Period
to 18 October 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 18 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
18 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 694 498 694
Rank change year-on-year -196 +196 -69
Permanent jobs citing PKI 302 185 383
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.27% 0.42% 0.30%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.67% 1.18% 0.85%
Number of salaries quoted 229 137 270
10th Percentile £40,000 £38,555 £36,700
25th Percentile £46,250 £46,250 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £57,500 £59,500
Median % change year-on-year -4.35% -3.36% +3.48%
75th Percentile £67,500 £82,500 £77,500
90th Percentile £85,000 £90,000 £90,575
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £59,500
% change year-on-year - -7.56% +0.85%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 45,072 15,719 45,010
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 40.93% 35.70% 35.48%
Number of salaries quoted 27,403 13,100 34,758
10th Percentile £32,500 £33,750 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +4.55% +4.76%
75th Percentile £81,250 £78,750 £75,000
90th Percentile £100,000 £100,000 £91,250
UK median annual salary £60,000 £57,500 £54,163
% change year-on-year +4.35% +6.16% +3.17%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Salary trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 18 October 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 18 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -199 101 £58,750 -26.56% 15
South East -128 81 £62,500 +19.05% 15
South West -82 46 £55,000 -18.52% 4
North of England -134 35 £53,350 -0.28% 11
North West -107 26 £53,350 -0.28% 8
Midlands -95 23 £47,500 -5.00% 11
West Midlands -105 16 £50,000 - 7
East of England -99 8 £45,500 -9.00% 1
East Midlands -70 7 £37,500 -25.00% 4
Yorkshire -101 7 £77,000 +6.21% 2
North East - 2 - - 1
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 18 October 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 162 (53.64%) Active Directory
2 130 (43.05%) Microsoft
3 125 (41.39%) Windows
4 122 (40.40%) Linux
5 119 (39.40%) Azure
6 95 (31.46%) VMware
7 72 (23.84%) Windows Server
8 69 (22.85%) DNS
9 68 (22.52%) VMware Infrastructure
10 67 (22.19%) PowerShell
11 65 (21.52%) Microsoft 365
12 62 (20.53%) Firewall
13 59 (19.54%) SSL
14 57 (18.87%) Security Cleared
14 57 (18.87%) Problem-Solving
14 57 (18.87%) Infrastructure Engineering
15 51 (16.89%) Bash Shell
16 50 (16.56%) AWS
17 49 (16.23%) SQL Server
18 47 (15.56%) Microsoft Certification
18 47 (15.56%) SCCM
18 47 (15.56%) Azure Active Directory
19 46 (15.23%) Social Skills
19 46 (15.23%) Agile Software Development
20 44 (14.57%) MySQL
21 42 (13.91%) HTML
21 42 (13.91%) SQL
21 42 (13.91%) SC Cleared
22 40 (13.25%) TCP/IP
22 40 (13.25%) MS Exchange

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 40 (13.25%) MS Exchange
2 28 (9.27%) IIS
