Period
to 10 May 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 10 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
10 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 421 360 519
Rank change year-on-year -61 +159 -31
Contract jobs citing PKI 259 336 373
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.47% 0.65% 0.40%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.58% 2.28% 1.41%
Number of daily rates quoted 167 203 251
10th Percentile £363 £349 £350
25th Percentile £413 £385 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £485 £500
Median % change year-on-year -2.06% -3.00% +11.11%
75th Percentile £528 £592 £625
90th Percentile £580 £650 £713
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 13 15
Median hourly rate £60.25 £50.50 £12.00
Median % change year-on-year +19.31% +320.83% -73.09%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £15.00 £50.50 £12.00
% change year-on-year -70.30% +320.83% -60.33%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 16,383 14,763 26,413
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.42% 28.44% 28.44%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,994 9,581 17,479
10th Percentile £285 £231 £288
25th Percentile £394 £363 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.16% - +2.70%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £688 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £425
Number of hourly rates quoted 638 640 874
10th Percentile £12.01 £12.61 £11.80
25th Percentile £16.00 £16.20 £14.01
Median hourly rate £25.75 £22.14 £20.50
Median % change year-on-year +16.29% +8.01% -4.65%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £44.09
90th Percentile £60.00 £53.75 £50.69
UK excluding London median hourly rate £24.00 £20.11 £18.73
% change year-on-year +19.34% +7.40% -7.16%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 10 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 10 May 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 10 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -75 182 £475 -4.52% 50
UK excluding London -24 142 £450 - 34
London -20 66 £475 -20.83% 18
Work from Home -213 66 £474 -4.01% 7
South East +27 42 £515 +14.44% 14
Scotland -11 32 £455 +25.52% 2
North of England +52 29 £425 +6.25% 9
North West +23 23 £413 +3.13% 7
Midlands +2 19 £456 -17.05% 2
West Midlands -12 14 £446 -22.39% 1
South West -11 10 £488 -2.50% 4
East of England +19 8 £400 -5.88% 3
Yorkshire +25 6 £440 +3.53% 2
East Midlands +14 5 £463 -7.50% 1
Wales +14 2 - -

For the 6 months to 10 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 139 (53.67%) Active Directory
2 111 (42.86%) Windows
3 107 (41.31%) Azure
4 103 (39.77%) Security Cleared
5 97 (37.45%) Microsoft
6 77 (29.73%) DNS
7 75 (28.96%) SC Cleared
8 55 (21.24%) Microsoft 365
9 52 (20.08%) Windows Server
10 51 (19.69%) Identity Management
11 50 (19.31%) PowerShell
12 49 (18.92%) Linux
13 48 (18.53%) Firewall
14 46 (17.76%) DevOps
15 45 (17.37%) VMware
