Period
to 25 October 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 25 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
25 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 507 325 433
Rank change year-on-year -182 +108 -9
Contract jobs citing PKI 343 211 427
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.40% 0.66% 0.51%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.36% 2.10% 1.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 227 123 282
10th Percentile £385 £400 £306
25th Percentile £425 £438 £403
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - -
75th Percentile £630 £603 £650
90th Percentile £694 £650 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £500 £488
% change year-on-year -5.00% +2.56% +8.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 5 13
10th Percentile £39.24 £42.48 £12.00
25th Percentile £53.12 £44.50 "
Median hourly rate £60.00 £57.50 £13.00
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +342.31% -73.20%
75th Percentile £80.00 £66.00 £48.75
90th Percentile " " £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £70.00 £57.50 £13.00
% change year-on-year +21.74% +342.31% -63.38%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 25,271 10,029 24,267
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.79% 31.49% 28.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,774 6,842 15,984
10th Percentile £303 £263 £265
25th Percentile £413 £368 £369
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £480 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.38% +1.05% -
75th Percentile £625 £600 £575
90th Percentile £725 £713 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £421 £425
% change year-on-year +7.02% -1.06% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 695 326 867
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.01 £11.78
25th Percentile £15.02 £16.00 £14.28
Median hourly rate £24.08 £26.11 £20.50
Median % change year-on-year -7.77% +27.37% +2.50%
75th Percentile £49.38 £45.00 £46.00
90th Percentile £64.90 £58.13 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.00 £23.00 £19.03
% change year-on-year -13.04% +20.86% +0.16%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 25 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 25 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 25 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -148 284 £519 +4.80% 70
UK excluding London -114 169 £475 -5.00% 50
London -146 110 £600 +20.00% 21
Work from Home -188 82 £500 -11.11% 13
South East -69 53 £495 -1.00% 20
North of England -47 52 £450 -5.26% 8
North West -30 35 £448 +9.82% 6
Midlands -55 34 £475 +13.10% 10
West Midlands -54 24 £513 +22.02% 4
South West -62 14 £600 +11.63% 6
East Midlands -35 10 £400 - 6
Scotland -93 10 £600 +4.35% 2
Yorkshire -45 9 £500 +5.26% 1
North East - 8 £513 - 1
East of England -56 6 £450 +12.50% 2
Wales -27 4 £435 -0.57% 2

For the 6 months to 25 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 139 (40.52%) Windows
2 136 (39.65%) Active Directory
3 109 (31.78%) Microsoft
4 107 (31.20%) DNS
5 95 (27.70%) Security Cleared
6 88 (25.66%) Linux
7 86 (25.07%) Azure
8 83 (24.20%) VMware
9 77 (22.45%) Docker
10 75 (21.87%) AWS
