Period
to 22 April 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 22 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
22 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 592 618 651
Rank change year-on-year +26 +33 +113
Permanent jobs citing PKI 224 332 462
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.30% 0.33% 0.34%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.73% 0.84% 0.83%
Number of salaries quoted 169 250 371
10th Percentile £40,000 £36,250 £40,000
25th Percentile £45,000 £48,750 £45,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,500 £70,000 £57,500
Median % change year-on-year -10.71% +21.74% +9.52%
75th Percentile £78,750 £85,000 £77,500
90th Percentile £87,500 £100,000 £91,250
UK median annual salary £61,500 £67,500 £57,500
% change year-on-year -8.89% +17.39% +4.55%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 30,709 39,538 55,415
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 40.76% 39.71% 40.33%
Number of salaries quoted 22,041 31,064 42,465
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,000 £29,000
25th Percentile £41,500 £40,000 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,210 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.02% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £76,250 £75,000 £72,500
90th Percentile £95,000 £95,000 £87,500
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Salary trend for PKI in England

PKI
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 22 April 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 22 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +55 95 £75,000 -6.25% 12
South East +53 57 £62,500 +8.70% 8
South West -3 28 £53,750 +19.44% 5
Midlands +22 19 £50,000 -2.44% 5
North of England +21 16 £50,000 +28.32% 9
West Midlands -6 13 £50,000 -2.44% 4
North West +35 12 £46,500 -13.08% 5
East Midlands +24 6 £45,000 - 1
Yorkshire +4 3 £57,500 +27.78% 3
East of England +50 2 £51,000 +2.00% 2
North East +8 1 £50,000 +42.86% 1
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 22 April 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 102 (45.54%) Active Directory
2 99 (44.20%) Microsoft
3 96 (42.86%) Windows
4 91 (40.63%) Azure
5 87 (38.84%) Linux
6 65 (29.02%) PowerShell
7 56 (25.00%) DevOps
8 55 (24.55%) VMware
9 52 (23.21%) Security Cleared
10 51 (22.77%) Docker
11 49 (21.88%) Firewall
12 45 (20.09%) DNS
13 44 (19.64%) VMware Infrastructure
14 42 (18.75%) DevSecOps
15 40 (17.86%) AWS
15 40 (17.86%) Kubernetes
16 38 (16.96%) Cybersecurity
17 37 (16.52%) Azure Active Directory
17 37 (16.52%) Windows Server
17 37 (16.52%) Infrastructure as Code
18 36 (16.07%) Python
19 34 (15.18%) Information Security
20 33 (14.73%) Agile Software Development
20 33 (14.73%) Unix
20 33 (14.73%) Problem-Solving
21 32 (14.29%) Microsoft 365
