Period
to 23 September 2020

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 23 September 2020 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
23 Sep 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 312 456 408
Rank change year-on-year +144 -48 +64
Contract jobs citing PKI 207 413 618
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.70% 0.47% 0.61%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 2.06% 1.50% 1.88%
Number of daily rates quoted 137 276 427
Median daily rate £495 £500 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -1.00% - +5.26%
10th Percentile £383 £310 £350
90th Percentile £650 £706 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 6 17 8
Median hourly rate £35.00 £13.00 £36.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +169.23% -64.63% -18.33%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £13.00 £31.00
% change year-on-year +169.23% -58.06% -31.11%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 10,062 27,599 32,833
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 33.87% 31.37% 32.46%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,351 17,489 21,247
Median daily rate £478 £475 £473
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +0.53% +0.53% +5.00%
10th Percentile £263 £269 £275
90th Percentile £725 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £420
% change year-on-year - +1.19% +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 452 1,033 1,029
Median hourly rate £34.13 £22.00 £20.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +55.11% +10.00% -3.40%
10th Percentile £13.50 £11.64 £12.25
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £50.00
Median hourly rate £26.89 £20.75 £19.00
% change year-on-year +29.57% +9.21% -5.00%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 23 September 2020.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 23 September 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 23 September 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +151 176 £495 -1.00% 25
UK excluding London +169 127 £475 - 19
London +131 64 £495 -10.00% 10
South West +101 38 £538 +7.50% 4
South East +145 30 £450 -5.26% 5
Midlands +109 24 £538 +79.17%
Work from Home -45 22 £500 -44.44% 5
West Midlands +78 18 £575 +91.67%
North of England +117 16 £475 +5.56% 6
Scotland +67 15 £580 +12.08% 4
North West +73 9 £405 -11.96% 3
Yorkshire +83 7 £475 +111.11% 3
East Midlands +68 6 £500 +104.30%
East of England +68 3 £400 -34.69%
Wales +28 1 £500 -5.66%

For the 6 months to 23 September 2020, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 104 (50.24%) Active Directory
2 80 (38.65%) Security Cleared
3 79 (38.16%) Windows
4 69 (33.33%) Microsoft
4 69 (33.33%) Firewall
5 64 (30.92%) Azure
6 58 (28.02%) DNS
7 47 (22.71%) Java
8 46 (22.22%) Agile Software Development
9 45 (21.74%) DevOps
10 42 (20.29%) VMware
11 41 (19.81%) DV Cleared
12 40 (19.32%) Cisco
13 39 (18.84%) VPN
13 39 (18.84%) Data Centre
14 37 (17.87%) Internet
14 37 (17.87%) Linux
15 36 (17.39%) WAN
16 35 (16.91%) Windows Server
17 33 (15.94%) CISSP
18 32 (15.46%) Docker
18 32 (15.46%) IaaS
18 32 (15.46%) PowerShell
19 31 (14.98%) SC Cleared
19 31 (14.98%) Office 365
19 31 (14.98%) LDAP
19 31 (14.98%) SQL Server
20 30 (14.49%) DHCP
20 30 (14.49%) AWS
21 28 (13.53%) .NET

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 21 (10.14%) Confluence
2 20 (9.66%) Skype for Business
3 18 (8.70%) SharePoint
4 12 (5.80%) MS Exchange
5 9 (4.35%) IIS
6 5 (2.42%) JBoss
6 5 (2.42%) NetWeaver
6 5 (2.42%) WebSphere
7 2 (0.97%) Exchange Server 2013
7 2 (0.97%) nginx
8 1 (0.48%) Cloud Foundry
8 1 (0.48%) Exchange Server 2003
8 1 (0.48%) Exchange Server 2010
8 1 (0.48%) SharePoint Server
Applications
1 2 (0.97%) MS Visio
