Period
to 3 July 2020

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 3 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
3 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 548 669 706
Rank change year-on-year +121 +37 +71
Permanent jobs citing PKI 268 448 522
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.37% 0.33% 0.32%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.93% 0.84% 0.80%
Number of salaries quoted 239 325 402
Median annual salary £70,000 £57,500 £59,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +21.74% -2.54% +2.61%
10th Percentile £41,000 £40,000 £37,500
90th Percentile £95,000 £82,500 £85,000
UK median annual salary £67,500 £57,500 £60,000
% change year-on-year +17.39% -4.17% +4.35%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 28,776 53,515 64,871
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 39.43% 39.47% 39.16%
Number of salaries quoted 22,392 40,445 50,165
Median annual salary £55,262 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.00% -
10th Percentile £31,250 £29,825 £28,500
90th Percentile £95,000 £87,500 £85,000
UK median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +4.17%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Salary trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 3 July 2020.

Salary histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 3 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +134 112 £80,000 +23.08% 12
South East +90 69 £52,500 -12.50% 8
North of England +79 34 £51,750 +21.76% 15
South West +74 27 £90,000 +80.00% 5
North West +71 26 £53,500 +25.88% 9
Midlands +118 16 £50,000 +20.48% 2
West Midlands +83 11 £50,000 +13.64% 1
North East - 6 £35,000 -
East of England +46 5 £50,000 +25.00% 4
East Midlands +64 3 - - 1
Yorkshire +101 2 £72,500 +72.62% 6
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 3 July 2020, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 95 (35.45%) Microsoft
2 84 (31.34%) Linux
2 84 (31.34%) Active Directory
3 80 (29.85%) Windows
3 80 (29.85%) Firewall
4 77 (28.73%) Cybersecurity
5 70 (26.12%) AWS
6 63 (23.51%) Java
7 62 (23.13%) Azure
8 53 (19.78%) Agile Software Development
9 52 (19.40%) Finance
10 51 (19.03%) DNS
10 51 (19.03%) Security Cleared
11 49 (18.28%) Degree
12 47 (17.54%) SQL
13 46 (17.16%) C++
14 45 (16.79%) Cryptography
15 42 (15.67%) ITIL
15 42 (15.67%) PowerShell
16 41 (15.30%) Terraform
17 39 (14.55%) Docker
17 39 (14.55%) Windows Server
17 39 (14.55%) ISO/IEC 27001
18 37 (13.81%) Unix
18 37 (13.81%) Python
18 37 (13.81%) Information Security
19 36 (13.43%) DevSecOps
20 34 (12.69%) SIEM
21 33 (12.31%) Computer Science
22 31 (11.57%) DV Cleared

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 22 (8.21%) Elasticsearch
2 21 (7.84%) IIS
3 18 (6.72%) Tomcat
4 17 (6.34%) Confluence
5 14 (5.22%) Apache
6 6 (2.24%) JBoss
