Period
to 4 July 2020

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 4 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
4 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 338 475 459
Rank change year-on-year +137 -16 +69
Contract jobs citing PKI 261 431 519
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.63% 0.46% 0.50%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.91% 1.44% 1.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 162 297 341
Median daily rate £500 £525 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -4.76% +10.53% +5.56%
10th Percentile £363 £341 £270
90th Percentile £650 £725 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £481 £475 £425
% change year-on-year +1.32% +11.76% +0.59%
Number of hourly rates quoted 11 21 8
Median hourly rate £40.70 £13.00 £36.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +213.08% -64.63% -26.50%
10th Percentile £35.00 £12.00 £19.20
90th Percentile £68.75 £48.75 £61.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £37.85 £13.00 £30.25
% change year-on-year +191.15% -57.02% -39.50%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 13,662 29,831 33,381
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 33.08% 31.95% 32.21%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,451 19,126 21,590
Median daily rate £475 £475 £455
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +4.40% +1.68%
10th Percentile £263 £275 £268
90th Percentile £706 £663 £656
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £410
% change year-on-year - +3.66% +2.50%
Number of hourly rates quoted 629 1,057 1,058
Median hourly rate £31.00 £20.86 £21.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +48.65% -3.00% +7.50%
10th Percentile £13.00 £11.78 £11.71
90th Percentile £53.75 £52.50 £50.25
Median hourly rate £22.50 £18.75 £20.00
% change year-on-year +20.00% -6.25% +8.11%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 4 July 2020.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 4 July 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 4 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +134 223 £525 - 43
UK excluding London +126 177 £481 +1.32% 36
London +110 67 £600 - 9
South East +109 54 £475 - 8
South West +63 45 £588 +18.99% 5
Midlands +96 35 £575 +82.54% 2
West Midlands +73 27 £575 +91.67% 1
Scotland +70 25 £375 - 2
Work from Home +11 17 £575 -36.11% 4
North of England +87 16 £488 +2.63% 15
North West +60 14 £488 +3.17% 9
East Midlands +55 8 £500 +36.99% 1
East of England +63 3 £675 +22.73% 4
Yorkshire +63 2 £450 -5.26% 6
Wales +19 1 £500 -8.26%

For the 6 months to 4 July 2020, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 127 (48.66%) Active Directory
2 114 (43.68%) Security Cleared
3 107 (41.00%) Windows
4 88 (33.72%) Microsoft
5 86 (32.95%) DNS
6 83 (31.80%) Firewall
7 69 (26.44%) Azure
8 68 (26.05%) Java
9 61 (23.37%) VMware
9 61 (23.37%) Windows Server
10 60 (22.99%) DevOps
11 59 (22.61%) Agile Software Development
12 57 (21.84%) LDAP
13 54 (20.69%) Migration