2 1 (0.48%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 1 (0.48%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 64 (30.92%) Azure
2 32 (15.46%) IaaS
3 31 (14.98%) Office 365
4 30 (14.49%) AWS
5 24 (11.59%) PaaS
6 10 (4.83%) Amazon EC2
6 10 (4.83%) Azure Active Directory
7 8 (3.86%) Amazon S3
7 8 (3.86%) Cloud Computing
7 8 (3.86%) SaaS
8 7 (3.38%) Azure ExpressRoute
8 7 (3.38%) OpenShift
8 7 (3.38%) Route 53
9 6 (2.90%) Amazon CloudWatch
9 6 (2.90%) Amazon EKS
9 6 (2.90%) AWS CloudFormation
10 5 (2.42%) Amazon ECS
11 3 (1.45%) Virtual Private Cloud
12 2 (0.97%) GCP
12 2 (0.97%) OneDrive
Communications & Networking
1 69 (33.33%) Firewall
2 58 (28.02%) DNS
3 39 (18.84%) VPN
4 37 (17.87%) Internet
5 36 (17.39%) WAN
6 30 (14.49%) DHCP
7 26 (12.56%) Skype
8 23 (11.11%) Wireless
9 22 (10.63%) Network Security
10 20 (9.66%) DMZ
11 17 (8.21%) MPLS
12 16 (7.73%) Intranet
13 15 (7.25%) IPsec
13 15 (7.25%) Kerberos
14 14 (6.76%) X.500
15 12 (5.80%) PBX
15 12 (5.80%) SSL
16 10 (4.83%) BGP
17 9 (4.35%) TCP/IP
18 8 (3.86%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 31 (14.98%) SQL Server
2 13 (6.28%) Apache Accumulo
2 13 (6.28%) Hadoop
3 10 (4.83%) PostgreSQL
4 9 (4.35%) Amazon RDS
5 8 (3.86%) MySQL
5 8 (3.86%) Relational Database
6 6 (2.90%) Azure SQL Database
6 6 (2.90%) Cosmos DB
6 6 (2.90%) DB2
6 6 (2.90%) Oracle Database
6 6 (2.90%) Oracle Database 11g
6 6 (2.90%) Oracle Database 12c
7 5 (2.42%) SAP HANA
7 5 (2.42%) SQL Server 2019
8 1 (0.48%) SQL Server 2012
Development Applications
1 22 (10.63%) JIRA
2 20 (9.66%) Bitbucket
3 15 (7.25%) Jenkins
4 7 (3.38%) Sonatype Nexus
4 7 (3.38%) Visual Studio
5 4 (1.93%) Team Foundation Server
6 1 (0.48%) Eclipse
6 1 (0.48%) Git (software)
6 1 (0.48%) JUnit
6 1 (0.48%) Mockito
6 1 (0.48%) Octopus Deploy
6 1 (0.48%) TeamCity
General
1 22 (10.63%) Finance
2 17 (8.21%) Banking
3 13 (6.28%) Aerospace
4 6 (2.90%) Telecoms
5 5 (2.42%) Financial Institution
5 5 (2.42%) Pharmaceutical
6 4 (1.93%) Investment Banking
6 4 (1.93%) Public Sector
7 3 (1.45%) Military
8 1 (0.48%) Local Government
8 1 (0.48%) Manufacturing
8 1 (0.48%) Police
Job Titles
1 38 (18.36%) Architect
2 19 (9.18%) Security Architect
3 18 (8.70%) Administrator
4 17 (8.21%) Systems Administrator
5 16 (7.73%) Security Engineer
5 16 (7.73%) Security Specialist
6 15 (7.25%) Consultant
6 15 (7.25%) Network Engineer
7 13 (6.28%) Active Directory Engineer
7 13 (6.28%) Linux Administrator
7 13 (6.28%) Linux Systems Administrator
7 13 (6.28%) Systems Administration Leader
8 10 (4.83%) Developer
8 10 (4.83%) Solutions Architect
9 9 (4.35%) Applications Architect
10 7 (3.38%) 3rd Line Engineer
10 7 (3.38%) 3rd Line Network Engineer
10 7 (3.38%) Network Support
10 7 (3.38%) Network Support Engineer
10 7 (3.38%) Support Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 31 (14.98%) LDAP
2 28 (13.53%) .NET
3 22 (10.63%) SAML
4 18 (8.70%) OAuth
5 15 (7.25%) OpenID
6 14 (6.76%) Kafka
7 13 (6.28%) Apache NiFi
8 10 (4.83%) Middleware
8 10 (4.83%) REST
9 8 (3.86%) OAuth2
10 7 (3.38%) JSON
10 7 (3.38%) Web Services
10 7 (3.38%) XACML
11 6 (2.90%) Elastic Stack
11 6 (2.90%) SPML
11 6 (2.90%) WCF
11 6 (2.90%) YAML
12 5 (2.42%) SAP Basis
13 4 (1.93%) Node.js
14 3 (1.45%) AngularJS
Miscellaneous
1 39 (18.84%) Data Centre
2 25 (12.08%) Self-Motivation
3 20 (9.66%) Replication
4 16 (7.73%) Management Information System
5 15 (7.25%) Algorithms
6 10 (4.83%) Analytical Skills
7 9 (4.35%) Linux Command Line
8 7 (3.38%) Client/Server
8 7 (3.38%) Public Cloud
9 6 (2.90%) Fat Client
9 6 (2.90%) Thin Client
10 5 (2.42%) Virtual Team
11 4 (1.93%) CMDB
11 4 (1.93%) Security Operations Centre
11 4 (1.93%) Smart Energy
11 4 (1.93%) Smart Meter
11 4 (1.93%) Video Conferencing
12 3 (1.45%) CESG
12 3 (1.45%) Cloud Native
12 3 (1.45%) e-Learning
Operating Systems
