Period
to 29 November 2020

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 29 November 2020 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
29 Nov 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 340 426 430
Rank change year-on-year +86 +4 +34
Contract jobs citing PKI 236 434 578
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.65% 0.53% 0.56%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.91% 1.71% 1.72%
Number of daily rates quoted 147 273 399
Median daily rate £495 £500 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -1.00% - +4.17%
10th Percentile £375 £307 £350
90th Percentile £650 £700 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £475 £450
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 19 15 6
Median hourly rate £60.50 £35.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +72.86% -17.65% +30.77%
10th Percentile £39.90 £12.40 £35.00
90th Percentile £66.00 £50.00 £47.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £60.50 £13.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year +365.38% -69.41% +32.81%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 12,332 25,424 33,589
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 33.80% 31.09% 32.35%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,696 16,073 21,898
Median daily rate £475 £463 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.70% -2.63% +5.56%
10th Percentile £250 £256 £275
90th Percentile £700 £669 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £413 £425 £425
% change year-on-year -2.94% - +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 552 1,045 1,064
Median hourly rate £34.00 £22.88 £20.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +48.63% +14.38% -
10th Percentile £12.70 £12.00 £12.05
90th Percentile £57.50 £53.75 £49.77
Median hourly rate £26.27 £22.50 £19.14
% change year-on-year +16.76% +17.55% -0.80%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Daily rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 29 November 2020.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 29 November 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 29 November 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +90 175 £485 -3.00% 44
UK excluding London +129 136 £500 +5.26% 33
London +102 72 £495 -10.00% 15
Work from Home -105 49 £500 +5.26% 9
Scotland +63 34 £575 - 1
South East +142 32 £525 +9.38% 9
South West +70 29 £475 +2.70% 9
North of England +109 18 £475 +22.58% 10
Midlands +71 16 £420 +20.00% 2
North West +74 12 £408 +8.67% 4
West Midlands +47 10 £420 -4.00% 1
Yorkshire +56 6 £475 +18.75% 5
East Midlands +49 6 - - 1
East of England +44 6 £400 -23.81%
Wales +19 1 £375 -29.91% 1

For the 6 months to 29 November 2020, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 127 (53.81%) Active Directory
2 100 (42.37%) Security Cleared
3 87 (36.86%) Microsoft
4 84 (35.59%) Windows
5 80 (33.90%) DNS
6 65 (27.54%) Azure
7 57 (24.15%) SC Cleared
7 57 (24.15%) Firewall
8 50 (21.19%) LDAP