6 6 (2.24%) SharePoint
6 6 (2.24%) WebLogic
7 4 (1.49%) nginx
8 3 (1.12%) MS Exchange
9 2 (0.75%) Apache Spark
9 2 (0.75%) OpenStack
9 2 (0.75%) Skype for Business
10 1 (0.37%) Oracle HTTP Server
10 1 (0.37%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 1 (0.37%) WebSphere
Applications
1 15 (5.60%) Microsoft Office
2 7 (2.61%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.37%) InVision
3 1 (0.37%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.37%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 1 (0.37%) Oracle BPM
Cloud Services
1 70 (26.12%) AWS
2 62 (23.13%) Azure
3 28 (10.45%) IaaS
4 23 (8.58%) PaaS
5 19 (7.09%) SaaS
6 15 (5.60%) Office 365
7 10 (3.73%) AWS CloudFormation
7 10 (3.73%) GCP
8 7 (2.61%) Virtual Private Cloud
9 6 (2.24%) Azure ExpressRoute
10 5 (1.87%) OpenShift
11 4 (1.49%) Slack
12 3 (1.12%) AWS CodeDeploy
12 3 (1.12%) Azure Active Directory
12 3 (1.12%) Cloud Computing
13 2 (0.75%) Serverless
Communications & Networking
1 80 (29.85%) Firewall
2 51 (19.03%) DNS
3 30 (11.19%) VPN
4 28 (10.45%) SSL
5 27 (10.07%) TCP/IP
6 23 (8.58%) DHCP
6 23 (8.58%) IPsec
7 20 (7.46%) Network Security
8 19 (7.09%) LAN
8 19 (7.09%) WAN
9 15 (5.60%) MPLS
9 15 (5.60%) Wi-Fi
10 14 (5.22%) Internet
11 12 (4.48%) BGP
11 12 (4.48%) OSPF
11 12 (4.48%) Wireless
12 11 (4.10%) SAN
13 9 (3.36%) Ethernet
13 9 (3.36%) Remote Desktop
14 8 (2.99%) 4G
Database & Business Intelligence
1 26 (9.70%) MongoDB
1 26 (9.70%) SQL Server
2 24 (8.96%) Big Data
3 21 (7.84%) PostgreSQL
4 10 (3.73%) NoSQL
5 9 (3.36%) SQL Server 2012
6 7 (2.61%) Hadoop
6 7 (2.61%) MySQL
7 5 (1.87%) DB2
7 5 (1.87%) Oracle Database
8 3 (1.12%) Apache Hive
8 3 (1.12%) HBase
8 3 (1.12%) Relational Database
9 2 (0.75%) Amazon RDS
9 2 (0.75%) Apache Accumulo
9 2 (0.75%) Azure SQL Database
9 2 (0.75%) Cosmos DB
9 2 (0.75%) Oracle Database 11g
10 1 (0.37%) Neo4j
10 1 (0.37%) SQL Server 2019
Development Applications
1 25 (9.33%) JIRA
2 16 (5.97%) Jenkins
3 8 (2.99%) Metasploit
4 6 (2.24%) Bitbucket
4 6 (2.24%) Git (software)
4 6 (2.24%) GitLab
4 6 (2.24%) Snyk
5 5 (1.87%) Burp Suite
5 5 (1.87%) Gradle
6 4 (1.49%) Atlassian Bamboo
6 4 (1.49%) GoCD
6 4 (1.49%) JMeter
6 4 (1.49%) Selenium
7 3 (1.12%) IntelliJ
7 3 (1.12%) SonarQube
7 3 (1.12%) Subversion
7 3 (1.12%) VSS/SourceSafe
8 2 (0.75%) Maven
8 2 (0.75%) Oracle APEX
9 1 (0.37%) AppScan
General
1 52 (19.40%) Finance
2 21 (7.84%) Legal
3 17 (6.34%) Banking
4 11 (4.10%) Public Sector
5 6 (2.24%) Back Office
6 5 (1.87%) French Language
6 5 (1.87%) Investment Banking
7 4 (1.49%) Manufacturing
7 4 (1.49%) Telecoms
8 3 (1.12%) Automotive
9 2 (0.75%) German Language
9 2 (0.75%) Law
9 2 (0.75%) Retail
10 1 (0.37%) Electronics
10 1 (0.37%) Korean Language
10 1 (0.37%) Military
Job Titles
1 43 (16.04%) Architect
2 27 (10.07%) Solutions Architect
3 24 (8.96%) Analyst
