Period
to

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 24 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
24 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 416 445 354
Rank change year-on-year +29 -91 +170
Contract jobs citing PKI 471 251 312
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.54% 0.43% 0.65%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.71% 1.42% 2.17%
Number of daily rates quoted 333 161 187
10th Percentile £413 £363 £346
25th Percentile £463 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £475 £495
Median % change year-on-year +15.79% -4.04% -1.98%
75th Percentile £675 £538 £600
90th Percentile £738 £575 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £450 £473
% change year-on-year +11.11% -4.76% -0.53%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 8 13
10th Percentile £47.90 - £46.52
25th Percentile £53.91 £15.00 £49.19
Median hourly rate £61.75 £37.50 £50.50
Median % change year-on-year +64.67% -25.74% +320.83%
75th Percentile £66.00 £66.00 £55.00
90th Percentile - - £66.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £54.43 £15.00 £50.50
% change year-on-year +262.87% -70.30% +320.83%

PKI is in the General and Transferable Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 27,564 17,738 14,381
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 31.48% 30.42% 29.85%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,385 11,900 9,333
10th Percentile £313 £300 £250
25th Percentile £425 £400 £373
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £653 £600 £594
90th Percentile £763 £700 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +11.76% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 715 651 615
10th Percentile £14.25 £12.02 £12.61
25th Percentile £17.19 £16.00 £16.23
Median hourly rate £26.98 £25.14 £23.00
Median % change year-on-year +7.32% +9.30% +11.68%
75th Percentile £50.69 £48.63 £46.33
90th Percentile £66.00 £60.00 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.25 £23.21 £20.50
% change year-on-year -8.44% +13.22% +9.63%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 24 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 24 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 24 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England +29 387 £550 +15.79% 46
UK excluding London -3 209 £500 +11.11% 36
Work from Home -36 194 £540 +20.00% 17
London -4 159 £600 +25.00% 16
South East +8 84 £500 -4.76% 13
North of England -45 45 £625 +47.06% 7
North West -24 36 £625 +61.29% 5
East of England -15 21 £425 +6.25%
Midlands -43 21 £508 +11.23% 5
Scotland -17 16 £500 +7.82% 5
South West -29 15 £498 +2.05% 5
West Midlands -47 15 £575 +26.03% 1
Wales -6 9 £750 +100.00% 1
North East - 7 £738 - 1
East Midlands -23 6 £465 +0.54% 4
Yorkshire -35 2 £675 +53.41% 1

For the 6 months to 24 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 219 (46.50%) Active Directory
2 211 (44.80%) Microsoft
3 201 (42.68%) Azure
4 195 (41.40%) DNS
5 187 (39.70%) Windows
6 177 (37.58%) Security Cleared
7 174 (36.94%) VMware
8 145 (30.79%) SC Cleared
9 136 (28.87%) VMware Infrastructure
10 126 (26.75%) Linux
11 125 (26.54%) Windows Server
12 124 (26.33%) AWS
13 121 (25.69%) Firewall
14 110 (23.35%) PowerShell