9 48 (20.34%) Agile Software Development
10 46 (19.49%) Replication
10 46 (19.49%) DevOps
11 45 (19.07%) VMware
12 40 (16.95%) VPN
13 39 (16.53%) DV Cleared
13 39 (16.53%) PowerShell
14 38 (16.10%) Cisco
15 37 (15.68%) Kerberos
15 37 (15.68%) AWS
15 37 (15.68%) Office 365
15 37 (15.68%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
16 36 (15.25%) X.500
17 35 (14.83%) DHCP
17 35 (14.83%) Linux
17 35 (14.83%) Windows Server
18 34 (14.41%) WAN
18 34 (14.41%) Internet
19 32 (13.56%) SQL Server
19 32 (13.56%) Information Security
19 32 (13.56%) IaaS

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 17 (7.20%) Confluence
2 16 (6.78%) SharePoint
3 12 (5.08%) Skype for Business
4 10 (4.24%) IIS
5 8 (3.39%) JBoss
5 8 (3.39%) MS Exchange
5 8 (3.39%) WebSphere
6 6 (2.54%) NetWeaver
7 5 (2.12%) Apache
7 5 (2.12%) CMS
7 5 (2.12%) nginx
7 5 (2.12%) Tomcat
8 4 (1.69%) WebLogic
9 2 (0.85%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
9 2 (0.85%) Elasticsearch
10 1 (0.42%) Cloud Foundry
10 1 (0.42%) Exchange Server 2013
10 1 (0.42%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 2 (0.85%) MS Visio
2 1 (0.42%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 3 (1.27%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 65 (27.54%) Azure
2 37 (15.68%) AWS
2 37 (15.68%) Office 365
3 32 (13.56%) IaaS
4 27 (11.44%) PaaS
5 11 (4.66%) Azure Active Directory
6 10 (4.24%) Amazon EC2
6 10 (4.24%) Cloud Computing
6 10 (4.24%) SaaS
7 8 (3.39%) Amazon S3
8 7 (2.97%) Azure ExpressRoute
8 7 (2.97%) OpenShift
8 7 (2.97%) Route 53
9 6 (2.54%) Amazon CloudWatch
9 6 (2.54%) Amazon EKS
9 6 (2.54%) AWS CloudFormation
10 5 (2.12%) Amazon ECS
11 4 (1.69%) GCP
12 3 (1.27%) IBM Cloud
12 3 (1.27%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 80 (33.90%) DNS
2 57 (24.15%) Firewall
3 40 (16.95%) VPN
4 37 (15.68%) Kerberos
5 36 (15.25%) X.500
6 35 (14.83%) DHCP
7 34 (14.41%) Internet
7 34 (14.41%) WAN
8 28 (11.86%) Network Security
9 21 (8.90%) Wireless
10 20 (8.47%) Skype
11 18 (7.63%) DMZ
12 17 (7.20%) SSL
13 15 (6.36%) MPLS
14 14 (5.93%) Intranet
15 12 (5.08%) SAN
16 11 (4.66%) LAN
17 10 (4.24%) IPsec
18 7 (2.97%) VoIP
18 7 (2.97%) VSAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 32 (13.56%) SQL Server
2 12 (5.08%) PostgreSQL
3 9 (3.81%) Amazon RDS
3 9 (3.81%) MySQL
4 8 (3.39%) Oracle Database
4 8 (3.39%) Oracle Database 11g
5 6 (2.54%) Azure SQL Database
5 6 (2.54%) Cosmos DB
5 6 (2.54%) DB2
5 6 (2.54%) Oracle Database 12c
5 6 (2.54%) SAP HANA
6 5 (2.12%) Relational Database
6 5 (2.12%) SQL Server 2019
7 4 (1.69%) Apache Accumulo
7 4 (1.69%) Hadoop
8 2 (0.85%) MongoDB
8 2 (0.85%) SQL Server 2012
9 1 (0.42%) GIS
9 1 (0.42%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 19 (8.05%) JIRA
2 14 (5.93%) Bitbucket
3 7 (2.97%) Jenkins
3 7 (2.97%) Sonatype Nexus
4 2 (0.85%) Atlassian Bamboo
4 2 (0.85%) Git (software)
4 2 (0.85%) Oracle APEX
4 2 (0.85%) Team Foundation Server
4 2 (0.85%) VSS/SourceSafe
5 1 (0.42%) GitLab
5 1 (0.42%) JUnit
5 1 (0.42%) Mockito