22 31 (13.84%) Windows Server 2012
22 31 (13.84%) SC Cleared
22 31 (13.84%) SQL
22 31 (13.84%) TCP/IP

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 12 (5.36%) MS Exchange
2 10 (4.46%) IIS
3 8 (3.57%) Confluence
4 7 (3.13%) SharePoint
5 3 (1.34%) Apache
6 2 (0.89%) Elasticsearch
6 2 (0.89%) Skype for Business
7 1 (0.45%) Apache Spark
7 1 (0.45%) Exchange Server 2013
7 1 (0.45%) JBoss
7 1 (0.45%) nginx
7 1 (0.45%) Tomcat
7 1 (0.45%) WebLogic
Applications
1 11 (4.91%) Microsoft Office
2 2 (0.89%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 1 (0.45%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.45%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 19 (8.48%) R3 Corda
2 6 (2.68%) Payment Gateway
3 3 (1.34%) Distributed Ledger
4 1 (0.45%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 91 (40.63%) Azure
2 40 (17.86%) AWS
3 37 (16.52%) Azure Active Directory
4 32 (14.29%) Microsoft 365
5 22 (9.82%) PaaS
6 20 (8.93%) IaaS
7 13 (5.80%) SaaS
8 6 (2.68%) Azure App Service
8 6 (2.68%) Azure Cosmos DB
8 6 (2.68%) Azure ExpressRoute
8 6 (2.68%) Azure Synapse Analytics
9 3 (1.34%) Akamai
9 3 (1.34%) Amazon CloudWatch
9 3 (1.34%) Amazon GuardDuty
9 3 (1.34%) Azure Sentinel
9 3 (1.34%) Cloud Computing
9 3 (1.34%) Google Workspace
10 2 (0.89%) Amazon EC2
10 2 (0.89%) OneDrive
10 2 (0.89%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 49 (21.88%) Firewall
2 45 (20.09%) DNS
3 31 (13.84%) TCP/IP
4 24 (10.71%) WAN
5 23 (10.27%) DHCP
6 21 (9.38%) VPN
7 18 (8.04%) SSL
8 17 (7.59%) LAN
8 17 (7.59%) Network Security
9 15 (6.70%) Intrusion Detection
10 8 (3.57%) Remote Desktop
11 7 (3.13%) Cisco IOS
11 7 (3.13%) Cisco ISE
11 7 (3.13%) HTTP
11 7 (3.13%) IPsec
12 6 (2.68%) Cisco ASA
13 5 (2.23%) Kerberos
14 3 (1.34%) ICMP
14 3 (1.34%) SNMP
14 3 (1.34%) X.509
Database & Business Intelligence
1 19 (8.48%) Blockchain
2 12 (5.36%) SQL Server
3 11 (4.91%) Big Data
4 9 (4.02%) MySQL
5 8 (3.57%) Amazon RDS
6 7 (3.13%) NoSQL
7 6 (2.68%) Azure SQL Database
7 6 (2.68%) MariaDB
7 6 (2.68%) MongoDB
8 5 (2.23%) Hadoop
9 4 (1.79%) Apache Accumulo
9 4 (1.79%) Relational Database
10 3 (1.34%) Oracle Database
10 3 (1.34%) Oracle Database 11g
11 2 (0.89%) Apache Cassandra
11 2 (0.89%) PostgreSQL
Development Applications
1 11 (4.91%) Jenkins
2 8 (3.57%) Git (software)
2 8 (3.57%) JIRA
3 5 (2.23%) Bitbucket
4 4 (1.79%) GitLab
5 2 (0.89%) Atlassian Bamboo
5 2 (0.89%) Oracle APEX
5 2 (0.89%) Subversion
5 2 (0.89%) Team Foundation Server
6 1 (0.45%) Automake
6 1 (0.45%) Cucumber
6 1 (0.45%) JUnit
6 1 (0.45%) Maven
6 1 (0.45%) Mockito
6 1 (0.45%) VSS/SourceSafe
General
1 27 (12.05%) Finance
2 17 (7.59%) Legal
3 8 (3.57%) Public Sector
4 5 (2.23%) Retail
4 5 (2.23%) Telecoms
5 4 (1.79%) Marketing
6 3 (1.34%) Electronics
6 3 (1.34%) Law
6 3 (1.34%) Manufacturing
6 3 (1.34%) Military