15 107 (22.72%) DevOps
16 106 (22.51%) Agile
17 103 (21.87%) Terraform
18 97 (20.59%) Azure Active Directory
19 94 (19.96%) Microsoft 365
20 93 (19.75%) DHCP
21 90 (19.11%) Social Skills
22 83 (17.62%) Ansible
23 81 (17.20%) Kubernetes
24 80 (16.99%) Docker
25 75 (15.92%) Active Directory Federation Services
25 75 (15.92%) CI/CD
26 71 (15.07%) SQL
27 69 (14.65%) Python
27 69 (14.65%) SCCM
28 68 (14.44%) Load Balancing

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 45 (9.55%) SharePoint
2 35 (7.43%) nginx
3 29 (6.16%) Traefik
4 24 (5.10%) Exchange Server 2013
5 23 (4.88%) OpenStack
5 23 (4.88%) Skype for Business
6 22 (4.67%) IIS
7 20 (4.25%) MS Exchange
8 18 (3.82%) Confluence
9 12 (2.55%) Apache
10 8 (1.70%) JBoss
11 5 (1.06%) Cloud Foundry
11 5 (1.06%) GlassFish
12 4 (0.85%) Tomcat
13 3 (0.64%) WebSphere
14 2 (0.42%) Apache Airflow
14 2 (0.42%) Documentum
14 2 (0.42%) NetWeaver
14 2 (0.42%) SharePoint Server
15 1 (0.21%) Elasticsearch
Applications
1 22 (4.67%) Microsoft Excel
1 22 (4.67%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 17 (3.61%) MS Visio
3 7 (1.49%) Microsoft Office
4 2 (0.42%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 4 (0.85%) Sentinel
2 1 (0.21%) Oracle Applications
2 1 (0.21%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 201 (42.68%) Azure
2 124 (26.33%) AWS
3 97 (20.59%) Azure Active Directory
4 94 (19.96%) Microsoft 365
5 67 (14.23%) GCP
6 59 (12.53%) PaaS
7 58 (12.31%) IaaS
8 36 (7.64%) AWS CloudFormation
9 35 (7.43%) SaaS
9 35 (7.43%) Virtual Private Cloud
10 34 (7.22%) Amazon CloudWatch
11 33 (7.01%) Amazon EC2
12 22 (4.67%) OpenShift
13 12 (2.55%) Apigee
13 12 (2.55%) Power Platform
14 10 (2.12%) Azure Sentinel
15 9 (1.91%) OneDrive
16 8 (1.70%) Azure Monitor
17 6 (1.27%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 6 (1.27%) Azure ExpressRoute
Communications & Networking
1 195 (41.40%) DNS
2 121 (25.69%) Firewall
3 93 (19.75%) DHCP
4 68 (14.44%) SSL
5 64 (13.59%) VPN
6 63 (13.38%) TCP/IP
7 35 (7.43%) IPsec
8 30 (6.37%) Kerberos
9 29 (6.16%) Skype
10 28 (5.94%) Network Security
11 20 (4.25%) X.500
12 18 (3.82%) WAN
13 17 (3.61%) SAN
14 16 (3.40%) MPLS
15 15 (3.18%) DMZ
15 15 (3.18%) IKE
15 15 (3.18%) SSH
16 13 (2.76%) Wi-Fi
17 10 (2.12%) BGP
17 10 (2.12%) HTTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 58 (12.31%) SQL Server
2 29 (6.16%) PostgreSQL
3 17 (3.61%) MySQL
4 13 (2.76%) MongoDB
4 13 (2.76%) Redis
5 9 (1.91%) MariaDB
6 8 (1.70%) NoSQL
7 6 (1.27%) Hadoop
8 5 (1.06%) Azure SQL Database
9 4 (0.85%) SAP HANA
10 3 (0.64%) Amazon RDS
10 3 (0.64%) DB2
10 3 (0.64%) Relational Database
11 2 (0.42%) Cloudant
11 2 (0.42%) Couchbase
12 1 (0.21%) Big Data
12 1 (0.21%) Oracle Database
12 1 (0.21%) Oracle Reports
12 1 (0.21%) Power BI
12 1 (0.21%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 57 (12.10%) Jenkins
2 54 (11.46%) GitLab
3 51 (10.83%) Git (software)
4 22 (4.67%) JIRA
5 5 (1.06%) Bitbucket
6 3 (0.64%) IBM UrbanCode
7 2 (0.42%) git-flow
7 2 (0.42%) JUnit
7 2 (0.42%) Liquibase
7 2 (0.42%) MSI
7 2 (0.42%) SonarQube
8 1 (0.21%) Eclipse
8 1 (0.21%) JMeter
8 1 (0.21%) Maven
8 1 (0.21%) Moq
8 1 (0.21%) Rational DOORS
8 1 (0.21%) Robot Framework
8 1 (0.21%) Selenium
8 1 (0.21%) Sonatype Nexus
8 1 (0.21%) Subversion
General
