Period
to 20 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 20 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
20 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 16 11 11
Rank change year-on-year -5 0 0
Contract jobs citing Linux 7,169 8,634 8,449
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.90% 8.65% 9.28%
As % of the Operating Systems category 39.46% 41.50% 44.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,553 5,652 5,614
UK median daily rate £500 £490 £460
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.04% +6.52% +5.75%
10th Percentile £331 £323 £315
90th Percentile £656 £638 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £438 £425
% change year-on-year +2.86% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 190 206 167
UK median hourly rate £44.50 £40.00 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +11.25% - -
10th Percentile £20.48 £13.49 £20.87
90th Percentile £53.88 £58.75 £52.07
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £40.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year +12.50% - -4.76%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 18,167 20,805 18,902
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.02% 20.84% 20.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,480 13,092 11,916
UK median daily rate £435 £425 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.35% - +6.25%
10th Percentile £158 £185 £200
90th Percentile £625 £606 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £395 £400
% change year-on-year +1.27% -1.25% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,146 1,394 1,121
UK median hourly rate £17.50 £17.33 £16.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +1.01% +5.00% -2.94%
10th Percentile £11.17 £11.17 £10.50
90th Percentile £48.75 £47.50 £47.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.00 £16.00 £15.50
% change year-on-year - +3.23% -6.06%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Linux.

Contractor daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 20 June 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 20 June 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 20 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -5 6,616 £503 +0.50% 1,102
UK excluding London -6 3,879 £450 +2.86% 749
London -4 3,175 £550 +4.76% 415
South East -9 1,133 £450 -2.70% 168
North of England -2 868 £475 +13.10% 139
South West +5 557 £500 +11.11% 103
Midlands 0 450 £450 +2.27% 80
Yorkshire +2 425 £475 +11.76% 58
East of England +1 414 £420 -1.18% 198
North West +2 358 £475 +7.95% 67
Scotland +11 355 £450 +5.88% 42
West Midlands +3 302 £450 -2.17% 51
East Midlands -7 136 £425 +3.66% 29
Wales +2 96 £500 +17.65% 5
North East -17 84 £470 +28.77% 14
Northern Ireland +4 13 £475 +4.40% 15

For the 6 months to 20 June 2019, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 2,609 (36.39%) DevOps
2 2,306 (32.17%) Amazon AWS
3 2,240 (31.25%) Agile Software Development
4 2,090 (29.15%) Python
5 2,064 (28.79%) Java
6 1,923 (26.82%) Windows
7 1,722 (24.02%) Unix
7 1,722 (24.02%) Docker
8 1,711 (23.87%) Jenkins
9 1,673 (23.34%) Ansible
10 1,670 (23.29%) Git (software)
11 1,208 (16.85%) Kubernetes
12 1,201 (16.75%) SQL
13 1,184 (16.52%) Terraform
14 1,156 (16.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 1,118 (15.59%) Puppet
16 1,105 (15.41%) Microsoft Azure
17 1,103 (15.39%) Security Cleared
18 1,056 (14.73%) Red Hat
19 1,039 (14.49%) Continuous Integration
20 1,021 (14.24%) Finance
21 1,004 (14.00%) Bash Shell
