Period
to 29 July 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 29 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
29 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 683 540 671
Rank change year-on-year -143 +131 -2
Permanent jobs citing PKI 271 245 433
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.27% 0.39% 0.33%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.69% 1.08% 0.92%
Number of salaries quoted 209 195 294
10th Percentile £40,000 £36,833 £40,000
25th Percentile £45,000 £50,000 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £61,500 £62,500 £57,500
Median % change year-on-year -1.60% +8.70% -4.17%
75th Percentile £73,750 £85,000 £76,250
90th Percentile £85,000 £95,000 £91,025
UK median annual salary £55,000 £60,000 £57,500
% change year-on-year -8.33% +4.35% -4.17%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 39,539 22,741 47,107
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 39.56% 35.80% 35.39%
Number of salaries quoted 24,283 18,258 36,257
10th Percentile £32,772 £32,148 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £41,500 £38,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £57,000 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +3.64% +4.76%
75th Percentile £80,000 £77,500 £73,750
90th Percentile £97,500 £97,500 £90,000
UK median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% -

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Salary trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 29 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -116 100 £65,000 -18.75% 15
South East -72 82 £62,500 +19.05% 15
South West -77 36 £55,000 -38.89% 6
Midlands -76 18 £47,500 -5.00% 10
North of England -83 17 £57,500 +11.11% 5
West Midlands -60 15 £47,500 -5.00% 6
North West -71 10 £50,000 -6.54% 3
East of England -32 7 £48,500 -3.00% 1
Yorkshire -66 6 £57,500 -20.69% 2
East Midlands -46 3 £48,250 - 4
North East -26 1 - -
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 29 July 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 134 (49.45%) Active Directory
2 118 (43.54%) Microsoft
3 116 (42.80%) Linux
4 108 (39.85%) Windows
5 106 (39.11%) Azure
6 75 (27.68%) VMware
7 71 (26.20%) PowerShell
8 63 (23.25%) DNS
9 58 (21.40%) Windows Server
10 55 (20.30%) Social Skills
11 53 (19.56%) VMware Infrastructure
11 53 (19.56%) Microsoft 365
12 51 (18.82%) Security Cleared
13 49 (18.08%) SQL
13 49 (18.08%) Firewall
14 47 (17.34%) SSL
14 47 (17.34%) Bash Shell
15 45 (16.61%) DevOps
15 45 (16.61%) Azure Active Directory
16 44 (16.24%) Problem-Solving
17 43 (15.87%) TCP/IP
18 41 (15.13%) AWS
19 40 (14.76%) Agile Software Development
19 40 (14.76%) Infrastructure Engineering
20 39 (14.39%) Finance
20 39 (14.39%) HTML
21 38 (14.02%) SQL Server
22 36 (13.28%) Python
22 36 (13.28%) Kubernetes