15 45 (17.37%) VPN
16 43 (16.60%) Agile Software Development
17 40 (15.44%) AWS
17 40 (15.44%) Social Skills
18 39 (15.06%) LDAP
18 39 (15.06%) Cisco
19 37 (14.29%) Docker
20 36 (13.90%) Azure Active Directory
20 36 (13.90%) WAN
21 34 (13.13%) DV Cleared
22 32 (12.36%) Cybersecurity
22 32 (12.36%) Infrastructure Engineering
23 31 (11.97%) VMware Infrastructure
24 30 (11.58%) Kubernetes
24 30 (11.58%) SharePoint

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 30 (11.58%) SharePoint
2 17 (6.56%) IIS
3 8 (3.09%) MS Exchange
4 6 (2.32%) Apache
4 6 (2.32%) Ethereum
4 6 (2.32%) JBoss
4 6 (2.32%) WebSphere
5 5 (1.93%) Apache Spark
5 5 (1.93%) NetWeaver
5 5 (1.93%) Skype for Business
6 4 (1.54%) CMS
6 4 (1.54%) Tomcat
7 3 (1.16%) Confluence
7 3 (1.16%) Exchange Server 2010
7 3 (1.16%) WebLogic
8 2 (0.77%) Cloud Foundry
8 2 (0.77%) Exchange Server 2013
8 2 (0.77%) OpenStack
8 2 (0.77%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 1 (0.39%) MQSeries
Applications
1 6 (2.32%) Microsoft Office
2 4 (1.54%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.39%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.39%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 6 (2.32%) Distributed Ledger
2 2 (0.77%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 107 (41.31%) Azure
2 55 (21.24%) Microsoft 365
3 40 (15.44%) AWS
4 36 (13.90%) Azure Active Directory
5 18 (6.95%) PaaS
6 17 (6.56%) GCP
7 16 (6.18%) IaaS
8 11 (4.25%) SaaS
9 7 (2.70%) Cloud Computing
10 5 (1.93%) Azure Cosmos DB
10 5 (1.93%) Azure ExpressRoute
10 5 (1.93%) GitHub
10 5 (1.93%) OpenShift
11 4 (1.54%) Amazon EC2
11 4 (1.54%) Amazon ECS
11 4 (1.54%) Amazon EMR
11 4 (1.54%) Route 53
12 3 (1.16%) OneDrive
12 3 (1.16%) Serverless
12 3 (1.16%) Yammer
Communications & Networking
1 77 (29.73%) DNS
2 48 (18.53%) Firewall
3 45 (17.37%) VPN
4 36 (13.90%) WAN
5 28 (10.81%) Kerberos
6 26 (10.04%) X.500
7 21 (8.11%) DHCP
7 21 (8.11%) SSL
8 20 (7.72%) Wireless
9 18 (6.95%) Internet
10 17 (6.56%) Network Security
11 16 (6.18%) Skype
12 12 (4.63%) DMZ
12 12 (4.63%) Intranet
12 12 (4.63%) IPsec
12 12 (4.63%) LAN
13 11 (4.25%) TCP/IP
14 9 (3.47%) Junos
14 9 (3.47%) MPLS
14 9 (3.47%) SAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 28 (10.81%) SQL Server
2 9 (3.47%) MySQL
3 8 (3.09%) Blockchain
4 7 (2.70%) Relational Database
5 6 (2.32%) Oracle Database
6 5 (1.93%) Azure SQL Database
6 5 (1.93%) DB2
6 5 (1.93%) Hadoop
6 5 (1.93%) SAP HANA
7 1 (0.39%) Apache Accumulo
7 1 (0.39%) Big Data
7 1 (0.39%) EDRMS
7 1 (0.39%) MariaDB
7 1 (0.39%) PostgreSQL
7 1 (0.39%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 7 (2.70%) Jenkins
1 7 (2.70%) Team Foundation Server
2 4 (1.54%) SonarQube
3 3 (1.16%) JIRA
4 2 (0.77%) Bitbucket
4 2 (0.77%) Sonatype Nexus
5 1 (0.39%) Git (software)
5 1 (0.39%) GitLab
5 1 (0.39%) Testinfra
General
1 40 (15.44%) Social Skills
2 25 (9.65%) Finance
3 17 (6.56%) Public Sector
4 14 (5.41%) Analytical Skills
5 13 (5.02%) Banking
