Period
to

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term Cyber Defence in permanent job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Cyber Defence over the 6 months to 23 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Cyber Defence
UK
6 months to
23 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 558 824 745
Rank change year-on-year +266 -79 +261
Permanent jobs citing Cyber Defence 880 70 157
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.54% 0.076% 0.17%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.18% 0.20% 0.47%
Number of salaries quoted 104 47 102
10th Percentile £30,000 £44,750 £31,696
25th Percentile £35,000 £53,125 £38,623
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £65,000 £57,500
Median % change year-on-year -11.54% +13.04% +4.55%
75th Percentile £72,500 £73,125 £70,000
90th Percentile £88,375 £90,500 £77,375
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £57,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year -16.67% +8.57% +5.00%

Cyber Defence is in the General and Transferable Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 74,303 35,172 33,380
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 45.59% 38.29% 35.92%
Number of salaries quoted 32,259 23,633 26,305
10th Percentile £34,000 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £45,000 £42,500 £41,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,000 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +7.83% +4.55% +0.92%
75th Percentile £82,500 £77,500 £76,250
90th Percentile £101,250 £95,000 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £49,500 £47,500
% change year-on-year +6.06% +4.21% +5.56%

Cyber Defence
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Cyber Defence as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Cyber Defence in the UK

Cyber Defence
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Cyber Defence.

Salary trend for Cyber Defence in the UK

Cyber Defence
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Cyber Defence over the 6 months to 23 May 2022.

Salary histogram for Cyber Defence in the UK

Cyber Defence
Top 14 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Cyber Defence within the UK over the 6 months to 23 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
Work from Home +218 727 £55,000 -15.38% 1
England +208 669 £57,500 -13.21% 2
UK excluding London +259 565 £47,500 -16.67% 3
South East +135 256 £35,000 -31.71%
South West +100 151 £53,112 -1.19%
London -153 137 £72,500 +1.75%
North of England +12 99 £53,112 -7.63%
Yorkshire - 67 £55,000 -
East of England - 39 £70,000 -
North West -52 32 £53,112 -1.19%
Scotland -54 10 £85,000 +30.77%
Wales - 8 - - 1
West Midlands -50 6 - - 1
Midlands -73 6 - - 2

For the 6 months to 23 May 2022, IT jobs citing Cyber Defence also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Cyber Defence.

1 749 (85.11%) Finance
2 740 (84.09%) Inclusion and Diversity
3 737 (83.75%) Cyber Threat Intelligence
3 737 (83.75%) Threat Intelligence
4 735 (83.52%) Cyberattack
5 390 (44.32%) Security Cleared
6 379 (43.07%) Agile
7 336 (38.18%) Python
8 313 (35.57%) Java
9 307 (34.89%) Software Engineering
10 262 (29.77%) SC Cleared
11 254 (28.86%) Cybersecurity
11 254 (28.86%) Digital Transformation Programme
12 246 (27.95%) Public Sector
13 243 (27.61%) Cybercrime
14 242 (27.50%) Project Management
15 233 (26.48%) AWS
16 230 (26.14%) Linux
17 225 (25.57%) Social Skills
18 205 (23.30%) Docker
19 187 (21.25%) Test Automation
20 185 (21.02%) JavaScript
21 180 (20.45%) React
22 174 (19.77%) Ansible
23 167 (18.98%) Problem-Solving
24 147 (16.70%) Git (software)
25 142 (16.14%) Law
26 135 (15.34%) Bash
27 133 (15.11%) Azure
27 133 (15.11%) Continuous Integration

