 (1.21%) GDB
18 42 (1.18%) JMeter
19 38 (1.07%) Visual Studio
20 37 (1.04%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 537 (15.10%) Finance
2 326 (9.17%) Banking
3 211 (5.93%) Public Sector
4 124 (3.49%) Telecoms
5 123 (3.46%) Front Office
6 116 (3.26%) Investment Banking
7 64 (1.80%) Marketing
8 61 (1.72%) Manufacturing
9 51 (1.43%) Electronics
10 39 (1.10%) Law
11 36 (1.01%) Retail
12 27 (0.76%) Billing
13 25 (0.70%) Back Office
14 21 (0.59%) Aerospace
15 19 (0.53%) Publishing
16 17 (0.48%) Games
17 15 (0.42%) Pharmaceutical
18 14 (0.39%) Financial Institution
18 14 (0.39%) Legal
19 13 (0.37%) Military
Job Titles
1 771 (21.68%) Developer
2 605 (17.01%) DevOps Engineer
3 286 (8.04%) Architect
4 262 (7.37%) Java Developer
5 218 (6.13%) AWS Engineer
6 200 (5.62%) AWS DevOps
7 184 (5.17%) Linux Engineer
8 160 (4.50%) Azure Engineer
9 159 (4.47%) AWS DevOps Engineer
10 151 (4.25%) Cloud Engineer
10 151 (4.25%) Consultant
10 151 (4.25%) Infrastructure Engineer
10 151 (4.25%) Software Engineer
11 138 (3.88%) Administrator
12 130 (3.66%) Senior Developer
13 120 (3.37%) Analyst
14 118 (3.32%) C++ Developer
15 100 (2.81%) Azure DevOps Engineer
16 94 (2.64%) Senior DevOps
17 88 (2.47%) Senior DevOps Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 267 (7.51%) Spring
2 245 (6.89%) REST
3 230 (6.47%) Web Services
4 227 (6.38%) Kafka
5 194 (5.46%) Middleware
6 186 (5.23%) .NET
7 151 (4.25%) HTML
8 141 (3.97%) JSON
9 139 (3.91%) Node.js
10 124 (3.49%) Elastic Stack
11 120 (3.37%) AngularJS
12 106 (2.98%) RESTful
12 106 (2.98%) XML
13 99 (2.78%) CSS
14 98 (2.76%) Apache Camel
15 93 (2.62%) Spring Boot
16 79 (2.22%) React
17 67 (1.88%) jQuery
18 66 (1.86%) Spring Integration
19 65 (1.83%) J2EE
Miscellaneous
1 185 (5.20%) Analytical Skills
2 167 (4.70%) Data Centre
3 115 (3.23%) Public Cloud
4 111 (3.12%) Clustering
5 106 (2.98%) Management Information System
6 100 (2.81%) Linux Command Line
7 87 (2.45%) Algorithms
8 75 (2.11%) Cloud Native
9 67 (1.88%) Data Structures
9 67 (1.88%) Enterprise Software
9 67 (1.88%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 65 (1.83%) Greenfield Project
11 58 (1.63%) Self-Motivation
11 58 (1.63%) User Experience
12 51 (1.43%) Fixed Income
12 51 (1.43%) Private Cloud
13 46 (1.29%) PKI
14 44 (1.24%) Replication
15 41 (1.15%) EMC VNX
16 39 (1.10%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 1,113 (31.30%) Windows
2 761 (21.40%) Unix
3 506 (14.23%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 275 (7.73%) Windows Server
5 215 (6.05%) CentOS
6 126 (3.54%) Ubuntu
7 117 (3.29%) Solaris
8 101 (2.84%) AIX
9 84 (2.36%) Windows Server 2012
10 79 (2.22%) Windows 10
11 51 (1.43%) Mac OS X
12 49 (1.38%) Android
13 48 (1.35%) Oracle Linux
14 45 (1.27%) Embedded Linux
14 45 (1.27%) Windows Server 2016
15 39 (1.10%) SUSE
16 38 (1.07%) Mac OS
16 38 (1.07%) Windows Server 2008
17 36 (1.01%) Apple iOS
18 31 (0.87%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,229 (34.56%) DevOps
2 904 (25.42%) Agile Software Development
3 370 (10.40%) Software Engineering
4 368 (10.35%) Infrastructure as Code
5 365 (10.26%) Test Automation
6 337 (9.48%) Continuous Integration
6 337 (9.48%) Microservices
6 337 (9.48%) Scrum
7 325 (9.14%) Problem-Solving
8 300 (8.44%) Configuration Management
9 271 (7.62%) TDD
10 244 (6.86%) Migration
11 225 (6.33%) Infrastructure Engineering