7 2 (0.89%) Aerospace
7 2 (0.89%) Back Office
7 2 (0.89%) Banking
7 2 (0.89%) Japanese Language
Job Titles
1 27 (12.05%) Security Engineer
2 22 (9.82%) Architect
3 15 (6.70%) Developer
4 14 (6.25%) Cryptography Engineer
5 13 (5.80%) Cybersecurity Engineer
5 13 (5.80%) Infrastructure Engineer
6 12 (5.36%) DevOps Engineer
6 12 (5.36%) Systems Engineer
7 11 (4.91%) Cloud Architect
8 10 (4.46%) Senior Developer
9 9 (4.02%) DevSecOps Engineer
10 8 (3.57%) Analyst
10 8 (3.57%) NOC Engineer
10 8 (3.57%) Windows Engineer
11 7 (3.13%) Active Directory Engineer
11 7 (3.13%) Security Architect
11 7 (3.13%) Solutions Architect
12 6 (2.68%) Administrator
12 6 (2.68%) Server Administrator
12 6 (2.68%) Tester
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 25 (11.16%) Kafka
2 13 (5.80%) HTML
2 13 (5.80%) REST
2 13 (5.80%) SOAP
3 11 (4.91%) CSS
3 11 (4.91%) LDAP
3 11 (4.91%) SAML
4 9 (4.02%) JSON
4 9 (4.02%) Web Services
5 8 (3.57%) LAMP
5 8 (3.57%) OpenID
6 7 (3.13%) SailPoint
6 7 (3.13%) XML
7 6 (2.68%) jQuery
8 5 (2.23%) AngularJS
8 5 (2.23%) RESTful
9 4 (1.79%) Apache NiFi
9 4 (1.79%) OAuth
9 4 (1.79%) React
9 4 (1.79%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 19 (8.48%) Data Centre
2 14 (6.25%) Algorithms
2 14 (6.25%) Public Cloud
3 13 (5.80%) Cloud Native
4 12 (5.36%) Management Information System
5 11 (4.91%) Private Cloud
6 10 (4.46%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
7 9 (4.02%) Analytical Skills
8 8 (3.57%) Hybrid Cloud
8 8 (3.57%) Self-Motivation
9 7 (3.13%) Mobile App
9 7 (3.13%) Organisational Skills
10 6 (2.68%) Cyberattack
10 6 (2.68%) Replication
11 4 (1.79%) Clustering
12 3 (1.34%) Client/Server
13 2 (0.89%) iPhone
14 1 (0.45%) Cyberthreat
14 1 (0.45%) HP Storage
14 1 (0.45%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 96 (42.86%) Windows
2 87 (38.84%) Linux
3 37 (16.52%) Windows Server
4 33 (14.73%) Unix
5 31 (13.84%) Windows Server 2012
6 23 (10.27%) Windows Server 2019
7 22 (9.82%) Windows Server 2016
8 15 (6.70%) Mac OS
9 14 (6.25%) Android
10 11 (4.91%) Windows Server 2008
11 9 (4.02%) Windows Server 2003
12 8 (3.57%) Apple iOS
12 8 (3.57%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 8 (3.57%) Windows 10
13 7 (3.13%) CentOS
13 7 (3.13%) Solaris
14 6 (2.68%) Mac OS X
15 3 (1.34%) MVS
16 1 (0.45%) Windows Mobile
16 1 (0.45%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 56 (25.00%) DevOps
2 42 (18.75%) DevSecOps
3 38 (16.96%) Cybersecurity
4 37 (16.52%) Infrastructure as Code
5 34 (15.18%) Information Security
6 33 (14.73%) Agile Software Development
6 33 (14.73%) Problem-Solving
7 29 (12.95%) SIEM
8 28 (12.50%) Continuous Improvement
9 27 (12.05%) Fintech
10 26 (11.61%) Identity Access Management
11 23 (10.27%) Information Assurance
11 23 (10.27%) Security Operations
12 22 (9.82%) Infrastructure Engineering