Cyber Defence
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 46 (5.23%) Confluence
2 42 (4.77%) Elasticsearch
3 40 (4.55%) Apache
4 19 (2.16%) Apache Spark
4 19 (2.16%) OpenStack
5 18 (2.05%) SharePoint
6 16 (1.82%) JBoss
6 16 (1.82%) WebSphere
7 14 (1.59%) WebSphere Application Server
8 12 (1.36%) Jetty
8 12 (1.36%) Tomcat
9 6 (0.68%) nginx
9 6 (0.68%) WildFly
10 2 (0.23%) MS Exchange
10 2 (0.23%) SAS
10 2 (0.23%) WebLogic
11 1 (0.11%) IIS
Applications
1 16 (1.82%) Microsoft Office
2 14 (1.59%) Microsoft Excel
2 14 (1.59%) MS Visio
3 10 (1.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 7 (0.80%) Photoshop
5 1 (0.11%) AutoCAD
5 1 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 11 (1.25%) Sentinel
2 7 (0.80%) SAP BPC
Cloud Services
1 233 (26.48%) AWS
2 133 (15.11%) Azure
3 38 (4.32%) AWS CloudFormation
4 28 (3.18%) Amazon ECS
4 28 (3.18%) OpenShift
5 19 (2.16%) Microsoft 365
5 19 (2.16%) PaaS
6 17 (1.93%) Cloud Computing
7 16 (1.82%) IaaS
8 13 (1.48%) Azure Machine Learning
9 12 (1.36%) Azure Active Directory
10 10 (1.14%) Amazon CloudWatch
10 10 (1.14%) Amazon MSK
10 10 (1.14%) AWS CloudTrail
11 7 (0.80%) SaaS
11 7 (0.80%) SuccessFactors
12 5 (0.57%) Azure Sentinel
12 5 (0.57%) GCP
13 4 (0.45%) Serverless
14 3 (0.34%) Amazon GuardDuty
Communications & Networking
1 61 (6.93%) TCP/IP
2 50 (5.68%) Firewall
3 49 (5.57%) Wireless
4 46 (5.23%) tcpdump
4 46 (5.23%) Wireshark
5 45 (5.11%) DHCP
6 43 (4.89%) Network Security
7 39 (4.43%) SNA
8 37 (4.20%) HTTP
8 37 (4.20%) SSL
9 34 (3.86%) IMAP
9 34 (3.86%) Reverse Proxy
10 28 (3.18%) Software-Defined Networking
11 21 (2.39%) Intrusion Detection
12 20 (2.27%) Software-Defined Radio
13 14 (1.59%) DNS
13 14 (1.59%) VoIP
14 9 (1.02%) NAS
14 9 (1.02%) SAN
14 9 (1.02%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 123 (13.98%) Big Data
2 44 (5.00%) NoSQL
3 41 (4.66%) Hadoop
3 41 (4.66%) PostgreSQL
4 33 (3.75%) MySQL
5 30 (3.41%) Metadata
6 20 (2.27%) GIS
7 19 (2.16%) InfluxDB
8 15 (1.70%) MongoDB
9 11 (1.25%) SQL Server
10 10 (1.14%) Amazon Aurora
10 10 (1.14%) Amazon RDS
11 9 (1.02%) Data Warehouse
11 9 (1.02%) Geospatial Data
12 8 (0.91%) HBase
12 8 (0.91%) Oracle ODI
13 7 (0.80%) BusinessObjects
14 4 (0.45%) Relational Database
15 2 (0.23%) RDBMS
16 1 (0.11%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 147 (16.70%) Git (software)
2 79 (8.98%) JIRA
3 57 (6.48%) Jenkins
4 34 (3.86%) Zephyr
5 26 (2.95%) GDB
6 19 (2.16%) Maven
6 19 (2.16%) Subversion
7 16 (1.82%) Bitbucket
8 14 (1.59%) Atlassian Bamboo
8 14 (1.59%) TeamCity
9 13 (1.48%) Cucumber
9 13 (1.48%) Mercurial
9 13 (1.48%) SonarQube
10 12 (1.36%) Sonatype Nexus
11 11 (1.25%) NUnit
12 10 (1.14%) Artifactory
13 8 (0.91%) IDA Disassembler
14 7 (0.80%) Bundler
14 7 (0.80%) REST Assured
14 7 (0.80%) TestNG
General
1 749 (85.11%) Finance
2 740 (84.09%) Inclusion and Diversity
3 246 (27.95%) Public Sector
4 225 (25.57%) Social Skills
5 142 (16.14%) Law
6 92 (10.45%) Analytical Skills