5 1 (0.42%) Octopus Deploy
5 1 (0.42%) TeamCity
General
1 28 (11.86%) Finance
2 18 (7.63%) Banking
3 15 (6.36%) Public Sector
4 10 (4.24%) Telecoms
5 6 (2.54%) Financial Institution
5 6 (2.54%) Manufacturing
5 6 (2.54%) Pharmaceutical
6 5 (2.12%) Aerospace
6 5 (2.12%) Electronics
6 5 (2.12%) Marketing
7 4 (1.69%) Investment Banking
8 3 (1.27%) Military
8 3 (1.27%) Retail
9 2 (0.85%) Legal
10 1 (0.42%) Local Government
10 1 (0.42%) Police
Job Titles
1 47 (19.92%) Architect
2 22 (9.32%) Security Specialist
3 20 (8.47%) Consultant
4 18 (7.63%) Security Architect
5 16 (6.78%) Active Directory Engineer
6 13 (5.51%) Security Engineer
7 12 (5.08%) Infrastructure Architect
8 11 (4.66%) Azure Specialist
8 11 (4.66%) Network Engineer
8 11 (4.66%) Solutions Architect
9 9 (3.81%) Applications Architect
9 9 (3.81%) Infrastructure Engineer
10 8 (3.39%) Developer
11 7 (2.97%) 3rd Line Engineer
11 7 (2.97%) Support Engineer
12 6 (2.54%) Administrator
12 6 (2.54%) AWS Engineer
12 6 (2.54%) Cloud Architect
12 6 (2.54%) Security Operations Specialist
12 6 (2.54%) Wintel Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 50 (21.19%) LDAP
2 13 (5.51%) .NET
2 13 (5.51%) Middleware
3 12 (5.08%) REST
4 10 (4.24%) OAuth
4 10 (4.24%) SAML
5 7 (2.97%) JSON
6 6 (2.54%) Elastic Stack
6 6 (2.54%) OAuth2
6 6 (2.54%) OpenID
6 6 (2.54%) SAP Basis
6 6 (2.54%) Web Services
6 6 (2.54%) YAML
7 5 (2.12%) Kafka
8 4 (1.69%) Apache NiFi
8 4 (1.69%) SOAP
9 3 (1.27%) AngularJS
9 3 (1.27%) J2EE
10 2 (0.85%) JPA
10 2 (0.85%) Spring Boot
Miscellaneous
1 46 (19.49%) Replication
2 31 (13.14%) Data Centre
3 24 (10.17%) Management Information System
4 18 (7.63%) Algorithms
4 18 (7.63%) Self-Motivation
5 7 (2.97%) Analytical Skills
5 7 (2.97%) Fat Client
5 7 (2.97%) Smartcard
5 7 (2.97%) Thin Client
6 6 (2.54%) Linux Command Line
6 6 (2.54%) Public Cloud
7 5 (2.12%) Video Conferencing
7 5 (2.12%) YubiKey
8 3 (1.27%) BYOD
8 3 (1.27%) Client/Server
8 3 (1.27%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
8 3 (1.27%) Hybrid Cloud
8 3 (1.27%) Virtual Team
9 2 (0.85%) Cloud Native
9 2 (0.85%) EFT
Operating Systems
1 84 (35.59%) Windows
2 35 (14.83%) Linux
2 35 (14.83%) Windows Server
3 16 (6.78%) Windows Server 2012
4 12 (5.08%) Unix
4 12 (5.08%) Windows Server 2019
5 11 (4.66%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 10 (4.24%) Windows 10
7 8 (3.39%) CentOS
8 7 (2.97%) Windows Server 2016
9 6 (2.54%) Apple iOS
10 4 (1.69%) Android
10 4 (1.69%) Solaris
11 3 (1.27%) AIX
11 3 (1.27%) MVS
11 3 (1.27%) Windows 7
12 2 (0.85%) HPUX
12 2 (0.85%) Mac OS
12 2 (0.85%) Windows Server 2008
13 1 (0.42%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 48 (20.34%) Agile Software Development
2 46 (19.49%) DevOps
3 32 (13.56%) Information Security
4 28 (11.86%) Identity Management
4 28 (11.86%) Infrastructure Engineering
4 28 (11.86%) SIEM
5 19 (8.05%) High Availability
5 19 (8.05%) Security Architecture
6 18 (7.63%) Change Management
6 18 (7.63%) Cybersecurity
7 17 (7.20%) Migration