3 16 (5.30%) Apache
4 12 (3.97%) SharePoint
5 6 (1.99%) Confluence
6 5 (1.66%) Skype for Business
7 4 (1.32%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
7 4 (1.32%) Elasticsearch
7 4 (1.32%) Exchange Server 2013
7 4 (1.32%) WebSphere
7 4 (1.32%) WebSphere Application Server
8 1 (0.33%) Apache Spark
8 1 (0.33%) Exchange Server 2010
8 1 (0.33%) SharePoint 2013
8 1 (0.33%) Tomcat
Applications
1 20 (6.62%) Microsoft Office
2 1 (0.33%) Microsoft Excel
2 1 (0.33%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 20 (6.62%) Payment Gateway
Cloud Services
1 119 (39.40%) Azure
2 65 (21.52%) Microsoft 365
3 50 (16.56%) AWS
4 47 (15.56%) Azure Active Directory
5 26 (8.61%) PaaS
6 25 (8.28%) IaaS
7 19 (6.29%) SaaS
8 17 (5.63%) Azure Stack
9 14 (4.64%) GCP
10 9 (2.98%) OneDrive
11 8 (2.65%) GitHub
12 7 (2.32%) Mimecast
13 5 (1.66%) Amazon EKS
14 4 (1.32%) Slack
15 2 (0.66%) AWS CloudFormation
15 2 (0.66%) OpenShift
16 1 (0.33%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 1 (0.33%) Amazon EC2
16 1 (0.33%) Amazon EMR
16 1 (0.33%) Route 53
Communications & Networking
1 69 (22.85%) DNS
2 62 (20.53%) Firewall
3 59 (19.54%) SSL
4 40 (13.25%) TCP/IP
5 37 (12.25%) DHCP
6 35 (11.59%) VPN
7 32 (10.60%) LAN
8 30 (9.93%) WAN
9 29 (9.60%) Network Security
10 20 (6.62%) HTTP
11 19 (6.29%) Wi-Fi
12 13 (4.30%) Remote Desktop
12 13 (4.30%) SAN
13 11 (3.64%) Cisco ASA
13 11 (3.64%) MPLS
13 11 (3.64%) Wireless
14 10 (3.31%) Cisco ISE
15 9 (2.98%) IPsec
15 9 (2.98%) SD-WAN
16 8 (2.65%) Kerberos
Database & Business Intelligence
1 49 (16.23%) SQL Server
2 44 (14.57%) MySQL
3 27 (8.94%) MariaDB
4 10 (3.31%) PostgreSQL
5 8 (2.65%) MongoDB
6 5 (1.66%) Amazon RDS
6 5 (1.66%) NoSQL
7 4 (1.32%) Couchbase
8 3 (0.99%) Apache Cassandra
8 3 (0.99%) Data Warehouse
9 2 (0.66%) DB2
10 1 (0.33%) Azure SQL Database
10 1 (0.33%) Blockchain
10 1 (0.33%) Data Lake
10 1 (0.33%) Hadoop
10 1 (0.33%) SQL Server 2016
10 1 (0.33%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 39 (12.91%) Git (software)
2 13 (4.30%) JIRA
3 12 (3.97%) Jenkins
4 9 (2.98%) GitLab
5 8 (2.65%) Robot Framework
6 7 (2.32%) PHPUnit
7 5 (1.66%) CMake
7 5 (1.66%) JMeter
8 4 (1.32%) Team Foundation Server
9 3 (0.99%) Maven
9 3 (0.99%) Sonatype Nexus
9 3 (0.99%) Subversion
9 3 (0.99%) VSS/SourceSafe
10 2 (0.66%) Atlassian Bamboo
10 2 (0.66%) Bitbucket
11 1 (0.33%) Artifactory
11 1 (0.33%) Burp Suite
11 1 (0.33%) Gradle
11 1 (0.33%) Metasploit
11 1 (0.33%) Visual Studio Team System
General
1 46 (15.23%) Social Skills
2 35 (11.59%) Finance
3 23 (7.62%) Analytical Skills
4 21 (6.95%) Public Sector
5 19 (6.29%) Manufacturing
6 13 (4.30%) Legal
6 13 (4.30%) Telecoms
7 9 (2.98%) Banking
8 8 (2.65%) French Language
8 8 (2.65%) German Language
8 8 (2.65%) Multimedia
9 7 (2.32%) Back Office
9 7 (2.32%) Organisational Skills
10 6 (1.99%) Electronics
10 6 (1.99%) Marketing
11 5 (1.66%) Financial Institution
12 4 (1.32%) Automotive