7 72 (8.18%) Telecoms
8 55 (6.25%) Marketing
9 50 (5.68%) Banking
10 48 (5.45%) Police
11 33 (3.75%) Influencing Skills
12 30 (3.41%) Military
13 25 (2.84%) Financial Institution
14 22 (2.50%) Manufacturing
15 18 (2.05%) Electronics
16 16 (1.82%) Legal
17 12 (1.36%) Aerospace
18 7 (0.80%) Back Office
18 7 (0.80%) Presentation Skills
19 4 (0.45%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 198 (22.50%) Software Engineer
2 80 (9.09%) Architect
3 78 (8.86%) Security Engineer
4 72 (8.18%) Developer
5 53 (6.02%) Systems Engineer
6 45 (5.11%) Analyst
7 42 (4.77%) Solutions Architect
8 40 (4.55%) Consultant
9 36 (4.09%) DevOps Engineer
9 36 (4.09%) Lead Software Engineer
10 35 (3.98%) Java Developer
11 33 (3.75%) Infrastructure Engineer
11 33 (3.75%) Software Developer
12 32 (3.64%) Software Test Engineer
12 32 (3.64%) Test Engineer
13 30 (3.41%) Cloud Engineer
13 30 (3.41%) Technical Leader
14 29 (3.30%) Data Engineer
15 28 (3.18%) Tester
16 25 (2.84%) Security Consultant
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 180 (20.45%) React
2 84 (9.55%) HTML
3 78 (8.86%) Kafka
4 62 (7.05%) Node.js
5 59 (6.70%) Apache NiFi
6 56 (6.36%) HTML5
7 48 (5.45%) CSS
8 45 (5.11%) Spring
9 36 (4.09%) Redux
10 34 (3.86%) AngularJS
11 31 (3.52%) Keycloak
12 30 (3.41%) REST
13 29 (3.30%) Apache Camel
14 28 (3.18%) TensorFlow
15 25 (2.84%) Spring Boot
16 24 (2.73%) .NET
17 22 (2.50%) CSS3
18 19 (2.16%) Elastic Stack
18 19 (2.16%) jQuery
19 18 (2.05%) Apache Flex
Miscellaneous
1 735 (83.52%) Cyberattack
2 243 (27.61%) Cybercrime
3 89 (10.11%) Cyberthreat
4 69 (7.84%) Management Information System
5 47 (5.34%) Smartphone
6 45 (5.11%) Linux Command Line
7 40 (4.55%) Social Media
8 39 (4.43%) Social Network
9 37 (4.20%) User Experience
10 36 (4.09%) FPGA
11 31 (3.52%) Embedded Systems
12 30 (3.41%) Self-Motivation
13 28 (3.18%) Cloud Native
14 26 (2.95%) Security Operations Centre
15 25 (2.84%) Replication
16 22 (2.50%) Public Cloud
17 20 (2.27%) Data Centre
18 16 (1.82%) Acoustics
18 16 (1.82%) VHDL
19 14 (1.59%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 230 (26.14%) Linux
2 110 (12.50%) Windows
3 38 (4.32%) Android
4 28 (3.18%) CentOS
5 26 (2.95%) Windows Server
6 21 (2.39%) Ubuntu
7 20 (2.27%) Unix
8 15 (1.70%) Apple iOS
9 12 (1.36%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 11 (1.25%) Kali Linux
11 9 (1.02%) VMS
12 7 (0.80%) Mac OS
12 7 (0.80%) Windows 10
12 7 (0.80%) Windows Phone
13 6 (0.68%) Windows Server 2012
14 4 (0.45%) Embedded Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 737 (83.75%) Cyber Threat Intelligence
1 737 (83.75%) Threat Intelligence
2 379 (43.07%) Agile
3 307 (34.89%) Software Engineering
4 254 (28.86%) Cybersecurity
4 254 (28.86%) Digital Transformation Programme
5 242 (27.50%) Project Management
6 187 (21.25%) Test Automation
7 167 (18.98%) Problem-Solving
8 133 (15.11%) Continuous Integration
9 132 (15.00%) Scrum
10 129 (14.66%) DevOps
11 122 (13.86%) CI/CD
