Period
to 25 February 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 25 February 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
25 Feb 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 390 397 496
Rank change year-on-year +7 +99 -3
Contract jobs citing PKI 245 380 441
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.52% 0.56% 0.45%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.54% 1.76% 1.41%
Number of daily rates quoted 186 232 311
Median daily rate £480 £475 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.05% -5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £395 £332 £325
90th Percentile £600 £640 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +12.50%
Number of hourly rates quoted 20 13 11
Median hourly rate £66.00 £50.50 £15.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +30.69% +225.81% -52.31%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £60.50 £50.50 £15.50
% change year-on-year +19.80% +225.81% -52.31%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 15,900 21,576 31,375
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 33.54% 31.59% 31.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,629 13,979 20,911
Median daily rate £475 £462 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.81% -2.74% +5.56%
10th Percentile £256 £230 £275
90th Percentile £688 £675 £663
UK excluding London median daily rate £420 £425 £425
% change year-on-year -1.18% - +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 639 920 984
Median hourly rate £26.00 £22.16 £20.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +17.34% +10.79% -4.76%
10th Percentile £12.50 £12.44 £11.85
90th Percentile £58.75 £53.00 £48.75
Median hourly rate £24.00 £20.21 £19.41
% change year-on-year +18.78% +4.10% -2.95%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 25 February 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 25 February 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 25 February 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +7 163 £478 -1.55% 50
UK excluding London +41 131 £500 +11.11% 40
London +40 68 £475 -13.64% 17
Work from Home -165 63 £475 +5.56% 11
Scotland +39 42 £550 +57.14% 6
South East +85 34 £525 +10.53% 12
South West +36 17 £550 +15.79% 2
Midlands +35 17 £440 -23.48% 5
West Midlands +15 13 £425 -26.09% 3
North of England +47 10 £437 +17.97% 12
North West +37 9 £431 +16.42% 9
East of England +29 8 £400 -15.79% 2
East Midlands +32 4 £450 - 2
Wales +21 3 £375 -31.82% 1
Yorkshire +39 1 £450 +2.27% 3

For the 6 months to 25 February 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 136 (55.51%) Active Directory
2 102 (41.63%) Security Cleared
3 90 (36.73%) Microsoft
4 89 (36.33%) Windows
5 85 (34.69%) DNS
6 82 (33.47%) Azure
7 67 (27.35%) SC Cleared
8 58 (23.67%) LDAP
9 53 (21.63%) Replication
10 50 (20.41%) Firewall
11 48 (19.59%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
12 47 (19.18%) Kerberos
13 45 (18.37%) X.500
14 44 (17.96%) Identity Management