11 73 (21.28%) SC Cleared
12 70 (20.41%) Agile Software Development
13 67 (19.53%) Windows Server
14 63 (18.37%) DevOps
15 60 (17.49%) Firewall
15 60 (17.49%) Active Directory Federation Services
16 55 (16.03%) Social Skills
17 54 (15.74%) Terraform
18 52 (15.16%) VMware Infrastructure
19 50 (14.58%) SQL
19 50 (14.58%) ITIL
19 50 (14.58%) Kubernetes
20 48 (13.99%) Microsoft 365
20 48 (13.99%) Python
21 47 (13.70%) VPN
22 46 (13.41%) SSL
23 44 (12.83%) Ansible
24 42 (12.24%) Cisco
24 42 (12.24%) PowerShell
25 41 (11.95%) Oracle

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 31 (9.04%) SharePoint
2 24 (7.00%) Apache Spark
3 19 (5.54%) Elasticsearch
3 19 (5.54%) IIS
4 18 (5.25%) OpenStack
5 14 (4.08%) nginx
6 12 (3.50%) Skype for Business
7 11 (3.21%) Tomcat
8 10 (2.92%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 9 (2.62%) Apache
10 8 (2.33%) Confluence
10 8 (2.33%) MS Exchange
10 8 (2.33%) Traefik
11 6 (1.75%) JBoss
12 5 (1.46%) NetWeaver
12 5 (1.46%) WebSphere
13 2 (0.58%) SAS
14 1 (0.29%) Cloud Foundry
14 1 (0.29%) CMS
14 1 (0.29%) Exchange Server 2013
Applications
1 10 (2.92%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (2.62%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 5 (1.46%) Microsoft Project
4 4 (1.17%) MS Visio
5 3 (0.87%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 1 (0.29%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 86 (25.07%) Azure
2 75 (21.87%) AWS
3 48 (13.99%) Microsoft 365
4 33 (9.62%) Amazon EC2
5 32 (9.33%) GCP
6 29 (8.45%) SaaS
7 28 (8.16%) Azure Active Directory
7 28 (8.16%) PaaS
8 27 (7.87%) IaaS
9 23 (6.71%) Amazon ECS
9 23 (6.71%) Amazon EMR
9 23 (6.71%) Route 53
10 16 (4.66%) Amazon EKS
11 13 (3.79%) Apigee
11 13 (3.79%) AWS CloudFormation
12 12 (3.50%) Cloud Computing
13 8 (2.33%) Amazon CloudWatch
13 8 (2.33%) Virtual Private Cloud
14 6 (1.75%) Azure Cosmos DB
14 6 (1.75%) GitHub
Communications & Networking
1 107 (31.20%) DNS
2 60 (17.49%) Firewall
3 47 (13.70%) VPN
4 46 (13.41%) SSL
5 40 (11.66%) IPsec
6 28 (8.16%) WAN
7 25 (7.29%) DHCP
7 25 (7.29%) Skype
8 23 (6.71%) Kerberos
9 22 (6.41%) MPLS
9 22 (6.41%) TCP/IP
10 21 (6.12%) Network Security
11 19 (5.54%) VoIP
12 18 (5.25%) SAN
13 17 (4.96%) LAN
14 16 (4.66%) Internet
14 16 (4.66%) X.500
15 15 (4.37%) IKE
16 14 (4.08%) Wi-Fi
17 11 (3.21%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 41 (11.95%) SQL Server
2 24 (7.00%) Hadoop
3 22 (6.41%) MySQL
4 7 (2.04%) DB2
5 6 (1.75%) Azure SQL Database
5 6 (1.75%) Oracle Reports
6 5 (1.46%) MongoDB
6 5 (1.46%) SAP HANA
7 4 (1.17%) Bigtable
7 4 (1.17%) Cloudant
8 2 (0.58%) Data Warehouse
8 2 (0.58%) RDBMS
8 2 (0.58%) Relational Database
9 1 (0.29%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 1 (0.29%) Apache Accumulo
9 1 (0.29%) Apache Hive
9 1 (0.29%) EDRMS
9 1 (0.29%) Impala
9 1 (0.29%) Oracle Database
9 1 (0.29%) Sqoop
Development Applications
1 32 (9.33%) Jenkins
2 27 (7.87%) Git (software)
3 20 (5.83%) GitLab
3 20 (5.83%) JIRA
4 10 (2.92%) Bitbucket
5 8 (2.33%) Sonatype Nexus
6 6 (1.75%) Maven
7 5 (1.46%) SonarQube
8 4 (1.17%) Artifactory
8 4 (1.17%) JUnit
8 4 (1.17%) Liquibase
9 3 (0.87%) Gradle
9 3 (0.87%) Rational DOORS
9 3 (0.87%) Robot Framework