22 36 (13.28%) Windows Server 2012

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 31 (11.44%) MS Exchange
2 24 (8.86%) IIS
3 17 (6.27%) SharePoint
4 16 (5.90%) Apache
5 10 (3.69%) Confluence
6 3 (1.11%) Elasticsearch
6 3 (1.11%) Skype for Business
7 2 (0.74%) Apache Spark
7 2 (0.74%) Exchange Server 2013
8 1 (0.37%) Exchange Server 2010
8 1 (0.37%) SharePoint 2013
8 1 (0.37%) Tomcat
Applications
1 21 (7.75%) Microsoft Office
2 1 (0.37%) Microsoft Excel
2 1 (0.37%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 1 (0.37%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 18 (6.64%) Payment Gateway
2 10 (3.69%) R3 Corda
3 2 (0.74%) Distributed Ledger
Cloud Services
1 106 (39.11%) Azure
2 53 (19.56%) Microsoft 365
3 45 (16.61%) Azure Active Directory
4 41 (15.13%) AWS
5 23 (8.49%) IaaS
6 21 (7.75%) PaaS
7 13 (4.80%) SaaS
8 10 (3.69%) Azure Stack
8 10 (3.69%) OneDrive
9 6 (2.21%) Azure App Service
9 6 (2.21%) Azure Cosmos DB
9 6 (2.21%) Azure ExpressRoute
9 6 (2.21%) Azure Synapse Analytics
9 6 (2.21%) GitHub
10 4 (1.48%) Amazon EKS
11 3 (1.11%) Amazon CloudWatch
11 3 (1.11%) Amazon GuardDuty
11 3 (1.11%) OpenShift
12 2 (0.74%) Amazon EMR
12 2 (0.74%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 63 (23.25%) DNS
2 49 (18.08%) Firewall
3 47 (17.34%) SSL
4 43 (15.87%) TCP/IP
5 35 (12.92%) VPN
6 24 (8.86%) WAN
7 22 (8.12%) HTTP
8 21 (7.75%) DHCP
8 21 (7.75%) LAN
9 16 (5.90%) Cisco ASA
10 12 (4.43%) Cisco ISE
10 12 (4.43%) Network Security
11 11 (4.06%) IPsec
12 9 (3.32%) Kerberos
13 8 (2.95%) Cisco IOS
13 8 (2.95%) Remote Desktop
13 8 (2.95%) SAN
13 8 (2.95%) Wireless
14 7 (2.58%) Wi-Fi
15 5 (1.85%) Internet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 38 (14.02%) SQL Server
2 34 (12.55%) MySQL
3 23 (8.49%) MariaDB
4 12 (4.43%) NoSQL
5 11 (4.06%) Blockchain
6 10 (3.69%) MongoDB
6 10 (3.69%) PostgreSQL
7 7 (2.58%) Amazon RDS
8 6 (2.21%) Azure SQL Database
9 5 (1.85%) Apache Cassandra
10 2 (0.74%) Big Data
10 2 (0.74%) Data Warehouse
10 2 (0.74%) Hadoop
10 2 (0.74%) Oracle Database
10 2 (0.74%) Oracle Database 11g
11 1 (0.37%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 32 (11.81%) Git (software)
2 17 (6.27%) Jenkins
3 15 (5.54%) JIRA
4 11 (4.06%) GitLab
5 6 (2.21%) Robot Framework
6 5 (1.85%) CMake
6 5 (1.85%) JMeter
6 5 (1.85%) PHPUnit
7 4 (1.48%) Atlassian Bamboo
8 3 (1.11%) Bitbucket
8 3 (1.11%) Maven
8 3 (1.11%) VSS/SourceSafe
9 2 (0.74%) Subversion
9 2 (0.74%) Team Foundation Server
10 1 (0.37%) Cucumber
10 1 (0.37%) JUnit
10 1 (0.37%) Mockito
10 1 (0.37%) Oracle APEX
10 1 (0.37%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 55 (20.30%) Social Skills
2 39 (14.39%) Finance
3 15 (5.54%) Manufacturing
4 14 (5.17%) Analytical Skills
5 10 (3.69%) Legal
5 10 (3.69%) Public Sector
6 9 (3.32%) Telecoms
7 7 (2.58%) Electronics