12 4 (1.32%) Inclusion and Diversity
12 4 (1.32%) Military
13 3 (0.99%) Presentation Skills
Job Titles
1 44 (14.57%) Infrastructure Engineer
2 37 (12.25%) Developer
3 27 (8.94%) PHP Developer
4 26 (8.61%) Architect
4 26 (8.61%) Cryptography Engineer
5 24 (7.95%) Senior Developer
6 21 (6.95%) 3rd Line Engineer
7 20 (6.62%) Senior PHP Developer
8 19 (6.29%) 3rd Line Infrastructure Engineer
8 19 (6.29%) Cloud Engineer
9 18 (5.96%) Network Engineer
10 17 (5.63%) Security Engineer
11 15 (4.97%) Systems Engineer
12 13 (4.30%) Cloud Infrastructure Engineer
12 13 (4.30%) Software Engineer
13 11 (3.64%) Consultant
13 11 (3.64%) DevOps Engineer
13 11 (3.64%) NOC Engineer
13 11 (3.64%) Security Architect
14 10 (3.31%) Infrastructure Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 42 (13.91%) HTML
2 38 (12.58%) LDAP
3 36 (11.92%) LAMP
4 33 (10.93%) REST
5 29 (9.60%) CSS
6 28 (9.27%) SOAP
7 27 (8.94%) jQuery
8 16 (5.30%) OpenID
8 16 (5.30%) SAML
9 13 (4.30%) OAuth
10 11 (3.64%) Web Services
10 11 (3.64%) XML
11 10 (3.31%) Kafka
11 10 (3.31%) OAuth2
12 9 (2.98%) LAPP Stack
13 6 (1.99%) Node.js
13 6 (1.99%) RESTful
14 5 (1.66%) Elastic Stack
14 5 (1.66%) Spring
14 5 (1.66%) STL
Miscellaneous
1 33 (10.93%) Clustering
1 33 (10.93%) Data Centre
2 27 (8.94%) Mobile App
3 26 (8.61%) Algorithms
4 18 (5.96%) Management Information System
5 17 (5.63%) Enterprise Storage
5 17 (5.63%) Public Cloud
6 12 (3.97%) Self-Motivation
7 8 (2.65%) Private Cloud
7 8 (2.65%) Replication
8 5 (1.66%) Cloud Native
8 5 (1.66%) Device Driver
8 5 (1.66%) Linux Command Line
9 4 (1.32%) Blackberry
9 4 (1.32%) Greenfield Project
9 4 (1.32%) Hedge funds
9 4 (1.32%) SCADA
9 4 (1.32%) Virtual Team
10 3 (0.99%) Cybercrime
10 3 (0.99%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 125 (41.39%) Windows
2 122 (40.40%) Linux
3 72 (23.84%) Windows Server
4 38 (12.58%) Windows Server 2012
5 29 (9.60%) Windows Server 2019
6 23 (7.62%) Windows Server 2016
7 21 (6.95%) Unix
8 20 (6.62%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 17 (5.63%) Windows 10
10 13 (4.30%) Windows Server 2008
11 12 (3.97%) Android
12 11 (3.64%) Mac OS
13 9 (2.98%) CentOS
14 7 (2.32%) Apple iOS
15 6 (1.99%) Solaris
16 5 (1.66%) Mac OS X
17 4 (1.32%) Embedded Linux
17 4 (1.32%) Windows Server 2003
18 1 (0.33%) AIX
18 1 (0.33%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 57 (18.87%) Infrastructure Engineering
1 57 (18.87%) Problem-Solving
2 46 (15.23%) Agile Software Development
3 39 (12.91%) ITIL
4 38 (12.58%) Cryptography
5 35 (11.59%) Cybersecurity
5 35 (11.59%) Server Management
6 33 (10.93%) Change Control
7 31 (10.26%) DevOps
7 31 (10.26%) Validation
8 29 (9.60%) Mentoring
9 28 (9.27%) Unit Testing
10 27 (8.94%) Service Management
11 26 (8.61%) Migration
12 25 (8.28%) Information Security
13 24 (7.95%) Change Management
14 22 (7.28%) Risk Management
14 22 (7.28%) Software Engineering
15 20 (6.62%) Incident Management
15 20 (6.62%) Systems Engineering