13 54 (20.69%) SC Cleared
14 53 (20.31%) PowerShell
14 53 (20.31%) Data Centre
15 48 (18.39%) Linux
16 47 (18.01%) DHCP
17 46 (17.62%) AWS
18 45 (17.24%) DV Cleared
19 40 (15.33%) Windows Server 2012
20 38 (14.56%) WAN
20 38 (14.56%) .NET
20 38 (14.56%) Docker
21 37 (14.18%) SQL Server
22 35 (13.41%) Network Security
23 34 (13.03%) Skype
24 33 (12.64%) Office 365
24 33 (12.64%) Cisco

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 30 (11.49%) Confluence
2 28 (10.73%) Skype for Business
3 24 (9.20%) SharePoint
4 14 (5.36%) MS Exchange
5 11 (4.21%) IIS
6 8 (3.07%) JBoss
7 5 (1.92%) Apache
7 5 (1.92%) Apache ServiceMix
8 4 (1.53%) Exchange Server 2010
8 4 (1.53%) Red Hat Fuse
9 3 (1.15%) Elasticsearch
9 3 (1.15%) Exchange Server 2013
10 2 (0.77%) Cloud Foundry
10 2 (0.77%) Jetty
10 2 (0.77%) nginx
10 2 (0.77%) Tomcat
10 2 (0.77%) WebSphere
11 1 (0.38%) Exchange Server 2003
11 1 (0.38%) Oracle Workflow
11 1 (0.38%) Umbraco
Applications
1 1 (0.38%) Microsoft Excel
1 1 (0.38%) Microsoft Office
1 1 (0.38%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 1 (0.38%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 69 (26.44%) Azure
2 46 (17.62%) AWS
3 33 (12.64%) Office 365
4 24 (9.20%) IaaS
5 19 (7.28%) PaaS
6 15 (5.75%) Azure Active Directory
7 11 (4.21%) Cloud Computing
8 10 (3.83%) GCP
9 8 (3.07%) Power Platform
10 7 (2.68%) SaaS
11 6 (2.30%) Amazon EC2
12 5 (1.92%) Yammer
13 4 (1.53%) Google Compute Engine
13 4 (1.53%) OneDrive
13 4 (1.53%) OpenShift
14 3 (1.15%) Amazon CloudWatch
14 3 (1.15%) Amazon ELB
14 3 (1.15%) Apigee
14 3 (1.15%) AWS CloudFormation
14 3 (1.15%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 86 (32.95%) DNS
2 83 (31.80%) Firewall
3 47 (18.01%) DHCP
4 38 (14.56%) WAN
5 35 (13.41%) Network Security
6 34 (13.03%) Skype
7 33 (12.64%) Internet
8 32 (12.26%) VPN
9 30 (11.49%) IPsec
10 27 (10.34%) SSL
11 24 (9.20%) Kerberos
12 20 (7.66%) MPLS
12 20 (7.66%) TCP/IP
13 16 (6.13%) X.500
14 15 (5.75%) Wireless
15 14 (5.36%) DMZ
15 14 (5.36%) Intranet
15 14 (5.36%) PBX
16 13 (4.98%) BGP
17 12 (4.60%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 37 (14.18%) SQL Server
2 15 (5.75%) Apache Accumulo
2 15 (5.75%) Hadoop
3 10 (3.83%) Relational Database
4 9 (3.45%) PostgreSQL
5 8 (3.07%) MySQL
6 5 (1.92%) Data Warehouse
6 5 (1.92%) Power BI
7 4 (1.53%) MongoDB
7 4 (1.53%) SQL Server 2019
8 3 (1.15%) Amazon RDS
8 3 (1.15%) Big Data
8 3 (1.15%) Blockchain
8 3 (1.15%) Oracle Database
8 3 (1.15%) Oracle Database 11g
8 3 (1.15%) Oracle Database 12c
9 2 (0.77%) Azure SQL Database
9 2 (0.77%) Cosmos DB
9 2 (0.77%) DB2
10 1 (0.38%) SQL Server 2012
Development Applications
1 30 (11.49%) JIRA
2 20 (7.66%) Jenkins
3 18 (6.90%) Bitbucket
4 10 (3.83%) Visual Studio
5 6 (2.30%) Team Foundation Server
6 5 (1.92%) Sonatype Nexus
7 4 (1.53%) Eclipse
8 3 (1.15%) GitLab
8 3 (1.15%) Maven
8 3 (1.15%) Robot Framework
8 3 (1.15%) TestRail
9 1 (0.38%) Git (software)
9 1 (0.38%) VSS/SourceSafe
General
1 23 (8.81%) Finance
2 19 (7.28%) Banking
3 14 (5.36%) Aerospace
3 14 (5.36%) Public Sector
