Period
to 3 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unix skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unix over the 6 months to 3 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unix
UK
6 months to
3 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 102 80 80
Rank change year-on-year -22 0 -23
Contract jobs citing Unix 1,767 1,091 2,767
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.44% 3.03% 3.01%
As % of the Operating Systems category 15.79% 15.70% 14.78%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,165 724 1,701
10th Percentile £358 £323 £325
25th Percentile £425 £399 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £520 £488 £488
Median % change year-on-year +6.67% - +2.63%
75th Percentile £635 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £656 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £451 £437 £450
% change year-on-year +3.26% -2.89% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 23 19 36
10th Percentile £20.07 £18.10 £14.00
25th Percentile £29.18 £34.00 £20.00
Median hourly rate £50.00 £42.00 £33.00
Median % change year-on-year +19.05% +27.27% +11.86%
75th Percentile £60.00 £60.82 £46.86
90th Percentile £65.40 £66.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £39.60 £42.00 £31.00
% change year-on-year -5.71% +35.48% +2.48%

Unix is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 11,189 6,951 18,716
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 15.45% 19.29% 20.35%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,384 4,578 12,006
10th Percentile £185 £156 £153
25th Percentile £350 £310 £300
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £438 £425
Median % change year-on-year +8.57% +2.94% -
75th Percentile £575 £538 £538
90th Percentile £653 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £400
Number of hourly rates quoted 592 412 1,161
10th Percentile £11.99 £12.02 £11.17
25th Percentile £13.34 £14.00 £13.05
Median hourly rate £17.42 £18.50 £17.50
Median % change year-on-year -5.85% +5.71% +2.94%
75th Percentile £42.00 £32.25 £36.00
90th Percentile £61.85 £47.83 £48.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.23 £17.50 £16.00
% change year-on-year -7.26% +9.38% -

Unix
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unix as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unix in the UK

Unix
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unix.

Daily rate trend for Unix in the UK

Unix
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unix over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unix in the UK

Unix
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unix.

Hourly rate trend for Unix in the UK

Unix
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unix over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Unix in the UK

Unix
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unix within the UK over the 6 months to 3 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -18 1,480 £525 +5.53% 345
London -15 811 £575 +9.52% 154
UK excluding London -18 721 £451 +3.26% 216
Work from Home -32 491 £500 +3.90% 45
Midlands +10 244 £465 +9.41% 46
West Midlands +1 218 £450 +5.51% 30
North of England -34 150 £450 -10.00% 53
South East -37 125 £470 +4.44% 44
Scotland -12 98 £425 - 19
North West -42 77 £413 -8.33% 27
Yorkshire -28 47 £500 -2.44% 17
East of England -31 40 £500 +5.26% 19
South West -2 39 £500 +17.65% 26
North East +15 27 £550 +22.22% 9
East Midlands -18 22 £470 +23.85% 15
Northern Ireland -9 16 £475 +10.21% 7
Wales -13 11 £525 +10.53% 2

For the 6 months to 3 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unix also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unix.

1 966 (54.67%) Linux
2 712 (40.29%) Java
3 702 (39.73%) SQL
4 593 (33.56%) Oracle
5 561 (31.75%) Agile Software Development
6 472 (26.71%) Social Skills
7 451 (25.52%) Python
8 442 (25.01%) Windows
9 403 (22.81%) Finance
10 358 (20.26%) Git (software)
11 324 (18.34%) AWS
12 314 (17.77%) Shell Script
13 301 (17.03%) Jenkins
14 278 (15.73%) DevOps
15 266 (15.05%) Banking
16 258 (14.60%) Ansible
17 253 (14.32%) Spring
18 244 (13.81%) Azure
19 236 (13.36%) JIRA
20 229 (12.96%) Problem-Solving
21 218 (12.34%) Software Engineering
22 216 (12.22%) Test Automation
23 213 (12.05%) Scrum
24 212 (12.00%) Docker
24 212 (12.00%) Relational Database
25 195 (11.04%) PL/SQL
26 185 (10.47%) SQL Server
26 185 (10.47%) Configuration Management
27 183 (10.36%) Kubernetes
28 176 (9.96%) Analytical Skills