1 90 (19.11%) Social Skills
2 62 (13.16%) Finance
3 42 (8.92%) Public Sector
4 27 (5.73%) Analytical Skills
5 16 (3.40%) Telecoms
6 14 (2.97%) Banking
7 12 (2.55%) Documentation Skills
8 10 (2.12%) Presentation Skills
9 9 (1.91%) Games
10 6 (1.27%) Financial Institution
10 6 (1.27%) Organisational Skills
11 5 (1.06%) Legal
11 5 (1.06%) Retail
12 3 (0.64%) Investment Banking
12 3 (0.64%) Manufacturing
13 2 (0.42%) Automotive
13 2 (0.42%) Inclusion and Diversity
13 2 (0.42%) Influencing Skills
13 2 (0.42%) Military
14 1 (0.21%) Law
Job Titles
1 91 (19.32%) Architect
2 57 (12.10%) DevOps Engineer
3 43 (9.13%) Infrastructure Engineer
4 40 (8.49%) Security Architect
5 36 (7.64%) Security Engineer
6 33 (7.01%) 3rd Line Engineer
7 30 (6.37%) Cloud Engineer
8 24 (5.10%) Active Directory Engineer
9 21 (4.46%) Applications Engineer
10 20 (4.25%) Consultant
11 19 (4.03%) Azure Engineer
12 18 (3.82%) Solutions Architect
12 18 (3.82%) Support Engineer
12 18 (3.82%) Wintel Engineer
13 17 (3.61%) Analyst
13 17 (3.61%) Systems Engineer
14 15 (3.18%) Administrator
14 15 (3.18%) Server Engineer
15 14 (2.97%) Design Engineer
16 13 (2.76%) Infrastructure Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 52 (11.04%) LDAP
2 36 (7.64%) OAuth
3 35 (7.43%) cloud-init
4 32 (6.79%) SAML
5 26 (5.52%) Elastic Stack
6 18 (3.82%) OpenID
7 17 (3.61%) REST
8 16 (3.40%) OAuth2
9 14 (2.97%) Web Services
10 12 (2.55%) XSLT
11 11 (2.34%) ARM Templates
12 10 (2.12%) CSS
12 10 (2.12%) HTML
13 9 (1.91%) EJB
13 9 (1.91%) Kafka
13 9 (1.91%) RESTful
14 7 (1.49%) Middleware
15 6 (1.27%) Spring Boot
16 5 (1.06%) JWT
16 5 (1.06%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 59 (12.53%) Replication
2 46 (9.77%) Clustering
3 36 (7.64%) Private Cloud
4 35 (7.43%) Data Centre
5 28 (5.94%) Management Information System
6 22 (4.67%) Public Cloud
7 14 (2.97%) Hybrid Cloud
8 13 (2.76%) DataPower
9 9 (1.91%) Cloud Native
10 8 (1.70%) Algorithms
10 8 (1.70%) Enterprise Software
10 8 (1.70%) Enterprise Storage
11 6 (1.27%) Blog
12 5 (1.06%) Blackberry
12 5 (1.06%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
12 5 (1.06%) Greenfield Project
13 4 (0.85%) Data Protection Act
13 4 (0.85%) iPad
13 4 (0.85%) Virtual Team
14 3 (0.64%) Video Conferencing
Operating Systems
1 187 (39.70%) Windows
2 126 (26.75%) Linux
3 125 (26.54%) Windows Server
4 57 (12.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 50 (10.62%) CentOS
6 44 (9.34%) Windows Server 2012
7 33 (7.01%) Unix
8 27 (5.73%) Windows Server 2019
9 22 (4.67%) Windows Server 2016
10 19 (4.03%) Windows 10
10 19 (4.03%) Windows Server 2003
11 11 (2.34%) Android
12 10 (2.12%) Apple iOS
13 9 (1.91%) Windows 7
14 8 (1.70%) Mac OS
14 8 (1.70%) Oracle Linux
15 7 (1.49%) HPUX
16 5 (1.06%) Ubuntu
16 5 (1.06%) Windows 2000
17 3 (0.64%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 107 (22.72%) DevOps
2 106 (22.51%) Agile
3 75 (15.92%) CI/CD
4 68 (14.44%) Configuration Management
4 68 (14.44%) Load Balancing
5 67 (14.23%) Cybersecurity
6 60 (12.74%) Identity Management
7 58 (12.31%) ITIL
8 55 (11.68%) Migration
9 51 (10.83%) Continuous Integration
10 48 (10.19%) Infrastructure Engineering
11 47 (9.98%) Data Loss Prevention
12 43 (9.13%) Problem-Solving
13 41 (8.70%) Information Security