Programming Languages
1 67 (22.19%) PowerShell
2 51 (16.89%) Bash Shell
3 42 (13.91%) SQL
4 33 (10.93%) Python
5 31 (10.26%) JavaScript
6 27 (8.94%) PHP
7 22 (7.28%) Java
8 16 (5.30%) Go
8 16 (5.30%) Perl
9 15 (4.97%) C
9 15 (4.97%) C#
10 12 (3.97%) C++
11 7 (2.32%) Shell Script
12 4 (1.32%) VB
13 3 (0.99%) Kotlin
13 3 (0.99%) Ruby
14 2 (0.66%) Java 11
14 2 (0.66%) Java 8
15 1 (0.33%) Groovy
15 1 (0.33%) Rust
Qualifications
1 57 (18.87%) Security Cleared
2 47 (15.56%) Microsoft Certification
3 42 (13.91%) SC Cleared
4 34 (11.26%) Degree
5 19 (6.29%) CISSP
6 18 (5.96%) Cisco Certification
6 18 (5.96%) DV Cleared
7 12 (3.97%) CCNA
8 11 (3.64%) MCSA
9 9 (2.98%) Computer Science Degree
10 7 (2.32%) ITIL Certification
10 7 (2.32%) MCTS
10 7 (2.32%) SSCP
11 6 (1.99%) (ISC)2 CCSP
11 6 (1.99%) CISM
12 5 (1.66%) CCNP
12 5 (1.66%) ISTQB
12 5 (1.66%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
13 4 (1.32%) CISA
13 4 (1.32%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 27 (8.94%) PCI DSS
2 19 (6.29%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 13 (4.30%) NIST
4 11 (3.64%) GDPR
5 10 (3.31%) SLA
6 7 (2.32%) QA
7 2 (0.66%) JSP 440
7 2 (0.66%) NCSC
8 1 (0.33%) Cyber Essentials
8 1 (0.33%) HIPAA
8 1 (0.33%) HMG Security Policy Framework
8 1 (0.33%) ISO 22301
8 1 (0.33%) ISO 9001
8 1 (0.33%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.33%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
8 1 (0.33%) NIST 800
System Software
1 162 (53.64%) Active Directory
2 68 (22.52%) VMware Infrastructure
3 29 (9.60%) VMware ESXi
4 22 (7.28%) vSphere
5 21 (6.95%) Docker
6 18 (5.96%) Hyper-V
7 10 (3.31%) Virtual Machines
8 7 (2.32%) Terminal Services
9 5 (1.66%) BitLocker
10 4 (1.32%) NFS
10 4 (1.32%) ProxySG
10 4 (1.32%) Veritas Cluster Server
11 3 (0.99%) vCloud
12 1 (0.33%) Forefront TMG
12 1 (0.33%) Microsoft App-V
12 1 (0.33%) OpenAM
12 1 (0.33%) OpenIDM
12 1 (0.33%) RACF
12 1 (0.33%) VMware Workstation
12 1 (0.33%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 47 (15.56%) SCCM
2 29 (9.60%) Active Directory Federation Services
3 23 (7.62%) Kubernetes
3 23 (7.62%) Single Sign-On
4 20 (6.62%) SCOM
5 19 (6.29%) Terraform
6 14 (4.64%) Ansible
7 11 (3.64%) WSUS
8 10 (3.31%) SCOrch
9 9 (2.98%) Microsoft Intune
10 7 (2.32%) Nessus
11 6 (1.99%) McAfee ePO
12 5 (1.66%) FortiGate
12 5 (1.66%) Grafana
12 5 (1.66%) Jamf Pro
12 5 (1.66%) Prometheus
13 4 (1.32%) Microsoft Clustering
13 4 (1.32%) OfficeScan
13 4 (1.32%) SCVMM
13 4 (1.32%) Trend Micro Deep Security
Vendors
1 130 (43.05%) Microsoft
2 95 (31.46%) VMware
3 34 (11.26%) Cisco
4 26 (8.61%) Gemalto
5 23 (7.62%) Apple
5 23 (7.62%) Red Hat
6 22 (7.28%) Citrix
7 17 (5.63%) 3PAR
7 17 (5.63%) Scality
8 16 (5.30%) F5
9 15 (4.97%) Remedy
10 14 (4.64%) HP
10 14 (4.64%) Veeam
11 10 (3.31%) CyberArk
11 10 (3.31%) Meraki
12 9 (2.98%) CA
12 9 (2.98%) CheckPoint
12 9 (2.98%) Dell
12 9 (2.98%) NetIQ
13 8 (2.65%) LexisNexis