15 43 (17.55%) Microsoft 365
16 42 (17.14%) VMware
17 41 (16.73%) PowerShell
18 40 (16.33%) DevOps
18 40 (16.33%) Windows Server
19 39 (15.92%) Linux
20 37 (15.10%) VPN
21 36 (14.69%) Cisco
22 35 (14.29%) Agile Software Development
23 33 (13.47%) WAN
23 33 (13.47%) Cybersecurity
23 33 (13.47%) VMware Infrastructure
23 33 (13.47%) DV Cleared
24 32 (13.06%) Management Information System
25 31 (12.65%) AWS
26 30 (12.24%) SIEM

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 17 (6.94%) SharePoint
2 14 (5.71%) IIS
3 8 (3.27%) Apache
3 8 (3.27%) CMS
3 8 (3.27%) Confluence
3 8 (3.27%) MS Exchange
4 7 (2.86%) Skype for Business
4 7 (2.86%) WebLogic
4 7 (2.86%) WebSphere
5 6 (2.45%) JBoss
5 6 (2.45%) Tomcat
6 5 (2.04%) nginx
7 4 (1.63%) Ethereum
8 3 (1.22%) Apache Spark
8 3 (1.22%) NetWeaver
9 2 (0.82%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
9 2 (0.82%) Cloud Foundry
9 2 (0.82%) Elasticsearch
9 2 (0.82%) Exchange Server 2013
10 1 (0.41%) Exchange Server 2010
Applications
1 2 (0.82%) Microsoft Office
2 1 (0.41%) Microsoft Project
2 1 (0.41%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 4 (1.63%) Distributed Ledger
2 3 (1.22%) SAP Oil and Gas
3 2 (0.82%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 82 (33.47%) Azure
2 43 (17.55%) Microsoft 365
3 31 (12.65%) AWS
4 25 (10.20%) PaaS
5 24 (9.80%) IaaS
6 20 (8.16%) Azure Active Directory
7 14 (5.71%) GCP
8 11 (4.49%) Cloud Computing
9 7 (2.86%) SaaS
10 4 (1.63%) Amazon EC2
10 4 (1.63%) GitHub
10 4 (1.63%) Route 53
11 3 (1.22%) Amazon ECS
11 3 (1.22%) Amazon EMR
11 3 (1.22%) Azure ExpressRoute
11 3 (1.22%) IBM Cloud
12 1 (0.41%) Amazon S3
12 1 (0.41%) AWS CloudFormation
12 1 (0.41%) OpenShift
12 1 (0.41%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 85 (34.69%) DNS
2 50 (20.41%) Firewall
3 47 (19.18%) Kerberos
4 45 (18.37%) X.500
5 37 (15.10%) VPN
6 33 (13.47%) WAN
7 27 (11.02%) Internet
8 23 (9.39%) DHCP
9 22 (8.98%) Wireless
10 20 (8.16%) Network Security
11 18 (7.35%) DMZ
12 16 (6.53%) Intranet
13 14 (5.71%) Skype
14 12 (4.90%) SSL
15 10 (4.08%) MPLS
16 9 (3.67%) IPsec
16 9 (3.67%) LAN
16 9 (3.67%) SAN
17 7 (2.86%) Junos
18 6 (2.45%) VSAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 23 (9.39%) SQL Server
2 7 (2.86%) MySQL
3 6 (2.45%) Blockchain
4 5 (2.04%) Oracle Database
5 4 (1.63%) Hadoop
5 4 (1.63%) PostgreSQL
5 4 (1.63%) Relational Database
6 3 (1.22%) Azure SQL Database
6 3 (1.22%) Cosmos DB
6 3 (1.22%) DB2
6 3 (1.22%) SAP HANA
7 2 (0.82%) MongoDB
7 2 (0.82%) Oracle Database 11g
7 2 (0.82%) SQL Server 2012
8 1 (0.41%) Apache Accumulo
8 1 (0.41%) GIS
8 1 (0.41%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 9 (3.67%) JIRA
2 7 (2.86%) Jenkins
3 5 (2.04%) Bitbucket
4 4 (1.63%) Team Foundation Server
5 2 (0.82%) Atlassian Bamboo
5 2 (0.82%) Oracle APEX
5 2 (0.82%) VSS/SourceSafe
6 1 (0.41%) Git (software)
6 1 (0.41%) GitLab
6 1 (0.41%) Octopus Deploy
6 1 (0.41%) Sonatype Nexus
6 1 (0.41%) TeamCity
General
1 26 (10.61%) Finance
