Period
to 13 July 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 13 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Linux
UK
6 months to
13 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 19 16 11
Rank change year-on-year -3 -5 +1
Contract jobs citing Linux 2,938 7,425 8,944
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 7.25% 7.90% 8.55%
As % of the Operating Systems category 36.84% 39.16% 40.99%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,995 4,762 5,915
Median daily rate £500 £500 £488
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.56% +5.98%
10th Percentile £319 £325 £316
90th Percentile £650 £656 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £473 £451 £438
% change year-on-year +4.88% +2.97% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 81 200 226
Median hourly rate £45.00 £44.75 £41.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +0.56% +7.19% +4.38%
10th Percentile £23.00 £21.18 £13.99
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.88 £55.94
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £41.50
% change year-on-year - +8.43% +3.75%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 7,976 18,961 21,820
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 19.68% 20.16% 20.85%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,866 11,933 13,644
Median daily rate £425 £425 £425
10th Percentile £150 £156 £181
90th Percentile £625 £625 £607
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £388
% change year-on-year - +3.09% -3.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 562 1,207 1,490
Median hourly rate £19.00 £17.50 £17.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +8.57% - +6.06%
10th Percentile £12.02 £11.17 £11.17
90th Percentile £48.17 £48.75 £47.50
Median hourly rate £17.50 £16.00 £16.00
% change year-on-year +9.38% - +3.23%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Daily rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 13 July 2020.

Daily rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Hourly rate trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 13 July 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 13 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 2,664 £500 - 936
UK excluding London -2 1,533 £473 +4.88% 702
London -2 1,299 £525 -4.55% 306
South East -3 389 £456 +1.39% 146
North of England -2 365 £475 - 176
South West +1 291 £481 -3.85% 120
North West +6 211 £450 -4.76% 111
East of England -2 161 £475 +13.10% 106
Work from Home -11 158 £450 -10.00% 143
Scotland -10 155 £425 -5.56% 50
Midlands -9 131 £450 - 80
Yorkshire -9 115 £525 +5.00% 50
West Midlands -5 99 £463 +2.78% 52
Wales 0 40 £450 -5.26% 14
North East -1 39 £490 +8.89% 15
East Midlands -15 29 £403 -9.55% 28
Northern Ireland +14 11 £431 -17.90% 10

For the 6 months to 13 July 2020, IT contractor jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 968 (32.95%) Windows
2 906 (30.84%) DevOps
3 857 (29.17%) Python
4 823 (28.01%) Agile Software Development
5 798 (27.16%) Java
6 753 (25.63%) AWS
7 717 (24.40%) Unix
8 658 (22.40%) Docker
9 621 (21.14%) Security Cleared
10 610 (20.76%) Azure
11 576 (19.61%) SQL
12 544 (18.52%) Ansible
12 544 (18.52%) Kubernetes
13 535 (18.21%) Git (software)
14 513 (17.46%) Jenkins
15 510 (17.36%) Oracle
16 484 (16.47%) Terraform
17 481 (16.37%) SC Cleared
18 420 (14.30%) Bash Shell
19 402 (13.68%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