10 2 (0.58%) Rational Rhapsody
10 2 (0.58%) Selenium
10 2 (0.58%) TestLink
10 2 (0.58%) TestRail
11 1 (0.29%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 1 (0.29%) Cucumber
General
1 55 (16.03%) Social Skills
2 38 (11.08%) Finance
3 31 (9.04%) Banking
4 25 (7.29%) Public Sector
5 22 (6.41%) Telecoms
6 20 (5.83%) Analytical Skills
7 14 (4.08%) Games
8 7 (2.04%) Presentation Skills
9 6 (1.75%) Documentation Skills
10 4 (1.17%) Back Office
10 4 (1.17%) Investment Banking
11 3 (0.87%) Law
11 3 (0.87%) Military
11 3 (0.87%) Retail
12 2 (0.58%) Aerospace
12 2 (0.58%) Financial Institution
12 2 (0.58%) Front Office
12 2 (0.58%) Legal
13 1 (0.29%) Manufacturing
13 1 (0.29%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 62 (18.08%) Architect
2 38 (11.08%) DevOps Engineer
3 30 (8.75%) Security Engineer
3 30 (8.75%) Wintel Engineer
4 27 (7.87%) Developer
5 22 (6.41%) Security Architect
6 21 (6.12%) Solutions Architect
7 18 (5.25%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 18 (5.25%) Lead Architect
7 18 (5.25%) Network Engineer
8 17 (4.96%) Design Engineer
9 16 (4.66%) AWS Engineer
10 14 (4.08%) 3rd Line Engineer
10 14 (4.08%) Analyst
11 13 (3.79%) Consultant
11 13 (3.79%) Lead Security Architect
12 12 (3.50%) Cloud Engineer
12 12 (3.50%) Infrastructure Architect
12 12 (3.50%) Systems Engineer
13 11 (3.21%) C++ Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 36 (10.50%) LDAP
2 31 (9.04%) OAuth
3 28 (8.16%) SAML
4 18 (5.25%) OAuth2
5 14 (4.08%) HTML
5 14 (4.08%) Middleware
6 13 (3.79%) .NET
6 13 (3.79%) OpenID
7 11 (3.21%) Spring
8 10 (2.92%) J2EE
8 10 (2.92%) SOAP
9 8 (2.33%) 802.1X
9 8 (2.33%) cloud-init
9 8 (2.33%) Kafka
9 8 (2.33%) RabbitMQ
9 8 (2.33%) Spring Boot
10 7 (2.04%) CSS
10 7 (2.04%) SailPoint
10 7 (2.04%) Servlets
11 6 (1.75%) JSP
Miscellaneous
1 29 (8.45%) Clustering
2 23 (6.71%) Replication
3 22 (6.41%) Private Cloud
4 20 (5.83%) Data Centre
5 17 (4.96%) Management Information System
6 14 (4.08%) Public Cloud
7 12 (3.50%) Greenfield Project
8 11 (3.21%) Linux Command Line
8 11 (3.21%) Self-Motivation
9 10 (2.92%) Enterprise Storage
10 8 (2.33%) Hybrid Cloud
11 7 (2.04%) Video Conferencing
12 6 (1.75%) RSA SecurID
13 5 (1.46%) Algorithms
13 5 (1.46%) User Experience
13 5 (1.46%) Virtual Team
14 3 (0.87%) Legacy Code
14 3 (0.87%) Mainframe
15 2 (0.58%) Analytical Mindset
15 2 (0.58%) Online Banking
Operating Systems
1 139 (40.52%) Windows
2 88 (25.66%) Linux
3 67 (19.53%) Windows Server
4 29 (8.45%) Unix
5 22 (6.41%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 16 (4.66%) Windows 10
7 15 (4.37%) Windows Server 2012
7 15 (4.37%) Windows Server 2019
8 10 (2.92%) CentOS
9 9 (2.62%) AIX
9 9 (2.62%) Windows Server 2016
10 6 (1.75%) Windows Server 2008
11 4 (1.17%) HPUX
11 4 (1.17%) Windows Server 2003
12 2 (0.58%) FreeRTOS
12 2 (0.58%) Solaris
12 2 (0.58%) Windows 7
13 1 (0.29%) Android
13 1 (0.29%) Apple iOS
13 1 (0.29%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 70 (20.41%) Agile Software Development
2 63 (18.37%) DevOps
3 50 (14.58%) ITIL
4 36 (10.50%) Identity Management
5 35 (10.20%) Infrastructure as Code
5 35 (10.20%) Migration
6 34 (9.91%) Cybersecurity
7 29 (8.45%) Problem-Solving
8 27 (7.87%) Identity Access Management