Unix
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 166 (9.39%) Confluence
2 147 (8.32%) WebLogic
3 91 (5.15%) Apache
4 83 (4.70%) Apache Spark
5 79 (4.47%) Mule
6 73 (4.13%) Tomcat
7 72 (4.07%) SAS
7 72 (4.07%) WebSphere
8 68 (3.85%) JBoss
9 38 (2.15%) SharePoint
10 31 (1.75%) Elasticsearch
11 26 (1.47%) IIS
12 23 (1.30%) CMS
12 23 (1.30%) Red Hat Fuse
13 19 (1.08%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 17 (0.96%) WebLogic Portal
15 16 (0.91%) Cloud Foundry
16 15 (0.85%) WebSphere Application Server
17 13 (0.74%) Jetty
17 13 (0.74%) nginx
Applications
1 43 (2.43%) Microsoft Office
2 30 (1.70%) Microsoft Excel
3 17 (0.96%) MS Visio
4 12 (0.68%) Microsoft Project
5 9 (0.51%) Siemens NX
6 7 (0.40%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 4 (0.23%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.057%) Photoshop
8 1 (0.057%) PTC Creo
Business Applications
1 21 (1.19%) Oracle EBS
2 14 (0.79%) Oracle EBS R12
2 14 (0.79%) SAP HCM
3 13 (0.74%) Oracle Applications
4 12 (0.68%) assyst
5 9 (0.51%) SAP FI-CA
5 9 (0.51%) SAP PSCD
6 8 (0.45%) Magento
7 7 (0.40%) RMDS
7 7 (0.40%) Teamcenter
8 6 (0.34%) Sentinel
9 5 (0.28%) ION MarketView
9 5 (0.28%) Oracle Payables
9 5 (0.28%) Oracle Receivables
10 4 (0.23%) Dynamics CRM
10 4 (0.23%) Markit EDM
11 3 (0.17%) IntelliMatch
11 3 (0.17%) Remedy ITSM
12 2 (0.11%) Eikon
12 2 (0.11%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 324 (18.34%) AWS
2 244 (13.81%) Azure
3 83 (4.70%) GCP
4 81 (4.58%) GitHub
5 55 (3.11%) IaaS
6 40 (2.26%) OpenShift
7 39 (2.21%) Microsoft 365
8 32 (1.81%) PaaS
8 32 (1.81%) Power Platform
9 28 (1.58%) SaaS
10 27 (1.53%) Amazon S3
11 24 (1.36%) AWS CloudFormation
12 22 (1.25%) Serverless
13 19 (1.08%) Amazon EC2
14 17 (0.96%) Cloud Computing
15 14 (0.79%) SuccessFactors
15 14 (0.79%) Virtual Private Cloud
16 13 (0.74%) AWS Lambda
17 12 (0.68%) Apigee
18 10 (0.57%) Amazon EKS
Communications & Networking
1 102 (5.77%) Firewall
2 61 (3.45%) SAN
3 56 (3.17%) HTTP
4 53 (3.00%) TCP/IP
5 50 (2.83%) DNS
5 50 (2.83%) SSL
6 46 (2.60%) Network Security
7 39 (2.21%) Internet
8 36 (2.04%) WAN
9 31 (1.75%) Kerberos
10 26 (1.47%) LAN
10 26 (1.47%) Wireshark
11 23 (1.30%) NAS
12 20 (1.13%) DHCP
13 18 (1.02%) VPN
14 17 (0.96%) HTTPS
15 15 (0.85%) Intrusion Detection
16 13 (0.74%) SNMP
16 13 (0.74%) SSH
17 12 (0.68%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 212 (12.00%) Relational Database
2 185 (10.47%) SQL Server
3 149 (8.43%) Hadoop
4 120 (6.79%) MySQL
5 102 (5.77%) Oracle Database
5 102 (5.77%) PostgreSQL
6 99 (5.60%) Big Data
7 89 (5.04%) Apache Hive
8 80 (4.53%) Data Warehouse
9 68 (3.85%) MongoDB
10 62 (3.51%) NoSQL
11 57 (3.23%) BusinessObjects
12 51 (2.89%) DB2
12 51 (2.89%) Pentaho
13 44 (2.49%) RDBMS
14 39 (2.21%) Oracle Database 11g
15 33 (1.87%) HBase
16 31 (1.75%) Tableau
17 30 (1.70%) Power BI
18 27 (1.53%) Oracle Reports
Development Applications
1 358 (20.26%) Git (software)
2 301 (17.03%) Jenkins
3 236 (13.36%) JIRA
4 149 (8.43%) Maven
5 99 (5.60%) Subversion
6 78 (4.41%) Bitbucket
7 75 (4.24%) GitLab
8 67 (3.79%) Cucumber
9 64 (3.62%) JUnit
10 60 (3.40%) Selenium
11 38 (2.15%) TeamCity
12 36 (2.04%) Gatling
13 32 (1.81%) IntelliJ
13 32 (1.81%) Postman
14 31 (1.75%) CA Gen
14 31 (1.75%) Mockito
15 30 (1.70%) Sonatype Nexus
16 28 (1.58%) Eclipse
17 25 (1.41%) Artifactory