7 7 (2.58%) Marketing
7 7 (2.58%) Organisational Skills
8 5 (1.85%) Banking
9 4 (1.48%) Military
10 3 (1.11%) French Language
10 3 (1.11%) German Language
10 3 (1.11%) Multimedia
10 3 (1.11%) Retail
11 2 (0.74%) Aerospace
11 2 (0.74%) Back Office
11 2 (0.74%) Japanese Language
11 2 (0.74%) Presentation Skills
Job Titles
1 37 (13.65%) Developer
2 28 (10.33%) Infrastructure Engineer
3 25 (9.23%) Cryptography Engineer
3 25 (9.23%) Senior Developer
4 24 (8.86%) Architect
5 23 (8.49%) PHP Developer
6 18 (6.64%) Senior PHP Developer
7 16 (5.90%) 3rd Line Engineer
8 14 (5.17%) DevOps Engineer
9 13 (4.80%) Systems Engineer
10 12 (4.43%) 3rd Line Infrastructure Engineer
10 12 (4.43%) NOC Engineer
10 12 (4.43%) Security Engineer
11 11 (4.06%) Cloud Engineer
12 10 (3.69%) Consultant
12 10 (3.69%) Network Engineer
13 9 (3.32%) Security Architect
14 8 (2.95%) Cloud Architect
14 8 (2.95%) Senior Systems Engineer
15 7 (2.58%) Windows Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 39 (14.39%) HTML
2 33 (12.18%) LAMP
3 27 (9.96%) LDAP
4 26 (9.59%) REST
4 26 (9.59%) SOAP
5 25 (9.23%) CSS
6 23 (8.49%) jQuery
7 22 (8.12%) SAML
8 21 (7.75%) Kafka
9 19 (7.01%) OpenID
10 14 (5.17%) XML
11 12 (4.43%) OAuth
11 12 (4.43%) Web Services
12 10 (3.69%) LAPP Stack
12 10 (3.69%) OAuth2
13 9 (3.32%) JSON
14 8 (2.95%) Elastic Stack
14 8 (2.95%) Spring
14 8 (2.95%) Spring Boot
15 7 (2.58%) SailPoint
Miscellaneous
1 30 (11.07%) Data Centre
2 25 (9.23%) Algorithms
3 23 (8.49%) Mobile App
4 21 (7.75%) Public Cloud
5 20 (7.38%) Clustering
6 16 (5.90%) Self-Motivation
7 13 (4.80%) Private Cloud
8 10 (3.69%) Enterprise Storage
9 8 (2.95%) Management Information System
10 6 (2.21%) Hybrid Cloud
10 6 (2.21%) Linux Command Line
11 5 (1.85%) Cloud Native
12 4 (1.48%) Client/Server
12 4 (1.48%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
12 4 (1.48%) Replication
13 3 (1.11%) Device Driver
13 3 (1.11%) Greenfield Project
13 3 (1.11%) SCADA
14 2 (0.74%) Cybercrime
14 2 (0.74%) iPhone
Operating Systems
1 116 (42.80%) Linux
2 108 (39.85%) Windows
3 58 (21.40%) Windows Server
4 36 (13.28%) Windows Server 2012
5 33 (12.18%) Unix
6 25 (9.23%) Windows Server 2019
7 18 (6.64%) Windows Server 2016
8 13 (4.80%) Windows Server 2008
9 12 (4.43%) Mac OS
9 12 (4.43%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 11 (4.06%) CentOS
11 10 (3.69%) Android
11 10 (3.69%) Windows 10
12 8 (2.95%) Windows Server 2003
13 7 (2.58%) Mac OS X
14 6 (2.21%) Solaris
15 3 (1.11%) Apple iOS
16 1 (0.37%) Windows Mobile
Processes & Methodologies
1 45 (16.61%) DevOps
2 44 (16.24%) Problem-Solving
3 40 (14.76%) Agile Software Development
3 40 (14.76%) Infrastructure Engineering
4 31 (11.44%) Cryptography
4 31 (11.44%) Validation
5 29 (10.70%) ITIL
6 25 (9.23%) Cybersecurity
6 25 (9.23%) Information Security