20 395 (13.44%) Microsoft
21 379 (12.90%) Finance
22 376 (12.80%) Test Automation
23 365 (12.42%) JavaScript
24 363 (12.36%) JIRA
25 355 (12.08%) VMware
26 349 (11.88%) Red Hat
26 349 (11.88%) Continuous Integration
27 333 (11.33%) Puppet
28 310 (10.55%) Configuration Management

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 205 (6.98%) Confluence
2 134 (4.56%) Tomcat
3 133 (4.53%) Apache
4 95 (3.23%) Oracle SOA Suite
5 91 (3.10%) WebLogic
6 71 (2.42%) Apache Spark
7 68 (2.31%) nginx
8 67 (2.28%) Elasticsearch
9 66 (2.25%) WebSphere
10 55 (1.87%) JBoss
11 43 (1.46%) SharePoint
12 37 (1.26%) OpenStack
13 31 (1.06%) IIS
14 26 (0.88%) Red Hat Fuse
15 22 (0.75%) Mule
16 21 (0.71%) MS Exchange
16 21 (0.71%) SAS
17 17 (0.58%) WebSphere Application Server
18 14 (0.48%) Cloud Foundry
18 14 (0.48%) Oracle Workflow
Applications
1 66 (2.25%) Microsoft Office
2 25 (0.85%) Microsoft Excel
3 13 (0.44%) SPSS
4 11 (0.37%) MS Visio
5 7 (0.24%) Microsoft Project
6 2 (0.068%) Doxygen
6 2 (0.068%) FileZilla
6 2 (0.068%) LaTeX
6 2 (0.068%) Sketch
6 2 (0.068%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.034%) Acrobat
7 1 (0.034%) Chatbot
7 1 (0.034%) GNU Octave
7 1 (0.034%) InVision
7 1 (0.034%) Photoshop
7 1 (0.034%) Simulink
7 1 (0.034%) Windchill
7 1 (0.034%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 28 (0.95%) Oracle Applications
2 16 (0.54%) Oracle ERP
3 13 (0.44%) Oracle BPM
4 12 (0.41%) Magento
5 10 (0.34%) Sentinel
5 10 (0.34%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 9 (0.31%) Oracle EBS
7 7 (0.24%) Documaker
8 5 (0.17%) Oracle EBS R12
8 5 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
9 4 (0.14%) SAP FI-CA
9 4 (0.14%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 3 (0.10%) Remedy ITSM
11 2 (0.068%) BusinessWorks
11 2 (0.068%) Oracle 11i
11 2 (0.068%) Q-Pulse
11 2 (0.068%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
11 2 (0.068%) ResourceLink
11 2 (0.068%) Siebel CRM
12 1 (0.034%) Oracle HRMS
Cloud Services
1 753 (25.63%) AWS
2 610 (20.76%) Azure
3 164 (5.58%) GCP
4 137 (4.66%) Amazon EC2
5 129 (4.39%) Amazon S3
6 126 (4.29%) GitHub
7 109 (3.71%) PaaS
8 106 (3.61%) Serverless
9 90 (3.06%) OpenShift
10 83 (2.83%) AWS CloudFormation
11 81 (2.76%) IaaS
12 76 (2.59%) AWS Lambda
13 75 (2.55%) SaaS
14 66 (2.25%) Office 365
15 64 (2.18%) Virtual Private Cloud
16 50 (1.70%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 44 (1.50%) Amazon ECS
18 38 (1.29%) Route 53
19 37 (1.26%) Power Platform
20 36 (1.23%) Amazon ELB
Communications & Networking
1 226 (7.69%) Firewall
2 217 (7.39%) DNS
3 180 (6.13%) TCP/IP
4 154 (5.24%) HTTP
5 109 (3.71%) WAN
6 108 (3.68%) LAN
7 97 (3.30%) DHCP
8 91 (3.10%) VPN
9 87 (2.96%) Internet
10 75 (2.55%) SAN
11 74 (2.52%) SSL
12 71 (2.42%) Network Security
13 51 (1.74%) BGP
14 47 (1.60%) OSPF
15 45 (1.53%) Wi-Fi
16 44 (1.50%) Wireshark
17 42 (1.43%) SNMP
18 40 (1.36%) Ethernet
19 37 (1.26%) HTTPS
19 37 (1.26%) IPv6
Database & Business Intelligence
1 259 (8.82%) MySQL
2 230 (7.83%) SQL Server
3 223 (7.59%) MongoDB
4 182 (6.19%) Oracle Database
5 135 (4.59%) Relational Database
6 124 (4.22%) PostgreSQL
7 123 (4.19%) NoSQL
8 103 (3.51%) Big Data
9 86 (2.93%) Hadoop
10 77 (2.62%) Oracle Database 12c
11 74 (2.52%) Amazon RDS
12 55 (1.87%) Oracle Database 11g
13 45 (1.53%) RDBMS
14 36 (1.23%) Data Warehouse
14 36 (1.23%) DB2
14 36 (1.23%) Power BI
15 33 (1.12%) Oracle ODI
16 32 (1.09%) Data Lake
16 32 (1.09%) Redis
17 30 (1.02%) Apache Cassandra