4 23 (8.58%) Developer
5 22 (8.21%) Network Engineer
6 21 (7.84%) Cloud Architect
6 21 (7.84%) Security Engineer
7 19 (7.09%) Infrastructure Engineer
8 17 (6.34%) Cryptography Engineer
9 15 (5.60%) Tester
10 14 (5.22%) Cloud Solutions Architect
11 13 (4.85%) Applications Support
11 13 (4.85%) Penetration Tester
11 13 (4.85%) Windows Engineer
12 12 (4.48%) Consultant
12 12 (4.48%) Platform Engineer
12 12 (4.48%) Support Analyst
13 10 (3.73%) Cloud Engineer
13 10 (3.73%) Cybersecurity Consultant
13 10 (3.73%) Head of Service Operations
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 23 (8.58%) REST
2 21 (7.84%) RabbitMQ
3 9 (3.36%) SAML
4 8 (2.99%) Kafka
4 8 (2.99%) Web Services
5 7 (2.61%) .NET
5 7 (2.61%) JSON
6 6 (2.24%) LDAP
6 6 (2.24%) Middleware
6 6 (2.24%) OAuth
7 4 (1.49%) .NET Framework
7 4 (1.49%) OpenID
8 3 (1.12%) AngularJS
8 3 (1.12%) Java EE
8 3 (1.12%) Node.js
8 3 (1.12%) RESTful
8 3 (1.12%) Spring
8 3 (1.12%) XML
9 2 (0.75%) OAuth2
9 2 (0.75%) Spring Boot
Miscellaneous
1 29 (10.82%) Public Cloud
2 25 (9.33%) Algorithms
3 24 (8.96%) Data Centre
4 21 (7.84%) Management Information System
5 20 (7.46%) Cloud Native
6 18 (6.72%) Analytical Skills
7 14 (5.22%) Cyberattack
8 12 (4.48%) Mobile App
9 11 (4.10%) Hybrid Cloud
10 10 (3.73%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
11 9 (3.36%) Fat Client
11 9 (3.36%) Thin Client
12 7 (2.61%) Clustering
12 7 (2.61%) Cyberthreat
13 6 (2.24%) Device Driver
13 6 (2.24%) Greenfield Project
13 6 (2.24%) Replication
13 6 (2.24%) Self-Motivation
14 5 (1.87%) Client/Server
15 4 (1.49%) Enterprise Cloud
Operating Systems
1 84 (31.34%) Linux
2 80 (29.85%) Windows
3 39 (14.55%) Windows Server
4 37 (13.81%) Unix
5 17 (6.34%) Windows Server 2016
6 16 (5.97%) Windows Server 2012
7 11 (4.10%) Mac OS
8 10 (3.73%) Kali Linux
9 9 (3.36%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 8 (2.99%) Apple iOS
10 8 (2.99%) Windows 10
11 7 (2.61%) CentOS
12 4 (1.49%) Android
12 4 (1.49%) Solaris
13 3 (1.12%) Windows 7
13 3 (1.12%) Windows Server 2008
14 2 (0.75%) Windows Server 2019
15 1 (0.37%) Embedded Linux
15 1 (0.37%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 77 (28.73%) Cybersecurity
2 53 (19.78%) Agile Software Development
3 45 (16.79%) Cryptography
4 42 (15.67%) ITIL
5 37 (13.81%) Information Security
6 36 (13.43%) DevSecOps
7 34 (12.69%) SIEM
8 33 (12.31%) Computer Science
9 29 (10.82%) Multithreading
10 28 (10.45%) Penetration Testing
11 27 (10.07%) Infrastructure Engineering
12 26 (9.70%) Data Security
12 26 (9.70%) DevOps
12 26 (9.70%) Microservices
12 26 (9.70%) Security Testing
13 25 (9.33%) Analytics
13 25 (9.33%) Open Source
13 25 (9.33%) Security Operations
14 24 (8.96%) Infrastructure as Code
15 23 (8.58%) Information Assurance
Programming Languages
1 63 (23.51%) Java
2 47 (17.54%) SQL
3 46 (17.16%) C++