18 20 (1.13%) SoapUI
General
1 472 (26.71%) Social Skills
2 403 (22.81%) Finance
3 266 (15.05%) Banking
4 176 (9.96%) Analytical Skills
5 146 (8.26%) Public Sector
6 132 (7.47%) Front Office
7 118 (6.68%) Investment Banking
8 62 (3.51%) Telecoms
9 34 (1.92%) Back Office
10 28 (1.58%) Documentation Skills
11 26 (1.47%) Marketing
12 24 (1.36%) Manufacturing
13 23 (1.30%) Presentation Skills
13 23 (1.30%) Retail
14 20 (1.13%) Financial Institution
15 18 (1.02%) Organisational Skills
16 17 (0.96%) Electronics
17 15 (0.85%) Influencing Skills
18 11 (0.62%) Local Government
19 9 (0.51%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 582 (32.94%) Developer
2 268 (15.17%) Java Developer
3 135 (7.64%) Analyst
4 92 (5.21%) Consultant
4 92 (5.21%) Data Engineer
5 84 (4.75%) Senior Developer
6 78 (4.41%) DevOps Engineer
7 74 (4.19%) Administrator
8 72 (4.07%) Architect
9 61 (3.45%) Software Engineer
10 57 (3.23%) Integration Developer
11 55 (3.11%) Unix Engineer
12 50 (2.83%) Applications Support
13 47 (2.66%) Infrastructure Engineer
14 46 (2.60%) DBA
15 41 (2.32%) Linux Engineer
16 40 (2.26%) Senior Java Developer
17 39 (2.21%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
18 37 (2.09%) Tester
19 36 (2.04%) C++ Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 253 (14.32%) Spring
2 165 (9.34%) J2EE
3 157 (8.89%) REST
4 145 (8.21%) XML
5 143 (8.09%) Middleware
6 124 (7.02%) JSON
7 116 (6.56%) HTML
8 110 (6.23%) Web Services
9 92 (5.21%) Apache Camel
10 91 (5.15%) CSS
11 87 (4.92%) Spring Boot
12 83 (4.70%) Kafka
13 80 (4.53%) Hibernate
14 72 (4.07%) React
15 68 (3.85%) LDAP
16 67 (3.79%) RESTful
17 66 (3.74%) SOAP
18 63 (3.57%) AngularJS
19 62 (3.51%) JTA
20 60 (3.40%) JTS
Miscellaneous
1 70 (3.96%) Data Centre
2 64 (3.62%) Management Information System
3 58 (3.28%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 57 (3.23%) Data Structures
5 54 (3.06%) Linux Command Line
6 52 (2.94%) Clustering
6 52 (2.94%) Equities
7 47 (2.66%) Fixed Income
8 43 (2.43%) Algorithms
9 34 (1.92%) Data Protection Act
10 33 (1.87%) Public Cloud
11 32 (1.81%) User Experience
12 31 (1.75%) SWIFT
13 30 (1.70%) Enterprise Software
14 29 (1.64%) Derivative
15 24 (1.36%) PKI
16 19 (1.08%) Self-Motivation
17 17 (0.96%) Client/Server
18 15 (0.85%) Mainframe
18 15 (0.85%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 966 (54.67%) Linux
2 442 (25.01%) Windows
3 119 (6.73%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 87 (4.92%) AIX
5 75 (4.24%) Solaris
6 70 (3.96%) Windows Server
7 31 (1.75%) Mac OS X
8 18 (1.02%) VMS
9 16 (0.91%) Windows 10
10 15 (0.85%) Windows Server 2016
11 13 (0.74%) CentOS
11 13 (0.74%) Mac OS
12 12 (0.68%) Android
13 11 (0.62%) Oracle Linux
13 11 (0.62%) Windows Server 2019
14 10 (0.57%) Windows Server 2012
15 9 (0.51%) Apple iOS
15 9 (0.51%) Windows Server 2008
15 9 (0.51%) zOS
16 8 (0.45%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 561 (31.75%) Agile Software Development
2 278 (15.73%) DevOps
3 229 (12.96%) Problem-Solving
4 218 (12.34%) Software Engineering
5 216 (12.22%) Test Automation
6 213 (12.05%) Scrum
7 185 (10.47%) Configuration Management
8 176 (9.96%) Microservices
9 145 (8.21%) Data Modelling
9 145 (8.21%) TDD
10 141 (7.98%) Continuous Integration
11 139 (7.87%) Analytics
12 138 (7.81%) OO
13 129 (7.30%) Business Intelligence
14 124 (7.02%) ETL