Development Applications
1 535 (18.21%) Git (software)
2 513 (17.46%) Jenkins
3 363 (12.36%) JIRA
4 112 (3.81%) Subversion
5 110 (3.74%) GitLab
6 109 (3.71%) Bitbucket
7 105 (3.57%) Maven
8 85 (2.89%) Selenium
9 81 (2.76%) Mockito
10 80 (2.72%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 78 (2.65%) JUnit
12 67 (2.28%) Cucumber
13 66 (2.25%) SonarQube
14 65 (2.21%) Eclipse
14 65 (2.21%) Gradle
15 64 (2.18%) Sonatype Nexus
16 59 (2.01%) Visual Studio
17 51 (1.74%) TeamCity
18 47 (1.60%) Artifactory
19 37 (1.26%) CircleCI
General
1 379 (12.90%) Finance
2 254 (8.65%) Public Sector
3 192 (6.54%) Banking
4 90 (3.06%) Front Office
5 86 (2.93%) Telecoms
6 76 (2.59%) Investment Banking
7 35 (1.19%) Electronics
8 34 (1.16%) Aerospace
9 30 (1.02%) Manufacturing
10 29 (0.99%) Military
10 29 (0.99%) Retail
11 28 (0.95%) Law
12 27 (0.92%) Marketing
13 17 (0.58%) Games
14 16 (0.54%) Back Office
15 13 (0.44%) Legal
16 11 (0.37%) Financial Institution
17 9 (0.31%) French Language
18 7 (0.24%) Police
19 5 (0.17%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 666 (22.67%) Developer
2 453 (15.42%) DevOps Engineer
3 249 (8.48%) Java Developer
4 175 (5.96%) Architect
5 169 (5.75%) Linux Engineer
6 164 (5.58%) Analyst
7 160 (5.45%) AWS Engineer
8 154 (5.24%) Administrator
9 124 (4.22%) Software Engineer
10 115 (3.91%) Cloud Engineer
11 107 (3.64%) AWS DevOps
12 99 (3.37%) AWS DevOps Engineer
13 95 (3.23%) Consultant
14 91 (3.10%) DBA
14 91 (3.10%) Infrastructure Engineer
15 87 (2.96%) Systems Administrator
16 76 (2.59%) Senior Developer
17 73 (2.48%) Senior DevOps
17 73 (2.48%) Systems Engineer
18 70 (2.38%) Oracle DBA
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 202 (6.88%) HTML
2 189 (6.43%) Web Services
3 163 (5.55%) Node.js
4 162 (5.51%) .NET
5 152 (5.17%) REST
6 137 (4.66%) CSS
6 137 (4.66%) Middleware
7 136 (4.63%) Spring
8 135 (4.59%) Kafka
9 132 (4.49%) XML
10 117 (3.98%) SOAP
11 108 (3.68%) JSON
12 107 (3.64%) RESTful
13 91 (3.10%) AngularJS
14 85 (2.89%) Spring Boot
15 78 (2.65%) ActiveMQ
16 75 (2.55%) JAX-RS
16 75 (2.55%) RabbitMQ
17 74 (2.52%) LAMP
18 71 (2.42%) Elastic Stack
Miscellaneous
1 292 (9.94%) Analytical Skills
2 134 (4.56%) Linux Command Line
3 129 (4.39%) Data Centre
4 74 (2.52%) Management Information System
5 68 (2.31%) Clustering
5 68 (2.31%) User Experience
6 66 (2.25%) Self-Motivation
7 63 (2.14%) Public Cloud
8 57 (1.94%) Cloud Native
9 48 (1.63%) PKI
10 42 (1.43%) Algorithms
10 42 (1.43%) Data Structures
10 42 (1.43%) Replication
11 36 (1.23%) Fixed Income
12 35 (1.19%) Hybrid Cloud
13 34 (1.16%) Greenfield Project
13 34 (1.16%) Private Cloud
14 33 (1.12%) Device Driver
14 33 (1.12%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 27 (0.92%) Derivative
Operating Systems
1 968 (32.95%) Windows
2 717 (24.40%) Unix
3 402 (13.68%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 272 (9.26%) Windows Server
5 163 (5.55%) CentOS
6 139 (4.73%) Mac OS X
7 94 (3.20%) Solaris
8 68 (2.31%) Windows Server 2012
9 64 (2.18%) Ubuntu
10 62 (2.11%) Windows 10
11 61 (2.08%) Windows Server 2016
12 56 (1.91%) AIX
13 46 (1.57%) Windows Server 2008
14 42 (1.43%) Embedded Linux
15 38 (1.29%) Windows 7
16 37 (1.26%) Oracle Linux
17 32 (1.09%) SUSE
18 30 (1.02%) Android
18 30 (1.02%) Mac OS
19 25 (0.85%) Debian
Processes & Methodologies
1 906 (30.84%) DevOps
2 823 (28.01%) Agile Software Development
3 376 (12.80%) Test Automation
4 349 (11.88%) Continuous Integration