4 42 (15.67%) PowerShell
5 37 (13.81%) Python
6 29 (10.82%) Bash Shell
7 28 (10.45%) C
8 26 (9.70%) Go
9 13 (4.85%) Perl
10 11 (4.10%) T-SQL
11 9 (3.36%) C#
11 9 (3.36%) JavaScript
12 4 (1.49%) Ruby
12 4 (1.49%) Shell Script
13 3 (1.12%) Apex Code
13 3 (1.12%) AWK
13 3 (1.12%) Korn
13 3 (1.12%) sed
14 2 (0.75%) Java 8
14 2 (0.75%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 51 (19.03%) Security Cleared
2 49 (18.28%) Degree
3 31 (11.57%) DV Cleared
4 25 (9.33%) Microsoft Certification
5 24 (8.96%) CISSP
6 21 (7.84%) Cisco Certification
7 20 (7.46%) SC Cleared
8 13 (4.85%) CREST Certified
9 10 (3.73%) Computer Science Degree
10 9 (3.36%) (ISC)2 CCSP
10 9 (3.36%) CEH
10 9 (3.36%) Master's Degree
10 9 (3.36%) MCP
10 9 (3.36%) SANS
11 8 (2.99%) CEPT
11 8 (2.99%) EC-Council LPT
11 8 (2.99%) GXPN
11 8 (2.99%) OSCE
12 6 (2.24%) DBS Check
12 6 (2.24%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 39 (14.55%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 26 (9.70%) GDPR
3 22 (8.21%) NIST
4 16 (5.97%) NCSC
5 14 (5.22%) NIST 800
6 10 (3.73%) QA
7 9 (3.36%) HMG Security Policy Framework
7 9 (3.36%) PCI DSS
8 8 (2.99%) SLA
9 4 (1.49%) COBIT
9 4 (1.49%) RMADS
10 3 (1.12%) Cyber Essentials
11 2 (0.75%) ISO 20022
11 2 (0.75%) ISO 8583
12 1 (0.37%) HIPAA
12 1 (0.37%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
12 1 (0.37%) JSP 440
12 1 (0.37%) PSD2
12 1 (0.37%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 84 (31.34%) Active Directory
2 39 (14.55%) Docker
3 22 (8.21%) Hyper-V
4 15 (5.60%) VMware Infrastructure
5 7 (2.61%) VMware ESXi
6 5 (1.87%) Firmware
6 5 (1.87%) vSphere
7 3 (1.12%) VMware NSX
8 2 (0.75%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
8 2 (0.75%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 2 (0.75%) Virtual Servers
8 2 (0.75%) XenApp
9 1 (0.37%) BitLocker
9 1 (0.37%) Forefront TMG
9 1 (0.37%) Terminal Services
9 1 (0.37%) Virtual Desktop
9 1 (0.37%) Virtual Machines
9 1 (0.37%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 41 (15.30%) Terraform
2 23 (8.58%) SCCM
2 23 (8.58%) SCOM
3 16 (5.97%) Kubernetes
4 12 (4.48%) Ansible
4 12 (4.48%) Nessus
5 7 (2.61%) McAfee ePO
6 6 (2.24%) Puppet
7 5 (1.87%) Cisco Prime
7 5 (1.87%) SCOrch
7 5 (1.87%) SolarWinds Orion
7 5 (1.87%) vRealize
8 4 (1.49%) HP SiteScope
8 4 (1.49%) Nagios
8 4 (1.49%) Packer
8 4 (1.49%) WSUS
8 4 (1.49%) ZABBIX
9 3 (1.12%) HP Fortify
9 3 (1.12%) Nmap
9 3 (1.12%) Sysdig
Vendors
1 95 (35.45%) Microsoft
2 31 (11.57%) VMware
3 30 (11.19%) Cisco
4 24 (8.96%) Google
5 21 (7.84%) Gemalto
6 15 (5.60%) Juniper
6 15 (5.60%) SolarWinds
7 12 (4.48%) Oracle
8 11 (4.10%) McAfee
8 11 (4.10%) Palo Alto
9 10 (3.73%) Red Hat
9 10 (3.73%) Splunk
10 7 (2.61%) F5
10 7 (2.61%) Forcepoint
11 6 (2.24%) Bloomberg
11 6 (2.24%) Dell
11 6 (2.24%) Fortinet
12 5 (1.87%) CA
12 5 (1.87%) EMC
12 5 (1.87%) HP