The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for QA skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited QA over the 3 months to 29 March 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Quality Assurance (QA)
UK
3 months to
29 Mar 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 60 61 59
Rank change year-on-year +1 -2  
Permanent jobs citing QA 4185 4903 4950
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 4.90% 4.70% 4.62%
As % of the Quality Assurance & Compliance category 40.45% 35.70% 36.81%
Number of salaries quoted 3261 3959 3883
Median salary £48,500 £45,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +7.77% -  
90% offered a salary of more than £30,000 £30,000 £30,000
10% offered a salary of more than £70,000 £70,000 £67,500
UK excluding London median salary £40,000 £40,000 £40,000

QA is in the quality assurance and compliance skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for quality assurance and compliance skills.

Quality Assurance & Compliance Skills
UK
Permanent job vacancies with a requirement for quality assurance and compliance skills 10345 13734 13449
As % of all permanent IT job vacancies advertised in the UK 12.11% 13.15% 12.56%
Number of salaries quoted 8152 10858 10403
Median salary £48,500 £50,000 £46,500
Median salary % change year-on-year -3.00% +7.52%  
90% offered a salary of more than £28,500 £29,400 £27,500
10% offered a salary of more than £75,000 £72,500 £72,500
UK excluding London median salary £42,500 £44,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year -4.49% +4.70%  

QA
Job Vacancy Trend

The job posting trend of jobs advertised citing QA as a proportion of all permanent or contract IT jobs with a match in the Quality Assurance & Compliance category.

Job vacancy trend for QA in the UK

QA
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing QA.

Salary trend for QA in the UK

QA
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing QA over the 3 months to 29 March 2017.

Salary histogram for QA in the UK

QA
Top 30 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing QA within the UK over the 3 months to 29 March 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Last 3 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 4028 £50,000 +8.69% 541
London +13 2018 £57,500 +4.54% 249
South East +4 699 £40,000 -5.88% 97
East of England -5 278 £45,000 +2.27% 37
City of London -1 265 £55,000 -4.34% 62
North West -3 253 £35,000 -12.50% 47
West Midlands +21 233 £38,875 -8.52% 25
Yorkshire -8 189 £40,000 +6.66% 27
Manchester -2 186 £37,500 -6.25% 30
South West -8 184 £42,500 +6.25% 27
Berkshire +1 170 £42,500 -10.52% 15
Surrey +20 150 £46,000 +2.22% 22
East Midlands +10 149 £37,500 - 21
West Yorkshire +5 131 £42,500 +11.84% 20
Leeds +18 107 £42,500 +11.84% 15
Birmingham +22 102 £35,000 -12.50% 13
Hertfordshire +10 96 £45,000 - 9
Hampshire -25 90 £40,000 - 26
Bristol -3 78 £47,500 +18.75% 12
Buckinghamshire +34 76 £37,500 - 10
Oxfordshire -1 76 £34,750 -18.23% 9
Leicestershire +36 69 £35,000 -6.66% 5
Reading +40 66 £50,000 +11.11% 6
Milton Keynes +44 65 £37,500 -16.66% 5
Nottinghamshire +10 65 £50,000 +33.33% 10
Leicester +28 52 £35,000 +12.00% 3
Cambridgeshire -31 52 £45,000 -5.26% 15
Scotland -16 50 £35,000 -6.66% 4
Nottingham +3 46 £50,000 +33.33% 9
Essex -4 46 £47,500 -17.39% 4

For the 6 months to 29 March 2017, IT jobs citing QA also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all job ads with a requirement for QA.

1 4579 (55.39%) Agile Software Development
2 2131 (25.78%) Selenium
3 2077 (25.12%) SQL
4 2053 (24.83%) Java
5 1983 (23.99%) Finance
6 1594 (19.28%) C#
7 1556 (18.82%) Scrum
8 1335 (16.15%) JavaScript
9 1328 (16.06%) TDD
10 1324 (16.02%) .NET
11 1275 (15.42%) Degree
12 1245 (15.06%) Microsoft
13 1229 (14.87%) Test Automation
14 1201 (14.53%) BDD
15 1069 (12.93%) SDLC
16 1022 (12.36%) Automated Testing
17 963 (11.65%) Test Scripting
18 956 (11.56%) SQL Server
19 944 (11.42%) HTML
20 943 (11.41%) Software Testing
21 940 (11.37%) Continuous Integration
22 867 (10.49%) Cucumber
23 854 (10.33%) Software Engineering
24 852 (10.31%) JIRA
25 846 (10.23%) Test Strategy
26 828 (10.02%) Linux
27 819 (9.91%) Analytical Skills
28 818 (9.89%) WebDriver
29 803 (9.71%) Automation Testing
30 798 (9.65%) Project Management

