Period
to 1 August 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 1 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
1 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 477 343 458
Rank change year-on-year -134 +115 -15
Contract jobs citing PKI 306 231 426
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.43% 0.64% 0.47%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.43% 2.08% 1.60%
Number of daily rates quoted 193 138 289
10th Percentile £361 £400 £312
25th Percentile £413 £463 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £505 £520
Median % change year-on-year -5.85% -2.98% +10.34%
75th Percentile £550 £600 £650
90th Percentile £636 £650 £725
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £500 £475
% change year-on-year -7.50% +5.26% +11.76%
Number of hourly rates quoted 11 4 18
10th Percentile " £48.61 "
25th Percentile £15.00 £51.91 £12.00
Median hourly rate £60.00 £62.50 £13.00
Median % change year-on-year -4.00% +380.77% -74.00%
75th Percentile £72.50 £68.75 £48.44
90th Percentile £80.00 " £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £37.50 £62.50 £12.50
% change year-on-year -40.00% +400.00% -58.68%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 21,440 11,089 26,681
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.84% 30.53% 29.18%
Number of daily rates quoted 14,633 7,363 17,537
10th Percentile £306 £263 £281
25th Percentile £406 £381 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £495 £475
Median % change year-on-year +1.01% +4.21% -
75th Percentile £619 £600 £575
90th Percentile £712 £724 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £432 £425
% change year-on-year +4.17% +1.65% +2.41%
Number of hourly rates quoted 692 407 912
10th Percentile £11.86 £12.42 £11.75
25th Percentile £15.04 £16.88 £14.00
Median hourly rate £24.00 £25.06 £20.00
Median % change year-on-year -4.23% +25.30% -11.11%
75th Percentile £48.26 £46.13 £45.00
90th Percentile £62.23 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.50 £21.96 £18.33
% change year-on-year -6.63% +19.78% -15.24%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 1 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -131 245 £475 -7.54% 53
UK excluding London -53 175 £463 -7.50% 40
London -125 85 £525 -1.41% 16
Work from Home -241 62 £468 -12.89% 11
South East -35 53 £500 +1.52% 15
North of England -5 50 £425 -10.53% 6
North West -2 37 £413 -12.23% 3
Scotland -52 25 £464 -11.67% 2
Midlands -50 23 £513 -6.82% 10
West Midlands -40 19 £550 -4.35% 6
South West -39 15 £475 -26.92% 5
Yorkshire -19 11 £470 -1.05% 2
East of England -17 7 £600 +9.09% 1
Wales -5 5 £435 -13.00% 1
East Midlands -23 4 £475 -5.00% 4
North East - 2 £563 - 1

For the 6 months to 1 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 149 (48.69%) Active Directory
2 142 (46.41%) Windows
3 125 (40.85%) Microsoft
4 110 (35.95%) Security Cleared
5 104 (33.99%) Azure
6 89 (29.08%) DNS
7 84 (27.45%) SC Cleared
8 75 (24.51%) Linux
9 65 (21.24%) Agile Software Development
10 64 (20.92%) VMware
11 62 (20.26%) Windows Server
12 58 (18.95%) AWS
13 56 (18.30%) PowerShell
14 55 (17.97%) DevOps
14 55 (17.97%) Social Skills