22 980 (13.67%) Configuration Management
23 963 (13.43%) Oracle
24 916 (12.78%) JavaScript
25 857 (11.95%) SC Cleared
26 801 (11.17%) VMware
27 792 (11.05%) Test Automation
28 770 (10.74%) TDD
29 739 (10.31%) Microsoft

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 500 (6.97%) Apache
2 401 (5.59%) Confluence
3 267 (3.72%) Apache Spark
4 264 (3.68%) Tomcat
5 221 (3.08%) Elasticsearch
5 221 (3.08%) nginx
6 183 (2.55%) JBoss
7 144 (2.01%) OpenStack
8 143 (1.99%) WebSphere
9 137 (1.91%) IIS
10 117 (1.63%) WebLogic
11 114 (1.59%) MS Exchange
12 106 (1.48%) SharePoint
13 87 (1.21%) SAS
14 56 (0.78%) CMS
15 43 (0.60%) Cloud Foundry
15 43 (0.60%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 42 (0.59%) Jetty
17 40 (0.56%) Drupal
18 38 (0.53%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 96 (1.34%) Microsoft Office
2 45 (0.63%) Microsoft Excel
3 18 (0.25%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 16 (0.22%) MS Visio
5 12 (0.17%) Microsoft Project
6 11 (0.15%) Spreadsheet
7 3 (0.042%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 2 (0.028%) Chatbot
8 2 (0.028%) Photoshop
8 2 (0.028%) Simulink
9 1 (0.014%) Adobe After Effects
9 1 (0.014%) Adobe Premiere
9 1 (0.014%) GNU Octave
9 1 (0.014%) HipChat
9 1 (0.014%) InVision
9 1 (0.014%) LightWave 3D
9 1 (0.014%) Maya
9 1 (0.014%) Notepad++
9 1 (0.014%) S-PLUS
9 1 (0.014%) Stata
Business Applications
1 23 (0.32%) Oracle EBS
2 20 (0.28%) Oracle EBS R12
3 19 (0.27%) assyst
3 19 (0.27%) Oracle Applications
3 19 (0.27%) Oracle BPM
4 15 (0.21%) Distributed Ledger
5 13 (0.18%) Magento
5 13 (0.18%) R3 Corda
6 11 (0.15%) Remedy ITSM
6 11 (0.15%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 10 (0.14%) ION MarketView
7 10 (0.14%) Payment Gateway
8 7 (0.098%) BusinessWorks
8 7 (0.098%) Dynamics CRM
9 5 (0.070%) Endur
9 5 (0.070%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 4 (0.056%) Eikon
10 4 (0.056%) Maximo
10 4 (0.056%) Oracle Cash Management
10 4 (0.056%) Oracle Retail
Cloud Services
1 2,306 (32.17%) Amazon AWS
2 1,105 (15.41%) Microsoft Azure
3 442 (6.17%) Google Cloud Platform
4 401 (5.59%) Amazon EC2
5 349 (4.87%) Amazon S3
6 339 (4.73%) GitHub
7 334 (4.66%) OpenShift
8 311 (4.34%) AWS CloudFormation
9 278 (3.88%) Serverless
10 230 (3.21%) Virtual Private Cloud
11 218 (3.04%) AWS Lambda
12 208 (2.90%) IaaS
13 198 (2.76%) PaaS
14 184 (2.57%) Office 365
15 182 (2.54%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 174 (2.43%) Amazon ECS
17 161 (2.25%) Amazon ELB
18 132 (1.84%) Route 53
19 117 (1.63%) SaaS
20 114 (1.59%) Datadog
Communications & Networking
1 518 (7.23%) Firewall
2 467 (6.51%) TCP/IP
3 426 (5.94%) HTTP
4 417 (5.82%) DNS
5 294 (4.10%) SSL
6 230 (3.21%) VPN
7 222 (3.10%) DHCP
8 184 (2.57%) WAN
9 172 (2.40%) SAN
10 165 (2.30%) LAN
11 135 (1.88%) Internet
12 133 (1.86%) FTP
13 126 (1.76%) Network Security
14 115 (1.60%) IPsec
15 85 (1.19%) Ethernet
16 75 (1.05%) Intrusion Detection
17 70 (0.98%) VLAN
18 64 (0.89%) VoIP
19 63 (0.88%) Wireless
20 59 (0.82%) BGP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 713 (9.95%) MySQL
2 473 (6.60%) MongoDB
3 440 (6.14%) SQL Server
4 432 (6.03%) Relational Database
5 405 (5.65%) Big Data
6 404 (5.64%) PostgreSQL
7 391 (5.45%) NoSQL
8 361 (5.04%) Hadoop
9 350 (4.88%) Oracle Database
10 259 (3.61%) Amazon RDS
11 179 (2.50%) RDBMS
12 125 (1.74%) Data Warehouse
13 122 (1.70%) Apache Cassandra
13 122 (1.70%) HBase
14 117 (1.63%) Apache Hive
15 108 (1.51%) MariaDB
16 105 (1.46%) DB2
17 87 (1.21%) Redis
18 86 (1.20%) Amazon DynamoDB