QA
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 198 (2.40%) CMS
2 193 (2.33%) Confluence
3 159 (1.92%) Tomcat
4 157 (1.90%) Apache
5 141 (1.71%) IIS
6 120 (1.45%) SharePoint
7 84 (1.02%) Elasticsearch
8 82 (0.99%) EPiServer
9 81 (0.98%) Apache Spark
10 72 (0.87%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 67 (0.81%) JBoss
11 67 (0.81%) WebSphere
12 58 (0.70%) nginx
13 57 (0.69%) BizTalk Server
13 57 (0.69%) SAS
14 39 (0.47%) Sitecore CMS
14 39 (0.47%) WordPress
15 38 (0.46%) WebLogic
16 32 (0.39%) Drupal
17 29 (0.35%) MQSeries
Applications
1 659 (7.97%) MS Excel
2 243 (2.94%) MS Office
3 117 (1.42%) MS Project
4 101 (1.22%) MS Visio
5 87 (1.05%) MS PowerPoint
6 42 (0.51%) Photoshop
7 15 (0.18%) Spreadsheet
8 10 (0.12%) Adobe Illustrator
9 6 (0.073%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 6 (0.073%) SPSS
10 5 (0.060%) FrameMaker
10 5 (0.060%) OmniGraffle
11 4 (0.048%) Acrobat
11 4 (0.048%) Fireworks
11 4 (0.048%) InfoPath
11 4 (0.048%) Snagit
12 2 (0.024%) Adobe Premiere
12 2 (0.024%) Autodesk Inventor
12 2 (0.024%) InDesign
12 2 (0.024%) Maya
Business Applications
1 74 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
2 52 (0.63%) Magento
3 39 (0.47%) Dynamics AX
4 25 (0.30%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 20 (0.24%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 17 (0.21%) SAP R/3
7 15 (0.18%) Oracle ERP
7 15 (0.18%) SAP FI
8 14 (0.17%) assyst
8 14 (0.17%) Oracle EBS
8 14 (0.17%) SAP CRM
8 14 (0.17%) Sentinel
9 13 (0.16%) Dynamics NAV
10 10 (0.12%) Infor M3
11 9 (0.11%) Infor CloudSuite
11 9 (0.11%) Oracle EBS R12
11 9 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
12 8 (0.097%) Northgate Housing
12 8 (0.097%) SAP FI/CO
12 8 (0.097%) Sonata
Cloud Services
1 421 (5.09%) Amazon AWS
2 352 (4.26%) Microsoft Azure
3 310 (3.75%) SaaS
4 123 (1.49%) GitHub
5 91 (1.10%) Amazon EC2
6 68 (0.82%) IaaS
7 65 (0.79%) Cloud Computing
7 65 (0.79%) PaaS
8 58 (0.70%) Google Cloud Platform
9 46 (0.56%) Amazon S3
10 39 (0.47%) Office 365
11 38 (0.46%) Google Play
12 36 (0.44%) AWS CloudFormation
13 35 (0.42%) Amazon CloudWatch
14 33 (0.40%) Amazon SQS
15 27 (0.33%) Azure Active Directory
16 24 (0.29%) Force.com
17 19 (0.23%) OpenShift
18 18 (0.22%) AWS Lambda
19 17 (0.21%) SuccessFactors
Communications & Networking
1 214 (2.59%) Internet
2 166 (2.01%) HTTP
3 128 (1.55%) TCP/IP
4 81 (0.98%) Intranet
5 70 (0.85%) Firewall
6 41 (0.50%) VPN
7 36 (0.44%) SAN
8 35 (0.42%) LDAP
9 32 (0.39%) Network Security
10 30 (0.36%) LAN
11 28 (0.34%) DNS
12 27 (0.33%) SSL
12 27 (0.33%) Wireless
13 25 (0.30%) WAN
14 22 (0.27%) VoIP
15 21 (0.25%) HTTPS
16 19 (0.23%) Kerberos
17 18 (0.22%) DHCP
18 17 (0.21%) FTP
18 17 (0.21%) Multicast
Database & Business Intelligence
1 956 (11.56%) SQL Server
2 347 (4.20%) MySQL
3 325 (3.93%) Relational Database
4 275 (3.33%) NoSQL
5 259 (3.13%) Data Warehouse
6 251 (3.04%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 233 (2.82%) Big Data
8 208 (2.52%) MongoDB
9 180 (2.18%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 153 (1.85%) Hadoop
11 133 (1.61%) SQL Server 2008
12 107 (1.29%) Oracle Database
13 93 (1.12%) RDBMS
14 88 (1.06%) Apache Cassandra
15 87 (1.05%) SQL Server 2014
16 85 (1.03%) SQL Server 2012