1 79 (38.16%) Windows
2 37 (17.87%) Linux
3 35 (16.91%) Windows Server
4 22 (10.63%) Windows Server 2012
5 17 (8.21%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 15 (7.25%) Windows Server 2016
7 14 (6.76%) CentOS
8 12 (5.80%) Unix
9 11 (5.31%) Windows Server 2019
10 8 (3.86%) Windows 10
11 3 (1.45%) AIX
11 3 (1.45%) Apple iOS
11 3 (1.45%) Solaris
12 1 (0.48%) HPUX
12 1 (0.48%) Mac OS X
12 1 (0.48%) Windows 7
12 1 (0.48%) Windows Server 2003
12 1 (0.48%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 46 (22.22%) Agile Software Development
2 45 (21.74%) DevOps
3 26 (12.56%) Information Security
4 25 (12.08%) Migration
4 25 (12.08%) SIEM
5 24 (11.59%) Security Architecture
6 23 (11.11%) Technical Leadership
7 21 (10.14%) High Availability
7 21 (10.14%) Infrastructure Engineering
8 20 (9.66%) Identity Management
9 19 (9.18%) Incident Management
10 17 (8.21%) Product Roadmap
11 16 (7.73%) Cryptography
11 16 (7.73%) Microservices
11 16 (7.73%) Scrum
12 15 (7.25%) Open Source
13 13 (6.28%) Security Operations
14 12 (5.80%) Change Management
14 12 (5.80%) Data Protection
14 12 (5.80%) Validation
Programming Languages
1 47 (22.71%) Java
2 32 (15.46%) PowerShell
3 22 (10.63%) Bash Shell
4 21 (10.14%) Python
5 17 (8.21%) SQL
6 13 (6.28%) Perl
7 8 (3.86%) Shell Script
8 6 (2.90%) C#
8 6 (2.90%) JavaScript
8 6 (2.90%) VB.NET
9 4 (1.93%) C++
10 2 (0.97%) Go
10 2 (0.97%) Java 8
11 1 (0.48%) C
11 1 (0.48%) Groovy
11 1 (0.48%) Lisp
11 1 (0.48%) Ruby
Qualifications
1 80 (38.65%) Security Cleared
2 41 (19.81%) DV Cleared
3 33 (15.94%) CISSP
4 31 (14.98%) SC Cleared
5 19 (9.18%) Microsoft Certification
6 14 (6.76%) Cisco Certification
7 13 (6.28%) Degree
8 11 (5.31%) MCSE
9 9 (4.35%) (ISC)2 CCSP
9 9 (4.35%) CCSP
10 7 (3.38%) CISM
11 6 (2.90%) Master's Degree
11 6 (2.90%) MCSA
12 4 (1.93%) CCNA
12 4 (1.93%) CCNP
12 4 (1.93%) CEH
12 4 (1.93%) CISMP
12 4 (1.93%) GIAC
12 4 (1.93%) JNCIA
13 3 (1.45%) CISA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 7 (3.38%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 6 (2.90%) COBIT
2 6 (2.90%) PCI DSS
3 5 (2.42%) GDPR
3 5 (2.42%) NCSC
4 4 (1.93%) ISO/IEC 27005
5 2 (0.97%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
5 2 (0.97%) QA
6 1 (0.48%) NIST
6 1 (0.48%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 104 (50.24%) Active Directory
2 32 (15.46%) Docker
3 17 (8.21%) VMware Infrastructure
4 15 (7.25%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 13 (6.28%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 6 (2.90%) VMware ESXi
7 4 (1.93%) Virtual Machines
7 4 (1.93%) vSphere
8 3 (1.45%) Snort
8 3 (1.45%) Virtual Desktop
8 3 (1.45%) VMware NSX
9 2 (0.97%) NDS
10 1 (0.48%) BitLocker
10 1 (0.48%) Citrix Presentation Server
10 1 (0.48%) Hyper-V
10 1 (0.48%) UAG
10 1 (0.48%) VMware Workstation
10 1 (0.48%) XenApp
10 1 (0.48%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 19 (9.18%) Single Sign-On
2 18 (8.70%) SCCM
3 16 (7.73%) Ansible
4 14 (6.76%) Kubernetes
5 9 (4.35%) SCOM
5 9 (4.35%) Terraform
6 6 (2.90%) Forefront Identity Manager
6 6 (2.90%) PingFederate
7 4 (1.93%) CASB
7 4 (1.93%) McAfee ePO
8 3 (1.45%) Microsoft Intune
8 3 (1.45%) Network Intrusion Detection System
9 2 (0.97%) AirWatch
9 2 (0.97%) Consul
9 2 (0.97%) HAProxy
9 2 (0.97%) Packer
9 2 (0.97%) Puppet
9 2 (0.97%) vCenter Server
9 2 (0.97%) vRealize
9 2 (0.97%) WSUS
Vendors
1 69 (33.33%) Microsoft
2 42 (20.29%) VMware
3 40 (19.32%) Cisco
4 20 (9.66%) Red Hat
5 16 (7.73%) Juniper
6 14 (6.76%) Oracle
7 12 (5.80%) Citrix
8 10 (4.83%) Fortinet
9 8 (3.86%) Palo Alto
10 7 (3.38%) CA
10 7 (3.38%) McAfee
10 7 (3.38%) SolarWinds
11 6 (2.90%) CyberArk
11 6 (2.90%) HP
11 6 (2.90%) SAP
11 6 (2.90%) Sonus
11 6 (2.90%) Splunk
11 6 (2.90%) Veracode
12 5 (2.42%) ForgeRock
12 5 (2.42%) Gemalto