19 83 (1.16%) Oracle Database 12c
Development Applications
1 1,711 (23.87%) Jenkins
2 1,670 (23.29%) Git (software)
3 714 (9.96%) JIRA
4 304 (4.24%) Maven
5 254 (3.54%) Sonatype Nexus
6 252 (3.52%) Subversion
7 221 (3.08%) JUnit
8 205 (2.86%) GitLab
9 193 (2.69%) Bitbucket
10 157 (2.19%) Selenium
11 146 (2.04%) TeamCity
12 142 (1.98%) Cucumber
13 133 (1.86%) Mockito
14 126 (1.76%) Artifactory
15 120 (1.67%) SonarQube
16 119 (1.66%) Atlassian Bamboo
17 117 (1.63%) Travis CI
18 101 (1.41%) Gradle
19 96 (1.34%) Eclipse
20 83 (1.16%) Visual Studio
General
1 1,021 (14.24%) Finance
2 419 (5.84%) Banking
3 180 (2.51%) Telecoms
4 121 (1.69%) Retail
5 108 (1.51%) Marketing
6 96 (1.34%) Investment Banking
7 89 (1.24%) Front Office
8 79 (1.10%) Manufacturing
9 75 (1.05%) Law
10 74 (1.03%) Financial Institution
11 71 (0.99%) Electronics
12 60 (0.84%) Legal
13 57 (0.80%) Games
14 51 (0.71%) Aerospace
15 47 (0.66%) Military
16 28 (0.39%) Back Office
16 28 (0.39%) Publishing
17 26 (0.36%) German Language
18 23 (0.32%) Billing
19 19 (0.27%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 1,651 (23.03%) Developer
2 1,457 (20.32%) DevOps Engineer
3 621 (8.66%) Java Developer
4 492 (6.86%) AWS Engineer
5 474 (6.61%) Linux Engineer
6 446 (6.22%) Architect
7 425 (5.93%) AWS DevOps
8 377 (5.26%) Administrator
9 355 (4.95%) AWS DevOps Engineer
10 334 (4.66%) Cloud Engineer
11 312 (4.35%) Analyst
12 293 (4.09%) Software Engineer
13 257 (3.58%) Consultant
14 237 (3.31%) Linux/Unix DevOps
15 225 (3.14%) Infrastructure Engineer
16 194 (2.71%) Linux DevOps Engineer
17 183 (2.55%) Platform Engineer
18 181 (2.52%) Senior Developer
19 180 (2.51%) Systems Administrator
20 168 (2.34%) Senior DevOps
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 561 (7.83%) Web Services
2 539 (7.52%) HTML
3 487 (6.79%) Spring
4 466 (6.50%) Node.js
5 447 (6.24%) CSS
6 431 (6.01%) Kafka
7 420 (5.86%) REST
8 370 (5.16%) JSON
9 340 (4.74%) .NET
10 301 (4.20%) SOAP
11 293 (4.09%) Middleware
12 291 (4.06%) Elastic Stack
13 271 (3.78%) RESTful
13 271 (3.78%) XML
14 234 (3.26%) AngularJS
15 203 (2.83%) HTML5
16 175 (2.44%) J2EE
17 169 (2.36%) jQuery
17 169 (2.36%) LDAP
17 169 (2.36%) Spring Boot
Miscellaneous
1 322 (4.49%) Analytical Skills
2 316 (4.41%) Data Centre
3 299 (4.17%) Linux Command Line
4 239 (3.33%) Public Cloud
5 183 (2.55%) Management Information System
6 126 (1.76%) Clustering
7 119 (1.66%) Greenfield Project
8 106 (1.48%) Self-Motivation
9 102 (1.42%) Data Structures
10 98 (1.37%) Virtual Team
11 97 (1.35%) Cloud Native
11 97 (1.35%) Replication
12 91 (1.27%) Algorithms
12 91 (1.27%) Mobile App
12 91 (1.27%) User Experience
13 88 (1.23%) Private Cloud
14 87 (1.21%) PKI
15 82 (1.14%) Enterprise Software
16 77 (1.07%) Mainframe
17 57 (0.80%) Hybrid Cloud
Operating Systems
1 1,923 (26.82%) Windows
2 1,722 (24.02%) Unix
3 1,156 (16.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 489 (6.82%) Windows Server
5 480 (6.70%) CentOS
6 284 (3.96%) Ubuntu
7 252 (3.52%) Solaris
8 196 (2.73%) Mac OS X
9 194 (2.71%) AIX
10 159 (2.22%) Android
11 157 (2.19%) Windows Server 2012
12 91 (1.27%) Mac OS
13 79 (1.10%) Windows 10
13 79 (1.10%) Windows Server 2008
14 78 (1.09%) Debian
15 68 (0.95%) Apple iOS
16 66 (0.92%) Embedded Linux
17 63 (0.88%) Windows 7
18 53 (0.74%) SUSE
19 47 (0.66%) Oracle Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,609 (36.39%) DevOps
2 2,240 (31.25%) Agile Software Development
3 1,039 (14.49%) Continuous Integration
4 980 (13.67%) Configuration Management