17 84 (1.02%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 81 (0.98%) PostgreSQL
19 62 (0.75%) HBase
20 60 (0.73%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 2131 (25.78%) Selenium
2 867 (10.49%) Cucumber
3 852 (10.31%) JIRA
4 818 (9.89%) WebDriver
5 671 (8.12%) Git (software)
6 514 (6.22%) Jenkins
7 456 (5.52%) Team Foundation Server
8 413 (5.00%) Visual Studio
9 336 (4.06%) JUnit
10 331 (4.00%) SoapUI
11 267 (3.23%) JMeter
12 262 (3.17%) SpecFlow
13 242 (2.93%) Subversion
14 238 (2.88%) Maven
15 225 (2.72%) Appium
16 209 (2.53%) HP UFT
17 191 (2.31%) TeamCity
18 136 (1.65%) Calabash
19 133 (1.61%) Atlassian Bamboo
20 115 (1.39%) NUnit
General
1 1983 (23.99%) Finance
2 515 (6.23%) Retail
3 489 (5.92%) Banking
4 329 (3.98%) Marketing
5 234 (2.83%) Telecoms
6 216 (2.61%) Games
7 141 (1.71%) Manufacturing
8 136 (1.65%) Front Office
9 106 (1.28%) Publishing
10 103 (1.25%) Advertising
10 103 (1.25%) Legal
11 89 (1.08%) Automotive
12 88 (1.06%) Investment Banking
13 87 (1.05%) Back Office
14 86 (1.04%) Financial Institution
15 68 (0.82%) Law
16 43 (0.52%) Electronics
17 37 (0.45%) Billing
18 36 (0.44%) Pharmaceutical
19 33 (0.40%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 1623 (19.63%) Analyst
2 1559 (18.86%) Developer
3 987 (11.94%) Tester
4 980 (11.85%) QA Engineer
5 829 (10.03%) Test Analyst
6 627 (7.58%) Test Engineer
7 621 (7.51%) QA Analyst
8 611 (7.39%) QA Tester
9 460 (5.56%) Automation Tester
10 389 (4.71%) QA Test Analyst
11 365 (4.42%) .NET Developer
12 345 (4.17%) QA Automation Engineer
13 332 (4.02%) QA Leader
14 320 (3.87%) Java Developer
15 315 (3.81%) Project Manager
16 308 (3.73%) C# Developer
17 304 (3.68%) Business Analyst
18 297 (3.59%) QA Test Engineer
18 297 (3.59%) Senior Developer
19 287 (3.47%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1324 (16.02%) .NET
2 944 (11.42%) HTML
3 785 (9.50%) Web Services
4 734 (8.88%) CSS
5 659 (7.97%) XML
6 509 (6.16%) ASP.NET
7 410 (4.96%) HTML5
8 342 (4.14%) AngularJS
9 335 (4.05%) REST
10 303 (3.67%) SOAP
11 275 (3.33%) RESTful
12 271 (3.28%) jQuery
13 265 (3.21%) Gherkin
14 253 (3.06%) .NET Framework
15 249 (3.01%) Spring
16 228 (2.76%) JSON
17 217 (2.62%) CSS3
18 200 (2.42%) ASP.NET MVC
19 197 (2.38%) Node.js
20 163 (1.97%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 819 (9.91%) Analytical Skills
2 686 (8.30%) Computer Science
3 516 (6.24%) Mobile App
4 491 (5.94%) User Experience
5 274 (3.31%) Management Information System
6 228 (2.76%) Fintech
7 146 (1.77%) Enterprise Software
8 138 (1.67%) Data Centre
8 138 (1.67%) iPad
9 126 (1.52%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 122 (1.48%) Client/Server
11 116 (1.40%) Virtual Team
12 99 (1.20%) Fixed Income
13 93 (1.12%) Data Structures
14 87 (1.05%) Equities
15 84 (1.02%) Derivative
16 72 (0.87%) Algorithms
17 68 (0.82%) Digital Media
18 57 (0.69%) N-Tier
19 46 (0.56%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 828 (10.02%) Linux
2 664 (8.03%) Windows
3 428 (5.18%) Unix
4 385 (4.66%) Android
5 348 (4.21%) Apple iOS
6 108 (1.31%) Windows Server
7 53 (0.64%) Windows 7
8 51 (0.62%) Windows Server 2012
9 46 (0.56%) Windows Server 2008
10 36 (0.44%) Mac OS X
11 34 (0.41%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 32 (0.39%) CentOS
13 31 (0.37%) Windows 10