15 53 (17.32%) Active Directory Federation Services
16 52 (16.99%) Docker
17 51 (16.67%) Microsoft 365
18 48 (15.69%) Identity Management
18 48 (15.69%) ITIL
19 46 (15.03%) Firewall
20 42 (13.73%) VPN
21 41 (13.40%) VMware Infrastructure
22 40 (13.07%) SQL Server
22 40 (13.07%) Java
22 40 (13.07%) Azure Active Directory
23 39 (12.75%) Cisco
24 38 (12.42%) Python
24 38 (12.42%) LDAP
24 38 (12.42%) DV Cleared

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 34 (11.11%) SharePoint
2 22 (7.19%) IIS
3 13 (4.25%) Apache Spark
3 13 (4.25%) Skype for Business
4 11 (3.59%) MS Exchange
5 9 (2.94%) Apache
5 9 (2.94%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 8 (2.61%) Confluence
7 7 (2.29%) Tomcat
8 6 (1.96%) Elasticsearch
8 6 (1.96%) nginx
8 6 (1.96%) OpenStack
9 5 (1.63%) JBoss
9 5 (1.63%) NetWeaver
10 4 (1.31%) WebSphere
11 3 (0.98%) Ethereum
12 2 (0.65%) CMS
12 2 (0.65%) Exchange Server 2010
12 2 (0.65%) SAS
13 1 (0.33%) Documentum
Applications
1 10 (3.27%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (2.94%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 7 (2.29%) Microsoft Office
3 7 (2.29%) MS Visio
4 5 (1.63%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 3 (0.98%) Distributed Ledger
2 1 (0.33%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 104 (33.99%) Azure
2 58 (18.95%) AWS
3 51 (16.67%) Microsoft 365
4 40 (13.07%) Azure Active Directory
5 21 (6.86%) GCP
6 19 (6.21%) SaaS
7 16 (5.23%) PaaS
8 13 (4.25%) IaaS
9 12 (3.92%) Amazon EC2
9 12 (3.92%) Amazon ECS
9 12 (3.92%) Amazon EMR
9 12 (3.92%) Route 53
10 8 (2.61%) Apigee
10 8 (2.61%) Cloud Computing
11 6 (1.96%) OpenShift
12 5 (1.63%) Azure Cosmos DB
12 5 (1.63%) Azure ExpressRoute
12 5 (1.63%) GitHub
12 5 (1.63%) OneDrive
12 5 (1.63%) Power Platform
Communications & Networking
1 89 (29.08%) DNS
2 46 (15.03%) Firewall
3 42 (13.73%) VPN
4 29 (9.48%) SSL
4 29 (9.48%) WAN
5 27 (8.82%) Kerberos
6 25 (8.17%) Skype
7 23 (7.52%) Network Security
8 21 (6.86%) IPsec
9 20 (6.54%) DHCP
10 19 (6.21%) LAN
11 18 (5.88%) X.500
12 17 (5.56%) VoIP
13 16 (5.23%) Internet
13 16 (5.23%) SAN
14 15 (4.90%) MPLS
15 14 (4.58%) TCP/IP
15 14 (4.58%) Wireless
16 9 (2.94%) DMZ
17 7 (2.29%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 40 (13.07%) SQL Server
2 14 (4.58%) MySQL
3 12 (3.92%) Hadoop
4 5 (1.63%) Azure SQL Database
4 5 (1.63%) DB2
4 5 (1.63%) Oracle Database
4 5 (1.63%) SAP HANA
5 4 (1.31%) Relational Database
6 3 (0.98%) Blockchain
7 2 (0.65%) Data Warehouse
8 1 (0.33%) Amazon DynamoDB
8 1 (0.33%) Big Data
8 1 (0.33%) Bigtable
8 1 (0.33%) EDRMS
8 1 (0.33%) MariaDB
8 1 (0.33%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 15 (4.90%) Jenkins
1 15 (4.90%) JIRA
2 9 (2.94%) Git (software)
3 8 (2.61%) GitLab
3 8 (2.61%) SonarQube
3 8 (2.61%) Sonatype Nexus
4 6 (1.96%) Maven
5 5 (1.63%) Team Foundation Server
6 4 (1.31%) Artifactory
6 4 (1.31%) Bitbucket
7 3 (0.98%) Gradle
7 3 (0.98%) Rational DOORS
8 2 (0.65%) Rational Rhapsody
8 2 (0.65%) TestRail
9 1 (0.33%) Atlassian Bamboo
9 1 (0.33%) Cucumber
9 1 (0.33%) IBM UrbanCode
9 1 (0.33%) REST Assured
9 1 (0.33%) Robot Framework
9 1 (0.33%) Testinfra
General
1 55 (17.97%) Social Skills