5 310 (10.55%) Configuration Management
5 310 (10.55%) Problem-Solving
6 303 (10.31%) Microservices
7 252 (8.58%) Scrum
8 248 (8.44%) TDD
9 242 (8.24%) Software Engineering
10 236 (8.03%) Migration
11 206 (7.01%) Infrastructure as Code
12 186 (6.33%) ITIL
13 175 (5.96%) Open Source
14 147 (5.00%) Continuous Delivery
15 145 (4.94%) Continuous Deployment
16 144 (4.90%) BDD
17 133 (4.53%) SOA
18 121 (4.12%) Cybersecurity
19 118 (4.02%) Infrastructure Engineering
Programming Languages
1 857 (29.17%) Python
2 798 (27.16%) Java
3 576 (19.61%) SQL
4 420 (14.30%) Bash Shell
5 365 (12.42%) JavaScript
6 274 (9.33%) Shell Script
7 272 (9.26%) PowerShell
8 219 (7.45%) C++
9 208 (7.08%) C
10 194 (6.60%) Perl
11 160 (5.45%) C#
12 138 (4.70%) Java 8
13 130 (4.42%) PHP
14 113 (3.85%) Ruby
15 92 (3.13%) PL/SQL
16 70 (2.38%) Go
17 59 (2.01%) Groovy
18 58 (1.97%) Scala
19 34 (1.16%) TypeScript
20 33 (1.12%) Embedded C
Qualifications
1 621 (21.14%) Security Cleared
2 481 (16.37%) SC Cleared
3 154 (5.24%) Degree
4 124 (4.22%) DV Cleared
5 70 (2.38%) Cisco Certification
6 51 (1.74%) AWS Certification
6 51 (1.74%) BPSS Clearance
7 45 (1.53%) CCNA
8 43 (1.46%) Computer Science Degree
9 39 (1.33%) CISSP
9 39 (1.33%) Microsoft Certification
10 34 (1.16%) CCNP
11 30 (1.02%) DBS Check
12 27 (0.92%) GIAC
13 25 (0.85%) ISTQB
14 23 (0.78%) ISEB
15 20 (0.68%) CCIE
16 18 (0.61%) MCSE
16 18 (0.61%) OCP
16 18 (0.61%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 114 (3.88%) QA
2 49 (1.67%) SLA
3 34 (1.16%) WCAG
4 19 (0.65%) PCI DSS
5 16 (0.54%) NIST
6 14 (0.48%) Disclosure Scotland
7 13 (0.44%) GDPR
7 13 (0.44%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 9 (0.31%) Data Quality
9 8 (0.27%) ISO/IEC 20000
10 7 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
11 6 (0.20%) NCSC
11 6 (0.20%) PMO
12 5 (0.17%) Government Security Classifications
12 5 (0.17%) JSP 440
12 5 (0.17%) WAI
13 4 (0.14%) COBIT
13 4 (0.14%) HL7
14 3 (0.10%) RMADS
14 3 (0.10%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 658 (22.40%) Docker
2 293 (9.97%) Active Directory
3 209 (7.11%) VMware Infrastructure
4 89 (3.03%) Virtual Machines
5 61 (2.08%) Hyper-V
6 56 (1.91%) VMware ESXi
7 49 (1.67%) vSphere
8 44 (1.50%) Oracle RAC
9 25 (0.85%) NFS
9 25 (0.85%) VMware NSX
10 23 (0.78%) XenApp
11 17 (0.58%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 17 (0.58%) HDFS
12 16 (0.54%) Virtual Servers
13 15 (0.51%) Citrix Hypervisor
13 15 (0.51%) LXC
14 13 (0.44%) Samba
15 11 (0.37%) Firmware
15 11 (0.37%) Virtual Desktop
15 11 (0.37%) Xen
Systems Management
1 544 (18.52%) Ansible
1 544 (18.52%) Kubernetes
2 484 (16.47%) Terraform
3 333 (11.33%) Puppet
4 217 (7.39%) Opscode Chef
5 73 (2.48%) Packer
6 66 (2.25%) Grafana
7 57 (1.94%) Prometheus
8 56 (1.91%) Data Guard
9 44 (1.50%) SCCM
10 42 (1.43%) SCOM
11 40 (1.36%) Nagios
12 39 (1.33%) Salt
12 39 (1.33%) Single Sign-On
13 37 (1.26%) ZABBIX
14 30 (1.02%) Rancher
14 30 (1.02%) vCenter Server
15 28 (0.95%) logstash
15 28 (0.95%) Oracle RMAN
16 26 (0.88%) Kibana
Vendors
1 510 (17.36%) Oracle
2 395 (13.44%) Microsoft
3 355 (12.08%) VMware
4 349 (11.88%) Red Hat
5 140 (4.77%) Cisco
6 136 (4.63%) Splunk
7 116 (3.95%) IBM
8 110 (3.74%) Google
9 87 (2.96%) Atlassian
10 77 (2.62%) Dell
11 76 (2.59%) HP
12 70 (2.38%) SAP
13 56 (1.91%) Sybase
14 51 (1.74%) NetApp
15 48 (1.63%) Citrix
16 47 (1.60%) Juniper
17 43 (1.46%) EMC
18 41 (1.40%) Informatica
19 39 (1.33%) CheckPoint
20 38 (1.29%) SolarWinds