6 25 (9.23%) Infrastructure as Code
6 25 (9.23%) Server Management
6 25 (9.23%) Unit Testing
7 24 (8.86%) DevSecOps
8 23 (8.49%) Fintech
9 21 (7.75%) Mentoring
10 20 (7.38%) SIEM
11 18 (6.64%) Software Engineering
12 17 (6.27%) Task Automation
13 16 (5.90%) Security Architecture
13 16 (5.90%) Systems Engineering
Programming Languages
1 71 (26.20%) PowerShell
2 49 (18.08%) SQL
3 47 (17.34%) Bash Shell
4 36 (13.28%) Python
5 26 (9.59%) JavaScript
6 23 (8.49%) PHP
7 20 (7.38%) Java
8 18 (6.64%) Perl
9 13 (4.80%) C#
10 12 (4.43%) C
11 9 (3.32%) C++
12 8 (2.95%) Shell Script
13 7 (2.58%) Go
14 5 (1.85%) Kotlin
15 4 (1.48%) Ruby
16 3 (1.11%) Java 11
16 3 (1.11%) Java 8
17 2 (0.74%) PL/SQL
17 2 (0.74%) T-SQL
17 2 (0.74%) VB
Qualifications
1 51 (18.82%) Security Cleared
2 35 (12.92%) Microsoft Certification
3 31 (11.44%) SC Cleared
4 23 (8.49%) Cisco Certification
5 20 (7.38%) DV Cleared
6 18 (6.64%) CCNA
6 18 (6.64%) Degree
7 8 (2.95%) CISSP
8 7 (2.58%) CCNP
8 7 (2.58%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
9 6 (2.21%) CISM
10 5 (1.85%) Computer Science Degree
10 5 (1.85%) ISTQB
11 4 (1.48%) (ISC)2 CCSP
11 4 (1.48%) HNC
11 4 (1.48%) MCSA
11 4 (1.48%) MCSE
12 3 (1.11%) CISA
12 3 (1.11%) OSCE
12 3 (1.11%) OSWP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 23 (8.49%) PCI DSS
2 9 (3.32%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 9 (3.32%) SLA
3 7 (2.58%) QA
4 5 (1.85%) NIST
5 2 (0.74%) GDPR
6 1 (0.37%) Cyber Essentials
6 1 (0.37%) NIST 800
System Software
1 134 (49.45%) Active Directory
2 53 (19.56%) VMware Infrastructure
3 35 (12.92%) Docker
4 26 (9.59%) VMware ESXi
5 15 (5.54%) Hyper-V
5 15 (5.54%) vSphere
6 10 (3.69%) Terminal Services
7 9 (3.32%) BitLocker
8 6 (2.21%) Forefront TMG
8 6 (2.21%) VMware Workstation
8 6 (2.21%) XenApp
9 4 (1.48%) ProxySG
9 4 (1.48%) Virtual Machines
10 2 (0.74%) NFS
11 1 (0.37%) KVM
11 1 (0.37%) Microsoft App-V
11 1 (0.37%) Snort
Systems Management
1 36 (13.28%) Kubernetes
2 29 (10.70%) SCCM
3 26 (9.59%) Active Directory Federation Services
4 22 (8.12%) Single Sign-On
4 22 (8.12%) Terraform
5 17 (6.27%) Ansible
6 15 (5.54%) SCOM
7 12 (4.43%) Microsoft Intune
8 10 (3.69%) Microsoft Clustering
8 10 (3.69%) SCOrch
9 9 (3.32%) Jamf Pro
9 9 (3.32%) Prometheus
10 8 (2.95%) Grafana
10 8 (2.95%) Nessus
10 8 (2.95%) SCVMM
11 7 (2.58%) Kibana
11 7 (2.58%) vCenter Server
11 7 (2.58%) WSUS
12 6 (2.21%) McAfee ePO
13 5 (1.85%) vRealize
Vendors
1 118 (43.54%) Microsoft
2 75 (27.68%) VMware
3 35 (12.92%) Cisco
4 25 (9.23%) Gemalto
5 19 (7.01%) Citrix
6 17 (6.27%) Apple
6 17 (6.27%) Red Hat
7 14 (5.17%) F5
8 12 (4.43%) McAfee
9 11 (4.06%) NetIQ
10 10 (3.69%) 3PAR
10 10 (3.69%) CyberArk
10 10 (3.69%) Scality
11 9 (3.32%) Atlassian
11 9 (3.32%) Dell
12 7 (2.58%) Meraki
12 7 (2.58%) SAP
13 6 (2.21%) CA
13 6 (2.21%) IBM
13 6 (2.21%) Veeam