5 792 (11.05%) Test Automation
6 770 (10.74%) TDD
7 714 (9.96%) Software Engineering
8 702 (9.79%) Microservices
9 667 (9.30%) Scrum
10 633 (8.83%) Problem-Solving
11 606 (8.45%) Migration
12 581 (8.10%) Open Source
13 445 (6.21%) ITIL
14 406 (5.66%) BDD
15 402 (5.61%) Infrastructure as Code
16 373 (5.20%) Continuous Delivery
17 339 (4.73%) Continuous Deployment
18 313 (4.37%) Infrastructure Engineering
19 309 (4.31%) Web Development
20 301 (4.20%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 2,090 (29.15%) Python
2 2,064 (28.79%) Java
3 1,201 (16.75%) SQL
4 1,004 (14.00%) Bash Shell
5 916 (12.78%) JavaScript
6 585 (8.16%) C++
7 570 (7.95%) Ruby
8 506 (7.06%) PowerShell
9 493 (6.88%) Shell Script
10 451 (6.29%) Perl
11 423 (5.90%) C
12 362 (5.05%) PHP
13 296 (4.13%) Java 8
14 255 (3.56%) C#
15 237 (3.31%) Go
16 236 (3.29%) Scala
17 142 (1.98%) Groovy
18 126 (1.76%) TypeScript
19 103 (1.44%) PL/SQL
20 55 (0.77%) Korn
Qualifications
1 1,103 (15.39%) Security Cleared
2 857 (11.95%) SC Cleared
3 442 (6.17%) Degree
4 196 (2.73%) DV Cleared
5 160 (2.23%) Cisco Certification
6 140 (1.95%) AWS Certification
7 125 (1.74%) RHCE
8 115 (1.60%) Computer Science Degree
8 115 (1.60%) Microsoft Certification
9 109 (1.52%) BPSS Clearance
10 95 (1.33%) CCNP
11 80 (1.12%) MCSE
12 76 (1.06%) CISSP
13 66 (0.92%) CCNA
14 52 (0.73%) MCSA
15 45 (0.63%) ITIL Certification
16 37 (0.52%) PhD
17 36 (0.50%) Master's Degree
18 35 (0.49%) CCIE
19 34 (0.47%) CISM
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 237 (3.31%) QA
2 114 (1.59%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 84 (1.17%) PCI DSS
4 80 (1.12%) NIST
5 65 (0.91%) GDPR
6 62 (0.86%) SLA
7 47 (0.66%) Data Quality
8 42 (0.59%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
9 26 (0.36%) Disclosure Scotland
10 21 (0.29%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 17 (0.24%) NCSC
11 17 (0.24%) WCAG
12 15 (0.21%) COBIT
13 12 (0.17%) MISRA
14 7 (0.098%) JSP 440
14 7 (0.098%) MISRA C
15 6 (0.084%) HMG Infosec
15 6 (0.084%) HMG Security Policy Framework
15 6 (0.084%) ISO 9001
16 5 (0.070%) ISO 22301
System Software
1 1,722 (24.02%) Docker
2 562 (7.84%) Active Directory
3 437 (6.10%) VMware Infrastructure
4 149 (2.08%) Virtual Machines
5 129 (1.80%) VMware ESXi
6 106 (1.48%) vSphere
7 104 (1.45%) Hyper-V
8 96 (1.34%) HDFS
9 88 (1.23%) Oracle RAC
10 56 (0.78%) KVM
11 53 (0.74%) Apache Flume
11 53 (0.74%) XenApp
12 49 (0.68%) Virtual Servers
13 45 (0.63%) LXC
13 45 (0.63%) NFS
13 45 (0.63%) Xen
14 40 (0.56%) Firmware
15 38 (0.53%) VMware NSX
16 31 (0.43%) vCloud
17 29 (0.40%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 1,673 (23.34%) Ansible
2 1,208 (16.85%) Kubernetes
3 1,184 (16.52%) Terraform
4 1,118 (15.59%) Puppet
5 722 (10.07%) Opscode Chef
6 174 (2.43%) Packer
7 131 (1.83%) SCCM
8 123 (1.72%) Grafana
9 106 (1.48%) Prometheus
10 104 (1.45%) Nagios
11 86 (1.20%) HAProxy
12 84 (1.17%) Consul
13 83 (1.16%) Docker Swarm
14 76 (1.06%) Kibana
15 75 (1.05%) Salt
16 65 (0.91%) Hadoop YARN
17 57 (0.80%) logstash
18 55 (0.77%) ZABBIX
19 52 (0.73%) Graphite
19 52 (0.73%) SCOM
Vendors
1 1,056 (14.73%) Red Hat
2 963 (13.43%) Oracle
3 801 (11.17%) VMware
4 739 (10.31%) Microsoft
5 396 (5.52%) Google
6 343 (4.78%) Splunk
7 333 (4.64%) Cisco
8 252 (3.52%) IBM
9 214 (2.99%) Atlassian
10 162 (2.26%) Citrix
11 133 (1.86%) NetApp
12 128 (1.79%) HP
13 125 (1.74%) EMC
14 119 (1.66%) SAP
15 95 (1.33%) Qualys
16 88 (1.23%) ServiceNow
17 83 (1.16%) Cloudera
18 82 (1.14%) Dell
19 72 (1.00%) Veritas
20 69 (0.96%) F5