12 22 (9.82%) ITIL
13 20 (8.93%) Analytics
13 20 (8.93%) Validation
14 19 (8.48%) Vulnerability Scanning
15 17 (7.59%) Cryptography
15 17 (7.59%) Vulnerability Management
Programming Languages
1 65 (29.02%) PowerShell
2 36 (16.07%) Python
3 31 (13.84%) SQL
4 28 (12.50%) Bash Shell
5 17 (7.59%) Perl
6 15 (6.70%) Java
7 9 (4.02%) JavaScript
7 9 (4.02%) Shell Script
8 8 (3.57%) C
9 6 (2.68%) PHP
10 4 (1.79%) VB
11 3 (1.34%) PL/SQL
11 3 (1.34%) T-SQL
12 2 (0.89%) C#
12 2 (0.89%) Go
12 2 (0.89%) Kotlin
12 2 (0.89%) Ruby
12 2 (0.89%) Rust
12 2 (0.89%) Scala
13 1 (0.45%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 52 (23.21%) Security Cleared
2 31 (13.84%) SC Cleared
3 21 (9.38%) Microsoft Certification
4 15 (6.70%) DV Cleared
5 9 (4.02%) Cisco Certification
5 9 (4.02%) Degree
6 8 (3.57%) CCNA
7 7 (3.13%) SANS
8 6 (2.68%) CEPT
8 6 (2.68%) EC-Council LPT
8 6 (2.68%) GXPN
8 6 (2.68%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
8 6 (2.68%) OSCE
8 6 (2.68%) OSWP
9 5 (2.23%) CISSP
10 4 (1.79%) CESG Certified Professional
10 4 (1.79%) DBS Check
10 4 (1.79%) HNC
11 3 (1.34%) CISA
12 2 (0.89%) CISM
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 10 (4.46%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 8 (3.57%) PCI DSS
3 7 (3.13%) SLA
4 4 (1.79%) GDPR
4 4 (1.79%) NIST
4 4 (1.79%) QA
5 3 (1.34%) NCSC
5 3 (1.34%) NIST 800
6 1 (0.45%) COBIT
6 1 (0.45%) Cyber Essentials
6 1 (0.45%) HMG Security Policy Framework
System Software
1 102 (45.54%) Active Directory
2 51 (22.77%) Docker
3 44 (19.64%) VMware Infrastructure
4 19 (8.48%) VMware ESXi
5 8 (3.57%) BitLocker
5 8 (3.57%) Hyper-V
6 7 (3.13%) vSphere
6 7 (3.13%) XenApp
7 6 (2.68%) Terminal Services
8 5 (2.23%) Forefront TMG
8 5 (2.23%) VMware Workstation
9 4 (1.79%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 2 (0.89%) Virtual Machines
10 2 (0.89%) XenDesktop
11 1 (0.45%) KVM
11 1 (0.45%) NFS
11 1 (0.45%) Snort
11 1 (0.45%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 40 (17.86%) Kubernetes
2 22 (9.82%) Terraform
3 18 (8.04%) SCCM
4 16 (7.14%) Single Sign-On
5 13 (5.80%) Ansible
6 12 (5.36%) Microsoft Intune
6 12 (5.36%) SCOM
6 12 (5.36%) SCOrch
7 10 (4.46%) Microsoft Clustering
8 8 (3.57%) Jamf Pro
8 8 (3.57%) SCVMM
8 8 (3.57%) vCenter Server
9 6 (2.68%) Nessus
9 6 (2.68%) vRealize
10 5 (2.23%) Kibana
10 5 (2.23%) McAfee ePO
10 5 (2.23%) Prometheus
10 5 (2.23%) WSUS
11 4 (1.79%) Grafana
11 4 (1.79%) Puppet
Vendors
1 99 (44.20%) Microsoft
2 55 (24.55%) VMware
3 21 (9.38%) Cisco
4 14 (6.25%) Citrix
4 14 (6.25%) Gemalto
5 11 (4.91%) McAfee
6 9 (4.02%) F5
7 8 (3.57%) Red Hat
8 6 (2.68%) Apple
8 6 (2.68%) CA
8 6 (2.68%) Dell
8 6 (2.68%) Fortinet
8 6 (2.68%) IBM
8 6 (2.68%) Veeam
9 5 (2.23%) Atlassian
9 5 (2.23%) Google
10 4 (1.79%) EMC
10 4 (1.79%) Juniper
10 4 (1.79%) Oracle
10 4 (1.79%) SAP