15 123 (6.96%) Process Improvement
16 118 (6.68%) Migration
17 111 (6.28%) Test Strategy
18 100 (5.66%) Performance Tuning
19 97 (5.49%) Problem Management
Programming Languages
1 712 (40.29%) Java
2 702 (39.73%) SQL
3 451 (25.52%) Python
4 314 (17.77%) Shell Script
5 195 (11.04%) PL/SQL
6 176 (9.96%) Perl
7 173 (9.79%) JavaScript
8 138 (7.81%) Bash Shell
9 110 (6.23%) PowerShell
10 101 (5.72%) Java 8
11 86 (4.87%) C++
12 82 (4.64%) Scala
13 69 (3.90%) C
14 53 (3.00%) Ruby
15 43 (2.43%) C#
16 37 (2.09%) PHP
17 28 (1.58%) COBOL
18 27 (1.53%) Groovy
19 26 (1.47%) R
20 25 (1.41%) HiveQL
Qualifications
1 169 (9.56%) Security Cleared
2 146 (8.26%) SC Cleared
3 124 (7.02%) Degree
4 37 (2.09%) ISEB
5 36 (2.04%) ISTQB
5 36 (2.04%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 30 (1.70%) Computer Science Degree
7 27 (1.53%) CISSP
8 18 (1.02%) Cisco Certification
9 16 (0.91%) DV Cleared
10 15 (0.85%) CCNP
10 15 (0.85%) CISM
11 14 (0.79%) CCNA
12 13 (0.74%) GIAC
13 11 (0.62%) AWS Certification
13 11 (0.62%) SAS Certification
14 10 (0.57%) CEH
14 10 (0.57%) Master's Degree
14 10 (0.57%) Microsoft Certification
14 10 (0.57%) RHCE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 103 (5.83%) QA
2 29 (1.64%) SLA
3 19 (1.08%) Accessibility
4 18 (1.02%) Data Quality
5 11 (0.62%) GDPR
6 10 (0.57%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 7 (0.40%) Disclosure Scotland
8 6 (0.34%) COBIT
8 6 (0.34%) MiFID
8 6 (0.34%) PCI DSS
9 4 (0.23%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 3 (0.17%) Cyber Essentials
10 3 (0.17%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
10 3 (0.17%) NIST
10 3 (0.17%) PMO
10 3 (0.17%) SEPA
11 2 (0.11%) IFRS
11 2 (0.11%) IFRS 9
11 2 (0.11%) ISO 15022
11 2 (0.11%) ISO 20022
System Software
1 212 (12.00%) Docker
2 98 (5.55%) Active Directory
3 79 (4.47%) VMware Infrastructure
4 57 (3.23%) HDFS
5 25 (1.41%) Oracle RAC
6 24 (1.36%) VMware ESXi
7 20 (1.13%) Virtual Machines
8 19 (1.08%) NFS
9 18 (1.02%) Hyper-V
10 14 (0.79%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 14 (0.79%) vSphere
11 10 (0.57%) Veritas Cluster Server
11 10 (0.57%) Veritas Volume Manager
12 9 (0.51%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
13 7 (0.40%) Apache Flume
13 7 (0.40%) BitLocker
13 7 (0.40%) OpenAM
13 7 (0.40%) OpenDJ
14 6 (0.34%) KVM
14 6 (0.34%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 258 (14.60%) Ansible
2 183 (10.36%) Kubernetes
3 99 (5.60%) Puppet
4 98 (5.55%) Terraform
5 55 (3.11%) Opscode Chef
6 35 (1.98%) Prometheus
7 33 (1.87%) Grafana
8 25 (1.41%) Oracle RMAN
9 23 (1.30%) Control-M
9 23 (1.30%) SCCM
9 23 (1.30%) Single Sign-On
10 21 (1.19%) ITRS Geneos
10 21 (1.19%) Oozie
11 20 (1.13%) Kibana
12 16 (0.91%) Nessus
12 16 (0.91%) Packer
13 15 (0.85%) Active Directory Federation Services
13 15 (0.85%) Hadoop YARN
14 14 (0.79%) Red Hat Satellite
14 14 (0.79%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 593 (33.56%) Oracle
2 161 (9.11%) Microsoft
3 127 (7.19%) Red Hat
4 124 (7.02%) VMware
5 115 (6.51%) Informatica
6 109 (6.17%) IBM
7 89 (5.04%) webMethods
8 71 (4.02%) BEA
9 70 (3.96%) Google
10 68 (3.85%) SAP
11 67 (3.79%) Splunk
12 64 (3.62%) Sybase
13 59 (3.34%) Cisco
14 48 (2.72%) Citrix
15 47 (2.66%) Cloudera
15 47 (2.66%) Talend
16 33 (1.87%) Murex
16 33 (1.87%) ServiceNow
17 32 (1.81%) HP
18 31 (1.75%) EMC