2 18 (7.35%) Public Sector
3 11 (4.49%) Banking
4 8 (3.27%) Manufacturing
5 7 (2.86%) Telecoms
6 5 (2.04%) Electronics
6 5 (2.04%) Marketing
7 4 (1.63%) Financial Institution
8 3 (1.22%) Legal
8 3 (1.22%) Retail
9 2 (0.82%) Aerospace
9 2 (0.82%) Billing
9 2 (0.82%) Local Government
9 2 (0.82%) Pharmaceutical
9 2 (0.82%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 36 (14.69%) Architect
2 32 (13.06%) Consultant
3 23 (9.39%) Active Directory Engineer
4 16 (6.53%) Security Engineer
5 15 (6.12%) Security Specialist
6 14 (5.71%) Security Architect
7 13 (5.31%) Network Engineer
8 11 (4.49%) Azure Engineer
9 10 (4.08%) Infrastructure Engineer
9 10 (4.08%) Support Engineer
10 9 (3.67%) Active Directory Consultant
10 9 (3.67%) Azure Specialist
10 9 (3.67%) Infrastructure Architect
11 8 (3.27%) Cloud Architect
11 8 (3.27%) Security Consultant
12 7 (2.86%) Office 365 Engineer
12 7 (2.86%) Office 365 Specialist
13 6 (2.45%) 3rd Line Engineer
13 6 (2.45%) Cloud Engineer
13 6 (2.45%) Wintel Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 58 (23.67%) LDAP
2 12 (4.90%) OAuth
3 11 (4.49%) OpenID
3 11 (4.49%) SAML
4 9 (3.67%) Middleware
5 8 (3.27%) .NET
5 8 (3.27%) REST
6 7 (2.86%) Web Services
7 5 (2.04%) CSS
7 5 (2.04%) JSON
8 4 (1.63%) Node.js
8 4 (1.63%) Software Packaging
9 3 (1.22%) HTML
9 3 (1.22%) J2EE
9 3 (1.22%) Kafka
9 3 (1.22%) SAP Basis
9 3 (1.22%) SOAP
10 2 (0.82%) 802.1X
10 2 (0.82%) JMS
10 2 (0.82%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 53 (21.63%) Replication
2 32 (13.06%) Management Information System
3 27 (11.02%) Data Centre
3 27 (11.02%) Self-Motivation
4 16 (6.53%) Algorithms
5 10 (4.08%) Analytical Skills
6 9 (3.67%) Public Cloud
6 9 (3.67%) Smartcard
7 7 (2.86%) Cloud Native
8 5 (2.04%) YubiKey
9 4 (1.63%) Private Cloud
9 4 (1.63%) Video Conferencing
10 3 (1.22%) BYOD
10 3 (1.22%) Fat Client
10 3 (1.22%) Thin Client
11 2 (0.82%) Blackberry
11 2 (0.82%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
11 2 (0.82%) EFT
11 2 (0.82%) Linux Command Line
11 2 (0.82%) SWIFT
Operating Systems
1 89 (36.33%) Windows
2 40 (16.33%) Windows Server
3 39 (15.92%) Linux
4 13 (5.31%) Windows Server 2012
5 11 (4.49%) Unix
6 8 (3.27%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 8 (3.27%) Windows Server 2019
7 5 (2.04%) CentOS
7 5 (2.04%) Windows 10
8 4 (1.63%) Android
8 4 (1.63%) Apple iOS
8 4 (1.63%) Solaris
8 4 (1.63%) Windows Server 2016
9 3 (1.22%) AIX
9 3 (1.22%) MVS
10 2 (0.82%) Mac OS
10 2 (0.82%) Windows 7
11 1 (0.41%) Amazon Linux
11 1 (0.41%) HPUX
11 1 (0.41%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 44 (17.96%) Identity Management
2 40 (16.33%) DevOps
3 35 (14.29%) Agile Software Development
4 33 (13.47%) Cybersecurity
5 30 (12.24%) Infrastructure Engineering
5 30 (12.24%) SIEM
6 27 (11.02%) Information Security
7 25 (10.20%) Identity Access Management
8 21 (8.57%) Cryptography
9 19 (7.76%) ITIL
9 19 (7.76%) Problem-Solving
10 16 (6.53%) Infrastructure as Code
10 16 (6.53%) Migration