6 5 (1.93%) Presentation Skills
7 4 (1.54%) Manufacturing
7 4 (1.54%) Retail Banking
8 2 (0.77%) Billing
8 2 (0.77%) Financial Institution
8 2 (0.77%) Pharmaceutical
9 1 (0.39%) Advertising
9 1 (0.39%) Aerospace
9 1 (0.39%) Legal
9 1 (0.39%) Local Government
9 1 (0.39%) Organisational Skills
9 1 (0.39%) Retail
9 1 (0.39%) Telecoms
Job Titles
1 29 (11.20%) Architect
1 29 (11.20%) Consultant
2 17 (6.56%) Active Directory Engineer
2 17 (6.56%) Network Engineer
3 16 (6.18%) Security Engineer
4 15 (5.79%) Infrastructure Engineer
5 13 (5.02%) Azure Engineer
6 12 (4.63%) Support Engineer
7 11 (4.25%) Developer
8 8 (3.09%) Active Directory Consultant
8 8 (3.09%) Cloud Engineer
8 8 (3.09%) Security Specialist
9 7 (2.70%) Administrator
9 7 (2.70%) Infrastructure Architect
9 7 (2.70%) Network Support
9 7 (2.70%) Network Support Engineer
9 7 (2.70%) Security Architect
9 7 (2.70%) Security Consultant
9 7 (2.70%) Solutions Architect
9 7 (2.70%) Windows Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 39 (15.06%) LDAP
2 19 (7.34%) CSS
3 17 (6.56%) SAML
4 16 (6.18%) HTML
5 15 (5.79%) OpenID
6 13 (5.02%) OAuth
7 11 (4.25%) REST
8 10 (3.86%) JSON
9 9 (3.47%) Node.js
10 7 (2.70%) Middleware
11 5 (1.93%) SAP Basis
11 5 (1.93%) XML
12 4 (1.54%) SOAP
12 4 (1.54%) Software Packaging
13 3 (1.16%) EJS
13 3 (1.16%) Elastic Stack
13 3 (1.16%) Kafka
13 3 (1.16%) React Native
13 3 (1.16%) Serverless Framework
13 3 (1.16%) Twitter Bootstrap
Miscellaneous
1 29 (11.20%) Replication
2 28 (10.81%) Self-Motivation
3 25 (9.65%) Management Information System
4 23 (8.88%) Data Centre
5 14 (5.41%) Public Cloud
6 13 (5.02%) Algorithms
7 9 (3.47%) Clustering
8 8 (3.09%) Smartcard
9 6 (2.32%) Cloud Native
10 5 (1.93%) Linux Command Line
10 5 (1.93%) Video Conferencing
11 4 (1.54%) Fat Client
11 4 (1.54%) Private Cloud
11 4 (1.54%) Thin Client
12 3 (1.16%) Greenfield Project
13 2 (0.77%) Cyberattack
13 2 (0.77%) SWIFT
14 1 (0.39%) DataPower
14 1 (0.39%) Enterprise Software
14 1 (0.39%) Internet of Things
Operating Systems
1 111 (42.86%) Windows
2 52 (20.08%) Windows Server
3 49 (18.92%) Linux
4 19 (7.34%) Unix
5 13 (5.02%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 13 (5.02%) Windows Server 2012
6 10 (3.86%) Windows Server 2019
7 8 (3.09%) AIX
8 6 (2.32%) Windows 10
8 6 (2.32%) Windows Server 2016
9 4 (1.54%) CentOS
10 3 (1.16%) Solaris
10 3 (1.16%) Windows Server 2008
11 1 (0.39%) Amazon Linux
11 1 (0.39%) HPUX
11 1 (0.39%) Mac OS
11 1 (0.39%) SUSE
11 1 (0.39%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 51 (19.69%) Identity Management
2 46 (17.76%) DevOps
3 43 (16.60%) Agile Software Development
4 32 (12.36%) Cybersecurity
4 32 (12.36%) Infrastructure Engineering
5 29 (11.20%) Identity Access Management
6 28 (10.81%) Migration
7 27 (10.42%) ITIL
7 27 (10.42%) SIEM
8 26 (10.04%) Cryptography
8 26 (10.04%) Problem-Solving
9 21 (8.11%) Multi-Factor Authentication
10 20 (7.72%) Project Management
11 18 (6.95%) Project Delivery
12 17 (6.56%) Mentoring