2 33 (10.78%) Finance
3 28 (9.15%) Banking
4 27 (8.82%) Public Sector
5 26 (8.50%) Analytical Skills
6 11 (3.59%) Documentation Skills
7 10 (3.27%) Telecoms
8 8 (2.61%) Presentation Skills
9 4 (1.31%) Retail Banking
10 3 (0.98%) Games
10 3 (0.98%) Law
10 3 (0.98%) Military
10 3 (0.98%) Pharmaceutical
11 2 (0.65%) Aerospace
11 2 (0.65%) Back Office
11 2 (0.65%) Billing
11 2 (0.65%) Manufacturing
12 1 (0.33%) French Language
12 1 (0.33%) Organisational Skills
12 1 (0.33%) Retail
Job Titles
1 37 (12.09%) Architect
2 20 (6.54%) Developer
2 20 (6.54%) DevOps Engineer
2 20 (6.54%) Wintel Engineer
3 17 (5.56%) Infrastructure Engineer
3 17 (5.56%) Solutions Architect
4 16 (5.23%) Network Engineer
5 15 (4.90%) Support Engineer
6 14 (4.58%) Consultant
7 12 (3.92%) Active Directory Engineer
7 12 (3.92%) Azure Engineer
7 12 (3.92%) Security Engineer
8 11 (3.59%) Cloud Engineer
9 10 (3.27%) AWS Engineer
9 10 (3.27%) Security Architect
10 9 (2.94%) 3rd Line Engineer
11 8 (2.61%) Analyst
11 8 (2.61%) C++ Developer
11 8 (2.61%) Design Engineer
11 8 (2.61%) Systems Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 38 (12.42%) LDAP
2 33 (10.78%) SAML
3 23 (7.52%) OpenID
4 22 (7.19%) OAuth
5 20 (6.54%) CSS
6 17 (5.56%) HTML
7 12 (3.92%) .NET
8 11 (3.59%) Middleware
8 11 (3.59%) Node.js
9 8 (2.61%) 802.1X
9 8 (2.61%) Elastic Stack
9 8 (2.61%) J2EE
10 7 (2.29%) REST
11 6 (1.96%) JSON
11 6 (1.96%) OAuth2
11 6 (1.96%) SailPoint
11 6 (1.96%) SPNEGO
11 6 (1.96%) WCF
11 6 (1.96%) Windows Identity Foundation
12 5 (1.63%) SAP Basis
Miscellaneous
1 23 (7.52%) Management Information System
2 21 (6.86%) Data Centre
3 18 (5.88%) Clustering
3 18 (5.88%) Replication
4 15 (4.90%) Self-Motivation
5 14 (4.58%) Public Cloud
6 9 (2.94%) Greenfield Project
6 9 (2.94%) Private Cloud
6 9 (2.94%) Video Conferencing
7 8 (2.61%) Enterprise Storage
7 8 (2.61%) Linux Command Line
8 6 (1.96%) Algorithms
8 6 (1.96%) Smartcard
9 3 (0.98%) Mainframe
10 2 (0.65%) Enterprise Software
10 2 (0.65%) Internet of Things
10 2 (0.65%) Linked Data
10 2 (0.65%) Online Banking
10 2 (0.65%) SWIFT
10 2 (0.65%) User Experience
Operating Systems
1 142 (46.41%) Windows
2 75 (24.51%) Linux
3 62 (20.26%) Windows Server
4 23 (7.52%) Unix
5 15 (4.90%) Windows Server 2012
6 14 (4.58%) Windows 10
6 14 (4.58%) Windows Server 2019
7 13 (4.25%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 8 (2.61%) AIX
9 7 (2.29%) Windows Server 2008
10 6 (1.96%) Windows Server 2016
11 4 (1.31%) CentOS
12 3 (0.98%) HPUX
12 3 (0.98%) Solaris
13 2 (0.65%) FreeRTOS
14 1 (0.33%) Apple iOS
14 1 (0.33%) Mac OS X
14 1 (0.33%) SUSE
14 1 (0.33%) Windows 7
14 1 (0.33%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 65 (21.24%) Agile Software Development
2 55 (17.97%) DevOps
3 48 (15.69%) Identity Management
3 48 (15.69%) ITIL
4 34 (11.11%) Migration
4 34 (11.11%) Problem-Solving
5 30 (9.80%) Project Management
6 28 (9.15%) Cybersecurity
7 27 (8.82%) Cryptography
7 27 (8.82%) Infrastructure Engineering
8 26 (8.50%) Identity Access Management
9 21 (6.86%) Infrastructure as Code
9 21 (6.86%) Multi-Factor Authentication
9 21 (6.86%) Service Management
10 20 (6.54%) Mentoring
11 19 (6.21%) Project Delivery