4 7 (2.68%) Telecoms
5 5 (1.92%) Investment Banking
5 5 (1.92%) Military
6 3 (1.15%) Legal
7 2 (0.77%) Police
8 1 (0.38%) Back Office
8 1 (0.38%) German Language
8 1 (0.38%) Local Government
8 1 (0.38%) Retail
Job Titles
1 56 (21.46%) Architect
2 24 (9.20%) Consultant
2 24 (9.20%) Network Engineer
3 21 (8.05%) Security Engineer
4 20 (7.66%) Administrator
5 19 (7.28%) Systems Administrator
6 18 (6.90%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 17 (6.51%) Security Architect
8 16 (6.13%) Active Directory Engineer
9 15 (5.75%) Developer
10 14 (5.36%) Linux Administrator
10 14 (5.36%) Linux Systems Administrator
10 14 (5.36%) Systems Administration Leader
11 13 (4.98%) Support Engineer
12 12 (4.60%) Network Support
12 12 (4.60%) Network Support Engineer
13 11 (4.21%) 3rd Line Engineer
13 11 (4.21%) 3rd Line Network Engineer
13 11 (4.21%) Infrastructure Architect
14 10 (3.83%) Security Specialist
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 57 (21.84%) LDAP
2 38 (14.56%) .NET
3 30 (11.49%) SAML
4 26 (9.96%) REST
5 22 (8.43%) OpenID
5 22 (8.43%) SOAP
6 21 (8.05%) OAuth
7 18 (6.90%) XML
8 16 (6.13%) Apache NiFi
8 16 (6.13%) Kafka
8 16 (6.13%) Web Services
9 13 (4.98%) JSON
9 13 (4.98%) Node.js
10 11 (4.21%) Middleware
11 8 (3.07%) SailPoint
12 7 (2.68%) OAuth2
12 7 (2.68%) Spring
12 7 (2.68%) XACML
13 6 (2.30%) Spring Boot
13 6 (2.30%) WCF
Miscellaneous
1 53 (20.31%) Data Centre
2 27 (10.34%) Self-Motivation
3 24 (9.20%) Analytical Skills
4 19 (7.28%) Management Information System
5 15 (5.75%) Replication
6 11 (4.21%) Algorithms
7 10 (3.83%) Public Cloud
8 8 (3.07%) Client/Server
9 7 (2.68%) Cloud Native
9 7 (2.68%) Linux Command Line
10 5 (1.92%) CMDB
10 5 (1.92%) Enterprise Software
10 5 (1.92%) Fat Client
10 5 (1.92%) Security Operations Centre
10 5 (1.92%) Thin Client
11 4 (1.53%) CESG
11 4 (1.53%) Smart Energy
11 4 (1.53%) Smart Meter
11 4 (1.53%) User Experience
12 3 (1.15%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
Operating Systems
1 107 (41.00%) Windows
2 61 (23.37%) Windows Server
3 48 (18.39%) Linux
4 40 (15.33%) Windows Server 2012
5 28 (10.73%) Windows Server 2016
6 21 (8.05%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 20 (7.66%) CentOS
8 16 (6.13%) Unix
9 9 (3.45%) Windows 10
10 8 (3.07%) Windows Server 2008
10 8 (3.07%) Windows Server 2019
11 5 (1.92%) Windows Server 2003
12 4 (1.53%) Apple iOS
12 4 (1.53%) Solaris
12 4 (1.53%) VMS
12 4 (1.53%) Windows 7
12 4 (1.53%) Windows 8
13 2 (0.77%) Android
14 1 (0.38%) AIX
14 1 (0.38%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 60 (22.99%) DevOps
2 59 (22.61%) Agile Software Development
3 54 (20.69%) Migration
4 31 (11.88%) Infrastructure Engineering
4 31 (11.88%) Technical Leadership
5 26 (9.96%) Open Source
5 26 (9.96%) SIEM
6 25 (9.58%) Incident Management
6 25 (9.58%) Load Balancing
7 24 (9.20%) High Availability
8 23 (8.81%) Security Architecture
8 23 (8.81%) Validation
9 21 (8.05%) Identity Management
9 21 (8.05%) Information Security
9 21 (8.05%) Scrum
10 18 (6.90%) Disaster Recovery