9 26 (7.58%) Scrum
10 24 (7.00%) Cryptography
10 24 (7.00%) Infrastructure Engineering
11 23 (6.71%) Information Security
12 21 (6.12%) Load Balancing
12 21 (6.12%) Service Management
13 19 (5.54%) Project Management
14 18 (5.25%) Vulnerability Management
15 17 (4.96%) Configuration Management
15 17 (4.96%) Multi-Factor Authentication
15 17 (4.96%) Sprint Planning
Programming Languages
1 50 (14.58%) SQL
2 48 (13.99%) Python
3 42 (12.24%) PowerShell
4 41 (11.95%) Java
5 30 (8.75%) Bash Shell
6 22 (6.41%) C++
7 16 (4.66%) Ruby
8 15 (4.37%) JavaScript
9 12 (3.50%) Go
9 12 (3.50%) Shell Script
10 8 (2.33%) C#
11 7 (2.04%) C
11 7 (2.04%) Perl
11 7 (2.04%) VBScript
12 6 (1.75%) Java 8
13 5 (1.46%) PL/SQL
14 3 (0.87%) Groovy
14 3 (0.87%) VB
15 2 (0.58%) Scala
16 1 (0.29%) Java 9
Qualifications
1 95 (27.70%) Security Cleared
2 73 (21.28%) SC Cleared
3 31 (9.04%) Degree
4 30 (8.75%) DV Cleared
4 30 (8.75%) Microsoft Certification
5 21 (6.12%) Cisco Certification
6 18 (5.25%) MCSE
7 16 (4.66%) CCNA
8 12 (3.50%) CISSP
8 12 (3.50%) Computer Science Degree
9 10 (2.92%) CCNP
10 7 (2.04%) MCTS
11 6 (1.75%) CISM
11 6 (1.75%) GIAC
12 5 (1.46%) CISA
12 5 (1.46%) MCITP
13 4 (1.17%) CCIE
13 4 (1.17%) CRISC
13 4 (1.17%) ITIL Certification
13 4 (1.17%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 17 (4.96%) NCSC
2 9 (2.62%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 9 (2.62%) PCI DSS
2 9 (2.62%) QA
3 8 (2.33%) GDPR
3 8 (2.33%) SLA
4 5 (1.46%) COBIT
5 3 (0.87%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
6 2 (0.58%) HIPAA
6 2 (0.58%) NIST 800
6 2 (0.58%) PMO
7 1 (0.29%) Accessibility
7 1 (0.29%) Def Stans
7 1 (0.29%) Government Security Classifications
7 1 (0.29%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 136 (39.65%) Active Directory
2 77 (22.45%) Docker
3 52 (15.16%) VMware Infrastructure
4 17 (4.96%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 13 (3.79%) vCloud
5 13 (3.79%) VMware Workstation
6 11 (3.21%) VMware ESXi
6 11 (3.21%) vSphere
7 9 (2.62%) Virtual Desktop
8 7 (2.04%) Virtual Machines
8 7 (2.04%) VMware NSX
9 6 (1.75%) Hyper-V
9 6 (1.75%) IAG
10 4 (1.17%) iptables
10 4 (1.17%) XenDesktop
11 2 (0.58%) BitLocker
11 2 (0.58%) KVM
11 2 (0.58%) ProxySG
12 1 (0.29%) DFS Replication
12 1 (0.29%) VMware Server
Systems Management
1 60 (17.49%) Active Directory Federation Services
2 54 (15.74%) Terraform
3 50 (14.58%) Kubernetes
4 44 (12.83%) Ansible
5 34 (9.91%) Prometheus
6 27 (7.87%) SCCM
7 24 (7.00%) Single Sign-On
8 16 (4.66%) Istio
9 14 (4.08%) Opscode Chef
9 14 (4.08%) WSUS
10 13 (3.79%) Puppet
11 12 (3.50%) Microsoft Intune
12 11 (3.21%) Packer
13 10 (2.92%) Consul
14 9 (2.62%) HAProxy
14 9 (2.62%) vCenter Server
15 8 (2.33%) Docker Swarm
15 8 (2.33%) Graphite
15 8 (2.33%) linkerd
15 8 (2.33%) PingFederate
Vendors
1 109 (31.78%) Microsoft
2 83 (24.20%) VMware
3 42 (12.24%) Cisco
4 41 (11.95%) Oracle
5 31 (9.04%) Splunk
6 29 (8.45%) CA
7 22 (6.41%) Red Hat
8 20 (5.83%) Citrix
9 18 (5.25%) Juniper
10 17 (4.96%) Google
10 17 (4.96%) HP
11 14 (4.08%) F5
12 10 (2.92%) Palo Alto
13 9 (2.62%) ServiceNow
13 9 (2.62%) Veeam
14 8 (2.33%) IBM
14 8 (2.33%) PagerDuty
14 8 (2.33%) SAP
15 7 (2.04%) BMC
15 7 (2.04%) Nimble Storage