12 195 (5.48%) Open Source
13 182 (5.12%) ITIL
14 170 (4.78%) Performance Tuning
15 168 (4.72%) High Availability
16 161 (4.53%) Cybersecurity
17 147 (4.13%) Kanban
18 126 (3.54%) Deployment Automation
Programming Languages
1 1,093 (30.74%) Python
2 863 (24.27%) Java
3 605 (17.01%) SQL
4 411 (11.56%) Bash Shell
5 366 (10.29%) PowerShell
6 332 (9.34%) C++
7 331 (9.31%) JavaScript
8 232 (6.52%) Shell Script
9 209 (5.88%) Perl
10 168 (4.72%) C#
11 167 (4.70%) C
12 133 (3.74%) Ruby
13 130 (3.66%) Go
14 124 (3.49%) Scala
15 103 (2.90%) PL/SQL
16 98 (2.76%) PHP
17 95 (2.67%) Java 8
18 78 (2.19%) Groovy
19 56 (1.57%) TypeScript
20 19 (0.53%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 689 (19.38%) Security Cleared
2 516 (14.51%) SC Cleared
3 194 (5.46%) Degree
4 168 (4.72%) DV Cleared
5 75 (2.11%) Cisco Certification
6 57 (1.60%) CCNA
7 54 (1.52%) CCNP
8 46 (1.29%) Computer Science Degree
9 43 (1.21%) CISSP
10 38 (1.07%) AWS Certification
10 38 (1.07%) Microsoft Certification
11 30 (0.84%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
12 27 (0.76%) CISM
12 27 (0.76%) GIAC
13 25 (0.70%) RHCE
14 23 (0.65%) Master's Degree
15 20 (0.56%) TOGAF Certification
16 17 (0.48%) Novell Certification
17 16 (0.45%) CompTIA Security+
18 15 (0.42%) BPSS Clearance
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 108 (3.04%) QA
2 49 (1.38%) NIST
3 42 (1.18%) SLA
4 36 (1.01%) PCI DSS
5 34 (0.96%) GDPR
6 27 (0.76%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 14 (0.39%) COBIT
8 13 (0.37%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 12 (0.34%) Data Quality
9 12 (0.34%) JTAG
10 11 (0.31%) Disclosure Scotland
11 9 (0.25%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
12 8 (0.22%) HIPAA
12 8 (0.22%) WCAG
13 7 (0.20%) PMO
14 5 (0.14%) MiFID
14 5 (0.14%) RMADS
15 4 (0.11%) ISO 26262
15 4 (0.11%) NIST 800
16 3 (0.084%) NCSC
System Software
1 860 (24.18%) Docker
2 339 (9.53%) Active Directory
3 332 (9.34%) VMware Infrastructure
4 122 (3.43%) Virtual Machines
5 95 (2.67%) VMware ESXi
6 74 (2.08%) Hyper-V
7 73 (2.05%) vSphere
8 55 (1.55%) HDFS
9 54 (1.52%) VMware NSX
10 40 (1.12%) Oracle RAC
11 29 (0.82%) NFS
12 27 (0.76%) GlusterFS
13 24 (0.67%) KVM
14 22 (0.62%) Virtual Desktop
15 19 (0.53%) Firmware
16 15 (0.42%) Apache ZooKeeper
16 15 (0.42%) Veritas Cluster Server
17 14 (0.39%) Xen
18 13 (0.37%) iptables
19 11 (0.31%) BitLocker
Systems Management
1 849 (23.88%) Ansible
2 785 (22.08%) Kubernetes
3 721 (20.28%) Terraform
4 359 (10.10%) Puppet
5 211 (5.93%) Opscode Chef
6 159 (4.47%) Grafana
7 132 (3.71%) Prometheus
8 69 (1.94%) Kibana
9 55 (1.55%) Packer
10 53 (1.49%) SCCM
11 44 (1.24%) Microsoft Intune
11 44 (1.24%) vRealize
12 40 (1.12%) Salt
12 40 (1.12%) vCenter Server
13 38 (1.07%) Red Hat Satellite
14 36 (1.01%) Oracle RMAN
15 34 (0.96%) Consul
15 34 (0.96%) Docker Swarm
16 33 (0.93%) Nagios
17 32 (0.90%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 488 (13.72%) Oracle
1 488 (13.72%) VMware
2 443 (12.46%) Red Hat
3 419 (11.78%) Microsoft
4 220 (6.19%) Cisco
5 166 (4.67%) Splunk
6 145 (4.08%) IBM
7 144 (4.05%) Google
8 122 (3.43%) SAP
9 92 (2.59%) EMC
10 87 (2.45%) Atlassian
11 86 (2.42%) Dell
12 74 (2.08%) Citrix
13 67 (1.88%) HP
14 59 (1.66%) Sybase
15 57 (1.60%) AppDynamics
15 57 (1.60%) NetApp
16 50 (1.41%) F5
16 50 (1.41%) ServiceNow
17 49 (1.38%) Cloudera