12 114 (12.95%) Coaching
13 113 (12.84%) Mentoring
14 104 (11.82%) Artificial Intelligence
15 98 (11.14%) Open Source
16 97 (11.02%) Software Testing
17 96 (10.91%) Decision-Making
18 93 (10.57%) SIEM
Programming Languages
1 336 (38.18%) Python
2 313 (35.57%) Java
3 185 (21.02%) JavaScript
4 135 (15.34%) Bash
5 123 (13.98%) C++
6 86 (9.77%) TypeScript
7 60 (6.82%) Scala
8 55 (6.25%) C
9 49 (5.57%) Groovy
10 48 (5.45%) Go
11 45 (5.11%) SQL
12 39 (4.43%) C#
13 38 (4.32%) Shell Script
14 33 (3.75%) MATLAB
15 20 (2.27%) Ruby
16 17 (1.93%) PowerShell
16 17 (1.93%) R
17 16 (1.82%) Perl
18 6 (0.68%) ES6
18 6 (0.68%) Tcl
Qualifications
1 390 (44.32%) Security Cleared
2 262 (29.77%) SC Cleared
3 80 (9.09%) Degree
4 41 (4.66%) PhD
5 38 (4.32%) ISTQB
5 38 (4.32%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
5 38 (4.32%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 30 (3.41%) CISSP
7 28 (3.18%) AWS Certification
8 15 (1.70%) DV Cleared
9 13 (1.48%) Cisco Certification
9 13 (1.48%) SANS
10 12 (1.36%) GCIH
11 11 (1.25%) CREST Certified
11 11 (1.25%) OSCP
12 10 (1.14%) GIAC
13 9 (1.02%) CISM
14 7 (0.80%) CCA
14 7 (0.80%) GCFA
14 7 (0.80%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 71 (8.07%) QA
2 23 (2.61%) Accessibility
3 21 (2.39%) NIST
4 19 (2.16%) NCSC
5 17 (1.93%) ECSS
6 14 (1.59%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 13 (1.48%) Data Quality
8 7 (0.80%) Cyber Essentials
8 7 (0.80%) GRC
9 6 (0.68%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
9 6 (0.68%) GDPR
10 3 (0.34%) PCI DSS
10 3 (0.34%) SOC 2
11 1 (0.11%) ISO 14001
11 1 (0.11%) ISO 9001
11 1 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 1 (0.11%) SLA
System Software
1 205 (23.30%) Docker
2 74 (8.41%) Active Directory
3 58 (6.59%) VMware Infrastructure
4 39 (4.43%) Firmware
5 28 (3.18%) vSphere
6 24 (2.73%) Virtual Machines
7 23 (2.61%) VMware ESXi
8 12 (1.36%) KVM
8 12 (1.36%) Xen
9 9 (1.02%) BitLocker
10 6 (0.68%) XenApp
10 6 (0.68%) XenDesktop
11 4 (0.45%) Postfix
12 2 (0.23%) Snort
Systems Management
1 174 (19.77%) Ansible
2 79 (8.98%) Kubernetes
3 63 (7.16%) Terraform
4 57 (6.48%) Puppet
5 40 (4.55%) Opscode Chef
6 34 (3.86%) Docker Swarm
6 34 (3.86%) HP ALM
7 29 (3.30%) Grafana
8 22 (2.50%) vCenter Server
9 18 (2.05%) Single Sign-On
10 14 (1.59%) Prometheus
11 13 (1.48%) Kibana
12 12 (1.36%) logstash
12 12 (1.36%) yum
13 10 (1.14%) Sysdig
14 9 (1.02%) Nagios
15 7 (0.80%) CSIRT
16 4 (0.45%) Pacemaker
16 4 (0.45%) Podman
17 3 (0.34%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
Vendors
1 72 (8.18%) Atlassian
1 72 (8.18%) VMware
2 64 (7.27%) Microsoft
3 49 (5.57%) HP
4 48 (5.45%) Splunk
5 45 (5.11%) Perforce
6 30 (3.41%) Oracle
7 25 (2.84%) Red Hat
8 19 (2.16%) Cisco
8 19 (2.16%) CrowdStrike
9 17 (1.93%) Google
10 16 (1.82%) Veeam
11 15 (1.70%) Dell
12 14 (1.59%) Sophos
13 9 (1.02%) ArcSight
13 9 (1.02%) SolarWinds
13 9 (1.02%) Symantec
13 9 (1.02%) T-Plan
14 8 (0.91%) Ab Initio
14 8 (0.91%) Informatica