12 18 (5.88%) Information Security
13 17 (5.56%) Computer Science
14 16 (5.23%) SOA
15 15 (4.90%) Test Automation
Programming Languages
1 56 (18.30%) PowerShell
2 40 (13.07%) Java
3 38 (12.42%) Python
4 31 (10.13%) SQL
5 26 (8.50%) Bash Shell
6 15 (4.90%) C++
6 15 (4.90%) JavaScript
7 9 (2.94%) Ruby
8 8 (2.61%) C
8 8 (2.61%) C#
9 7 (2.29%) Groovy
10 6 (1.96%) VBScript
11 4 (1.31%) Go
12 3 (0.98%) Perl
12 3 (0.98%) Solidity
13 2 (0.65%) Scala
13 2 (0.65%) Shell Script
14 1 (0.33%) Java 8
14 1 (0.33%) PHP
14 1 (0.33%) TypeScript
Qualifications
1 110 (35.95%) Security Cleared
2 84 (27.45%) SC Cleared
3 38 (12.42%) Degree
3 38 (12.42%) DV Cleared
4 27 (8.82%) Microsoft Certification
5 19 (6.21%) MCSE
6 16 (5.23%) Cisco Certification
7 13 (4.25%) Computer Science Degree
8 8 (2.61%) CCNA
8 8 (2.61%) CISSP
9 7 (2.29%) ITIL Certification
10 6 (1.96%) CCNP
10 6 (1.96%) JNCIA
11 5 (1.63%) CCIE
11 5 (1.63%) GIAC
12 4 (1.31%) Master's Degree
13 3 (0.98%) CISM
13 3 (0.98%) MCITP
13 3 (0.98%) MCTS
13 3 (0.98%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 11 (3.59%) NCSC
2 9 (2.94%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 9 (2.94%) PCI DSS
2 9 (2.94%) SLA
3 7 (2.29%) GDPR
4 6 (1.96%) QA
5 5 (1.63%) COBIT
6 3 (0.98%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
6 3 (0.98%) NIST 800
7 2 (0.65%) Accessibility
7 2 (0.65%) NIST
8 1 (0.33%) Def Stans
8 1 (0.33%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.33%) FISMA
8 1 (0.33%) Government Security Classifications
8 1 (0.33%) HIPAA
8 1 (0.33%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.33%) PMO
8 1 (0.33%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 149 (48.69%) Active Directory
2 52 (16.99%) Docker
3 41 (13.40%) VMware Infrastructure
4 19 (6.21%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 11 (3.59%) VMware ESXi
6 10 (3.27%) vSphere
7 6 (1.96%) Virtual Machines
8 5 (1.63%) Hyper-V
8 5 (1.63%) VMware NSX
9 4 (1.31%) iptables
9 4 (1.31%) Virtual Desktop
10 3 (0.98%) BitLocker
10 3 (0.98%) KVM
11 2 (0.65%) Firmware
11 2 (0.65%) XenDesktop
12 1 (0.33%) Microsoft App-V
12 1 (0.33%) ProxySG
12 1 (0.33%) Snort
12 1 (0.33%) Virtual Servers
12 1 (0.33%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 53 (17.32%) Active Directory Federation Services
2 36 (11.76%) Terraform
3 33 (10.78%) Ansible
3 33 (10.78%) Kubernetes
4 27 (8.82%) Single Sign-On
5 25 (8.17%) SCCM
6 16 (5.23%) Prometheus
7 13 (4.25%) Microsoft Intune
8 11 (3.59%) vCenter Server
9 10 (3.27%) Opscode Chef
10 8 (2.61%) CA Single Sign-On
11 7 (2.29%) Grafana
12 5 (1.63%) OpenView Configuration Management
12 5 (1.63%) Puppet
12 5 (1.63%) WSUS
13 4 (1.31%) AirWatch
13 4 (1.31%) Capistrano
13 4 (1.31%) Nessus
13 4 (1.31%) Sysdig
13 4 (1.31%) vRealize
Vendors
1 125 (40.85%) Microsoft
2 64 (20.92%) VMware
3 39 (12.75%) Cisco
4 27 (8.82%) Oracle
5 20 (6.54%) CA
6 17 (5.56%) Red Hat
7 15 (4.90%) Juniper
8 14 (4.58%) Google
8 14 (4.58%) HP
9 12 (3.92%) Citrix
10 11 (3.59%) McAfee
11 10 (3.27%) IBM
12 9 (2.94%) Nintex
12 9 (2.94%) Splunk
13 8 (2.61%) Veeam
14 7 (2.29%) BMC
14 7 (2.29%) Gemalto
14 7 (2.29%) Nimble Storage
14 7 (2.29%) Palo Alto
14 7 (2.29%) SAP