10 16 (6.53%) Security Architecture
11 15 (6.12%) High Availability
11 15 (6.12%) Mentoring
12 13 (5.31%) Multi-Factor Authentication
12 13 (5.31%) Project Delivery
12 13 (5.31%) Security Operations
12 13 (5.31%) Vulnerability Management
Programming Languages
1 41 (16.73%) PowerShell
2 17 (6.94%) Bash Shell
2 17 (6.94%) Java
3 16 (6.53%) SQL
4 15 (6.12%) Python
5 7 (2.86%) C#
6 6 (2.45%) JavaScript
7 5 (2.04%) Groovy
7 5 (2.04%) Perl
8 4 (1.63%) Solidity
9 3 (1.22%) C
10 2 (0.82%) Go
10 2 (0.82%) PL/SQL
10 2 (0.82%) T-SQL
11 1 (0.41%) C++
11 1 (0.41%) Shell Script
11 1 (0.41%) XPath
Qualifications
1 102 (41.63%) Security Cleared
2 67 (27.35%) SC Cleared
3 33 (13.47%) DV Cleared
4 27 (11.02%) Microsoft Certification
5 24 (9.80%) MCSE
6 16 (6.53%) Degree
7 15 (6.12%) CISSP
8 9 (3.67%) Cisco Certification
9 5 (2.04%) CCNA
9 5 (2.04%) HPE ATP
9 5 (2.04%) JNCIA
10 4 (1.63%) (ISC)2 CCSP
10 4 (1.63%) CCNP
10 4 (1.63%) CCSP
10 4 (1.63%) CISM
10 4 (1.63%) Computer Science Degree
11 3 (1.22%) CEH
11 3 (1.22%) GIAC
11 3 (1.22%) ITIL Certification
11 3 (1.22%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 9 (3.67%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 7 (2.86%) NCSC
3 5 (2.04%) GDPR
3 5 (2.04%) NIST
3 5 (2.04%) PCI DSS
3 5 (2.04%) SLA
4 4 (1.63%) COBIT
5 3 (1.22%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
6 2 (0.82%) Cyber Essentials
7 1 (0.41%) Def Stans
7 1 (0.41%) HMG Security Policy Framework
7 1 (0.41%) JSP 440
7 1 (0.41%) PSD2
System Software
1 136 (55.51%) Active Directory
2 48 (19.59%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
3 33 (13.47%) VMware Infrastructure
4 26 (10.61%) Docker
5 13 (5.31%) VMware ESXi
6 9 (3.67%) vSphere
7 5 (2.04%) Hyper-V
7 5 (2.04%) Virtual Machines
8 3 (1.22%) Virtual Desktop
8 3 (1.22%) VMware NSX
9 2 (0.82%) Oracle RAC
9 2 (0.82%) Veritas Cluster Server
10 1 (0.41%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 1 (0.41%) BitLocker
10 1 (0.41%) UAG
10 1 (0.41%) Virtual Servers
10 1 (0.41%) VMware Server
10 1 (0.41%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 26 (10.61%) Kubernetes
2 22 (8.98%) Single Sign-On
3 19 (7.76%) SCCM
4 18 (7.35%) Terraform
5 15 (6.12%) Ansible
6 9 (3.67%) vCenter Server
7 7 (2.86%) Microsoft Intune
8 6 (2.45%) McAfee ePO
9 5 (2.04%) Opscode Chef
9 5 (2.04%) SCOM
10 4 (1.63%) Capistrano
10 4 (1.63%) WSUS
11 3 (1.22%) AirWatch
11 3 (1.22%) HAProxy
11 3 (1.22%) Prometheus
12 2 (0.82%) Host Intrusion Detection System
12 2 (0.82%) Microsoft Data Protection Manager
12 2 (0.82%) OfficeScan
12 2 (0.82%) OPNET
12 2 (0.82%) Trend Micro Deep Security
Vendors
1 90 (36.73%) Microsoft
2 42 (17.14%) VMware
3 36 (14.69%) Cisco
4 19 (7.76%) Oracle
5 15 (6.12%) HP
6 13 (5.31%) SAP
7 12 (4.90%) McAfee
8 9 (3.67%) Juniper
9 8 (3.27%) Forcepoint
9 8 (3.27%) Google
9 8 (3.27%) Red Hat
10 7 (2.86%) IBM
10 7 (2.86%) Remedy
10 7 (2.86%) Tripwire
11 6 (2.45%) F5
12 5 (2.04%) Atlassian
12 5 (2.04%) BeyondTrust
12 5 (2.04%) CA
13 4 (1.63%) Qualys
13 4 (1.63%) Veeam