13 15 (5.79%) Infrastructure as Code
13 15 (5.79%) Service Management
14 14 (5.41%) Information Security
15 13 (5.02%) DevSecOps
15 13 (5.02%) High Availability
Programming Languages
1 50 (19.31%) PowerShell
2 24 (9.27%) Java
3 20 (7.72%) Bash Shell
4 18 (6.95%) Python
5 15 (5.79%) JavaScript
5 15 (5.79%) SQL
6 7 (2.70%) Groovy
7 6 (2.32%) C#
7 6 (2.32%) Solidity
8 4 (1.54%) C
8 4 (1.54%) Ruby
9 3 (1.16%) C++
9 3 (1.16%) VBScript
10 1 (0.39%) Go
10 1 (0.39%) Perl
10 1 (0.39%) PHP
10 1 (0.39%) Shell Script
10 1 (0.39%) VBA
10 1 (0.39%) XPath
Qualifications
1 103 (39.77%) Security Cleared
2 75 (28.96%) SC Cleared
3 34 (13.13%) DV Cleared
4 19 (7.34%) Microsoft Certification
5 16 (6.18%) MCSE
6 14 (5.41%) Degree
7 8 (3.09%) Cisco Certification
7 8 (3.09%) JNCIA
8 5 (1.93%) CISSP
8 5 (1.93%) Computer Science Degree
9 4 (1.54%) CCNP
9 4 (1.54%) ITIL Certification
10 3 (1.16%) BPSS Clearance
10 3 (1.16%) CCNA
10 3 (1.16%) HPE ATP
11 2 (0.77%) CCIE
11 2 (0.77%) CCIE Routing and Switching
11 2 (0.77%) MCITP
11 2 (0.77%) MCTS
12 1 (0.39%) CISM
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 8 (3.09%) SLA
2 7 (2.70%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 6 (2.32%) PCI DSS
4 5 (1.93%) COBIT
4 5 (1.93%) GDPR
5 4 (1.54%) NCSC
6 3 (1.16%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
6 3 (1.16%) NIST
7 2 (0.77%) QA
8 1 (0.39%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.39%) FISMA
8 1 (0.39%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.39%) NIST 800
8 1 (0.39%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 139 (53.67%) Active Directory
2 37 (14.29%) Docker
3 31 (11.97%) VMware Infrastructure
4 30 (11.58%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 11 (4.25%) VMware ESXi
6 8 (3.09%) vSphere
7 7 (2.70%) Virtual Machines
8 6 (2.32%) Hyper-V
9 3 (1.16%) KVM
10 2 (0.77%) Firmware
10 2 (0.77%) Virtual Servers
10 2 (0.77%) VMware NSX
11 1 (0.39%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 1 (0.39%) BitLocker
11 1 (0.39%) IAG
11 1 (0.39%) Snort
11 1 (0.39%) Virtual Desktop
11 1 (0.39%) VMware Server
Systems Management
1 30 (11.58%) Kubernetes
2 25 (9.65%) SCCM
3 22 (8.49%) Single Sign-On
4 21 (8.11%) Terraform
5 18 (6.95%) Ansible
6 11 (4.25%) Microsoft Intune
7 9 (3.47%) vCenter Server
8 7 (2.70%) Prometheus
9 6 (2.32%) WSUS
10 5 (1.93%) McAfee ePO
10 5 (1.93%) Opscode Chef
11 4 (1.54%) AirWatch
11 4 (1.54%) Capistrano
11 4 (1.54%) Puppet
12 3 (1.16%) Grafana
12 3 (1.16%) OpenView Configuration Management
12 3 (1.16%) Oracle ZFS
12 3 (1.16%) vRealize
12 3 (1.16%) yum
13 2 (0.77%) SCOM
Vendors
1 97 (37.45%) Microsoft
2 45 (17.37%) VMware
3 39 (15.06%) Cisco
4 24 (9.27%) Oracle
5 17 (6.56%) McAfee
6 15 (5.79%) Juniper
7 14 (5.41%) Red Hat
8 13 (5.02%) HP
9 12 (4.63%) CA
10 9 (3.47%) Citrix
10 9 (3.47%) Google
10 9 (3.47%) Nintex
10 9 (3.47%) SAP
11 7 (2.70%) Qualys
12 6 (2.32%) Gemalto
12 6 (2.32%) IBM
12 6 (2.32%) Parity
12 6 (2.32%) Tripwire
13 5 (1.93%) F5
13 5 (1.93%) Splunk