14 40 (8.49%) Identity Access Management
14 40 (8.49%) Microservices
15 37 (7.86%) SIEM
16 35 (7.43%) Application Security
16 35 (7.43%) Continuous Deployment
16 35 (7.43%) Vulnerability Management
Programming Languages
1 110 (23.35%) PowerShell
2 71 (15.07%) SQL
3 69 (14.65%) Python
4 45 (9.55%) Bash
5 32 (6.79%) Go
6 29 (6.16%) Ruby
7 24 (5.10%) Java
8 17 (3.61%) JavaScript
9 6 (1.27%) C#
9 6 (1.27%) C++
10 5 (1.06%) VB
11 3 (0.64%) PHP
11 3 (0.64%) PL/SQL
12 2 (0.42%) Assembly Language
12 2 (0.42%) C
12 2 (0.42%) JCL
12 2 (0.42%) Perl
12 2 (0.42%) REXX
12 2 (0.42%) Shell Script
13 1 (0.21%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 177 (37.58%) Security Cleared
2 145 (30.79%) SC Cleared
3 37 (7.86%) DV Cleared
4 33 (7.01%) Degree
5 27 (5.73%) Microsoft Certification
6 19 (4.03%) CISSP
7 17 (3.61%) MCSE
8 12 (2.55%) Cisco Certification
9 10 (2.12%) BPSS Clearance
9 10 (2.12%) CESG Certified Professional
10 9 (1.91%) Computer Science Degree
11 8 (1.70%) CCIE
11 8 (1.70%) Master's Degree
12 5 (1.06%) CCIE Security
12 5 (1.06%) CEH
13 4 (0.85%) CISM
13 4 (0.85%) GIAC
13 4 (0.85%) MCTS
14 3 (0.64%) CCNP
14 3 (0.64%) CISA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 45 (9.55%) NCSC
2 40 (8.49%) SLA
3 21 (4.46%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 12 (2.55%) NIST
5 10 (2.12%) RMADS
6 9 (1.91%) GDPR
6 9 (1.91%) PCI DSS
7 7 (1.49%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
8 6 (1.27%) JSP 440
9 5 (1.06%) Accessibility
9 5 (1.06%) Cyber Essentials
10 4 (0.85%) Government Security Classifications
10 4 (0.85%) PMO
11 2 (0.42%) COBIT
11 2 (0.42%) Disclosure Scotland
11 2 (0.42%) OASIS TOSCA
11 2 (0.42%) QA
12 1 (0.21%) Def Stans
12 1 (0.21%) SSAE 16
12 1 (0.21%) WCAG
System Software
1 219 (46.50%) Active Directory
2 136 (28.87%) VMware Infrastructure
3 80 (16.99%) Docker
4 59 (12.53%) vSphere
5 46 (9.77%) Hyper-V
6 24 (5.10%) VMware ESXi
7 22 (4.67%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
8 15 (3.18%) vCloud
8 15 (3.18%) VMware Workstation
9 10 (2.12%) Firmware
10 9 (1.91%) NFS
10 9 (1.91%) Virtual Desktop
10 9 (1.91%) Virtual Machines
11 7 (1.49%) Terminal Services
11 7 (1.49%) VMware NSX
11 7 (1.49%) XenApp
12 6 (1.27%) BitLocker
13 4 (0.85%) Microsoft Virtual Server
13 4 (0.85%) Virtual Servers
14 3 (0.64%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 103 (21.87%) Terraform
2 83 (17.62%) Ansible
3 81 (17.20%) Kubernetes
4 75 (15.92%) Active Directory Federation Services
5 69 (14.65%) SCCM
6 41 (8.70%) Prometheus
7 37 (7.86%) Puppet
8 36 (7.64%) Packer
9 35 (7.43%) Consul
9 35 (7.43%) Microsoft Intune
9 35 (7.43%) Single Sign-On
9 35 (7.43%) ZABBIX
10 34 (7.22%) Graphite
11 31 (6.58%) HAProxy
12 30 (6.37%) Istio
12 30 (6.37%) Podman
13 29 (6.16%) Docker Swarm
14 28 (5.94%) linkerd
15 20 (4.25%) SCVMM
16 16 (3.40%) vCenter Server
Vendors
1 211 (44.80%) Microsoft
2 174 (36.94%) VMware
3 49 (10.40%) Cisco
4 43 (9.13%) Oracle
5 38 (8.07%) Splunk
6 34 (7.22%) PagerDuty
7 33 (7.01%) IBM
8 31 (6.58%) CA
9 29 (6.16%) Citrix
10 28 (5.94%) NetApp
10 28 (5.94%) Red Hat
11 23 (4.88%) HP
12 20 (4.25%) Atlassian
12 20 (4.25%) McAfee
13 19 (4.03%) Google
13 19 (4.03%) ServiceNow
14 18 (3.82%) Dell
14 18 (3.82%) Palo Alto
15 17 (3.61%) F5
15 17 (3.61%) Thales