10 18 (6.90%) Microservices
10 18 (6.90%) Problem-Solving
11 14 (5.36%) Identity Access Management
12 13 (4.98%) Product Roadmap
Programming Languages
1 68 (26.05%) Java
2 53 (20.31%) PowerShell
3 30 (11.49%) Bash Shell
4 29 (11.11%) Python
5 28 (10.73%) SQL
6 17 (6.51%) JavaScript
6 17 (6.51%) Perl
7 10 (3.83%) Shell Script
8 8 (3.07%) C#
9 6 (2.30%) VB.NET
10 5 (1.92%) ActionScript
10 5 (1.92%) ActionScript 2.0
11 4 (1.53%) C
11 4 (1.53%) C++
12 3 (1.15%) PHP
12 3 (1.15%) Solidity
12 3 (1.15%) TypeScript
13 2 (0.77%) C-shell
13 2 (0.77%) Korn
13 2 (0.77%) VBScript
Qualifications
1 114 (43.68%) Security Cleared
2 54 (20.69%) SC Cleared
3 45 (17.24%) DV Cleared
4 32 (12.26%) Microsoft Certification
5 24 (9.20%) CISSP
6 15 (5.75%) Degree
7 12 (4.60%) Cisco Certification
8 11 (4.21%) MCSE
9 8 (3.07%) CISM
10 7 (2.68%) JNCIA
11 6 (2.30%) CCSP
11 6 (2.30%) MCSA
12 5 (1.92%) (ISC)2 CCSP
12 5 (1.92%) CCNA
12 5 (1.92%) Master's Degree
13 4 (1.53%) CCNP
13 4 (1.53%) CREST Certified
13 4 (1.53%) GIAC
13 4 (1.53%) MCP
13 4 (1.53%) MCTS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 7 (2.68%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 4 (1.53%) ISO/IEC 27005
3 3 (1.15%) GDPR
4 2 (0.77%) HL7
4 2 (0.77%) NCSC
4 2 (0.77%) NIST
4 2 (0.77%) PCI DSS
4 2 (0.77%) QA
4 2 (0.77%) Sarbanes-Oxley
4 2 (0.77%) SLA
5 1 (0.38%) COBIT
5 1 (0.38%) ISO 20022
5 1 (0.38%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
5 1 (0.38%) RMADS
5 1 (0.38%) SEPA
5 1 (0.38%) TARGET2
System Software
1 127 (48.66%) Active Directory
2 38 (14.56%) Docker
3 31 (11.88%) VMware Infrastructure
4 14 (5.36%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 13 (4.98%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
6 11 (4.21%) VMware ESXi
7 10 (3.83%) vSphere
8 7 (2.68%) Virtual Machines
9 6 (2.30%) NDS
9 6 (2.30%) XenApp
9 6 (2.30%) XenDesktop
10 5 (1.92%) Virtual Servers
11 4 (1.53%) Microsoft Virtual Server
11 4 (1.53%) Snort
12 3 (1.15%) NetIQ eDirectory
12 3 (1.15%) NFS
13 2 (0.77%) Samba
13 2 (0.77%) Virtual Desktop
13 2 (0.77%) VMware NSX
14 1 (0.38%) iptables
Systems Management
1 23 (8.81%) Single Sign-On
2 18 (6.90%) Ansible
3 14 (5.36%) Kubernetes
4 12 (4.60%) SCCM
5 11 (4.21%) Terraform
6 8 (3.07%) SCOM
7 6 (2.30%) Forefront Identity Manager
8 5 (1.92%) AirWatch
9 4 (1.53%) Network Intrusion Detection System
9 4 (1.53%) PingFederate
9 4 (1.53%) vRealize
10 3 (1.15%) CA Single Sign-On
10 3 (1.15%) HP ALM
10 3 (1.15%) Microsoft Intune
10 3 (1.15%) NetIQ Identity Manager
10 3 (1.15%) WSUS
11 2 (0.77%) CASB
11 2 (0.77%) HAProxy
11 2 (0.77%) McAfee ePO
12 1 (0.38%) Symantec Enterprise Vault
Vendors
1 88 (33.72%) Microsoft
2 61 (23.37%) VMware
3 33 (12.64%) Cisco
4 26 (9.96%) Red Hat
5 21 (8.05%) Juniper
6 16 (6.13%) Citrix
7 12 (4.60%) CA
7 12 (4.60%) Sonus
8 10 (3.83%) Oracle
9 8 (3.07%) Fortinet
9 8 (3.07%) Gemalto
9 8 (3.07%) McAfee
10 7 (2.68%) CyberArk
10 7 (2.68%) Google
10 7 (2.68%) SolarWinds
11 6 (2.30%) F5
11 6 (2.30%) ForgeRock
11 6 (2.30%) NetIQ
12 5 (1.92%) HP
12 5 (1.92%) MobileIron