8 15 (6.36%) Identity Access Management
8 15 (6.36%) ITIL
8 15 (6.36%) Microservices
8 15 (6.36%) TOGAF
9 13 (5.51%) Risk Management
9 13 (5.51%) Security Operations
9 13 (5.51%) Technical Leadership
10 12 (5.08%) Cryptography
10 12 (5.08%) Problem-Solving
Programming Languages
1 39 (16.53%) PowerShell
2 31 (13.14%) Java
3 23 (9.75%) SQL
4 20 (8.47%) Bash Shell
5 15 (6.36%) Python
6 8 (3.39%) Perl
7 6 (2.54%) JavaScript
8 5 (2.12%) C#
9 3 (1.27%) C++
10 2 (0.85%) Go
10 2 (0.85%) Java 8
10 2 (0.85%) PL/SQL
10 2 (0.85%) Shell Script
10 2 (0.85%) T-SQL
11 1 (0.42%) C
11 1 (0.42%) Groovy
11 1 (0.42%) Ruby
11 1 (0.42%) XPath
Qualifications
1 100 (42.37%) Security Cleared
2 57 (24.15%) SC Cleared
3 39 (16.53%) DV Cleared
4 28 (11.86%) Microsoft Certification
5 25 (10.59%) CISSP
5 25 (10.59%) MCSE
6 14 (5.93%) Degree
7 13 (5.51%) Cisco Certification
8 9 (3.81%) (ISC)2 CCSP
8 9 (3.81%) CCSP
9 7 (2.97%) MCSA
10 5 (2.12%) CCNA
10 5 (2.12%) HPE ATP
11 4 (1.69%) CISM
11 4 (1.69%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
12 3 (1.27%) CCIE
12 3 (1.27%) CEH
12 3 (1.27%) CISA
12 3 (1.27%) GIAC
12 3 (1.27%) JNCIA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 9 (3.81%) ISO/IEC 27001
1 9 (3.81%) NCSC
2 8 (3.39%) GDPR
2 8 (3.39%) PCI DSS
3 7 (2.97%) COBIT
4 4 (1.69%) NIST
4 4 (1.69%) SLA
5 3 (1.27%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
6 2 (0.85%) Cyber Essentials
7 1 (0.42%) Def Stans
7 1 (0.42%) HMG Security Policy Framework
7 1 (0.42%) JSP 440
7 1 (0.42%) PSD2
7 1 (0.42%) QA
System Software
1 127 (53.81%) Active Directory
2 37 (15.68%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
3 31 (13.14%) VMware Infrastructure
4 24 (10.17%) Docker
5 13 (5.51%) VMware ESXi
6 11 (4.66%) vSphere
7 4 (1.69%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 4 (1.69%) Virtual Desktop
7 4 (1.69%) Virtual Machines
7 4 (1.69%) VMware NSX
8 3 (1.27%) Hyper-V
9 2 (0.85%) Oracle RAC
9 2 (0.85%) Veritas Cluster Server
10 1 (0.42%) BitLocker
10 1 (0.42%) UAG
10 1 (0.42%) VMware Server
10 1 (0.42%) VMware Workstation
10 1 (0.42%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 25 (10.59%) SCCM
2 17 (7.20%) Single Sign-On
3 15 (6.36%) Kubernetes
4 13 (5.51%) Terraform
5 12 (5.08%) Ansible
6 10 (4.24%) SCOM
6 10 (4.24%) vCenter Server
7 6 (2.54%) PingFederate
8 5 (2.12%) Microsoft Intune
9 4 (1.69%) McAfee ePO
9 4 (1.69%) WSUS
10 3 (1.27%) AirWatch
10 3 (1.27%) CASB
10 3 (1.27%) HAProxy
10 3 (1.27%) Puppet
11 2 (0.85%) Consul
11 2 (0.85%) Host Intrusion Detection System
11 2 (0.85%) OfficeScan
11 2 (0.85%) Trend Micro Deep Security
11 2 (0.85%) vRealize
Vendors
1 87 (36.86%) Microsoft
2 45 (19.07%) VMware
3 38 (16.10%) Cisco
4 19 (8.05%) Oracle
5 15 (6.36%) SAP
6 13 (5.51%) HP
7 12 (5.08%) Red Hat
8 10 (4.24%) Citrix
8 10 (4.24%) Juniper
9 9 (3.81%) Atlassian
9 9 (3.81%) Fortinet
9 9 (3.81%) NetApp
10 8 (3.39%) Forcepoint
10 8 (3.39%) IBM
10 8 (3.39%) McAfee
10 8 (3.39%) Palo Alto
11 7 (2.97%) Remedy
11 7 (2.97%) Splunk
12 6 (2.54%) F5
12 6 (2.54%) Veeam