14 29 (0.35%) Ubuntu
15 28 (0.34%) Debian
15 28 (0.34%) Solaris
16 23 (0.28%) Windows 8
17 18 (0.22%) Windows Phone
18 14 (0.17%) Windows XP
19 9 (0.11%) Embedded Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 4579 (55.39%) Agile Software Development
2 1556 (18.82%) Scrum
3 1328 (16.06%) TDD
4 1229 (14.87%) Test Automation
5 1201 (14.53%) BDD
6 1069 (12.93%) SDLC
7 1022 (12.36%) Automated Testing
8 963 (11.65%) Test Scripting
9 943 (11.41%) Software Testing
10 940 (11.37%) Continuous Integration
11 854 (10.33%) Software Engineering
12 846 (10.23%) Test Strategy
13 803 (9.71%) Automation Testing
14 798 (9.65%) Project Management
15 779 (9.42%) User Acceptance Testing
16 755 (9.13%) E-Commerce
17 735 (8.89%) Regression Testing
18 695 (8.41%) Manual Testing
19 667 (8.07%) Functional Testing
20 640 (7.74%) DevOps
Programming Languages
1 2077 (25.12%) SQL
2 2053 (24.83%) Java
3 1594 (19.28%) C#
4 1335 (16.15%) JavaScript
5 780 (9.44%) Python
6 426 (5.15%) Ruby
7 327 (3.96%) PHP
8 291 (3.52%) C++
9 240 (2.90%) T-SQL
10 222 (2.69%) Bash Shell
11 212 (2.56%) C
12 201 (2.43%) Perl
13 190 (2.30%) Scala
14 162 (1.96%) PL/SQL
15 152 (1.84%) VB.NET
16 140 (1.69%) PowerShell
17 133 (1.61%) Shell Script
18 89 (1.08%) VB
19 84 (1.02%) XPath
20 81 (0.98%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 1275 (15.42%) Degree
2 725 (8.77%) ISTQB
3 699 (8.46%) ISEB
4 230 (2.78%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
5 84 (1.02%) Security Cleared
6 79 (0.96%) PMP
7 67 (0.81%) Microsoft Certification
8 66 (0.80%) PMI Certification
9 65 (0.79%) SC Cleared
10 61 (0.74%) ITIL Certification
11 43 (0.52%) PRINCE2 Certification
12 42 (0.51%) MBA
13 36 (0.44%) APMP
14 35 (0.42%) Cisco Certification
15 34 (0.41%) CCNA
15 34 (0.41%) MCP
16 32 (0.39%) CISSP
17 31 (0.37%) PhD
18 29 (0.35%) AWS Certification
19 25 (0.30%) PRINCE2 Practitioner
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 213 (2.58%) SDET
2 171 (2.07%) PMO
3 148 (1.79%) SLA
4 77 (0.93%) PCI DSS
5 52 (0.63%) Data Quality
6 47 (0.57%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 35 (0.42%) ISO 9001
8 19 (0.23%) HL7
8 19 (0.23%) MiFID
9 17 (0.21%) Cyber Essentials
10 15 (0.18%) ISO 14001
11 14 (0.17%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
12 13 (0.16%) P3O
13 12 (0.15%) COBIT
13 12 (0.15%) Sarbanes-Oxley
14 9 (0.11%) ISO 9000
15 6 (0.073%) WCAG
16 5 (0.060%) GDPR
16 5 (0.060%) ISO22301
16 5 (0.060%) SSAE 16
System Software
1 176 (2.13%) Docker
2 100 (1.21%) VMware Infrastructure
3 97 (1.17%) Active Directory
4 42 (0.51%) Virtual Machines
5 35 (0.42%) vSphere
6 23 (0.28%) XenApp
7 18 (0.22%) Hyper-V
7 18 (0.22%) Microsoft App-V
8 17 (0.21%) Firmware
8 17 (0.21%) XenDesktop
9 13 (0.16%) HDFS
10 11 (0.13%) VirtualBox
11 9 (0.11%) BlackBerry Internet Service
11 9 (0.11%) vCloud
11 9 (0.11%) VMware ESX
12 7 (0.085%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 6 (0.073%) KVM
13 6 (0.073%) Oracle RAC
14 5 (0.060%) LXC
14 5 (0.060%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 157 (1.90%) HP Quality Center
2 149 (1.80%) Puppet
3 128 (1.55%) Opscode Chef
4 122 (1.48%) Ansible
5 46 (0.56%) SCCM
6 37 (0.45%) Kubernetes
6 37 (0.45%) Nagios
7 23 (0.28%) Kibana
8 19 (0.23%) SELinux
9 16 (0.19%) Rancher
10 15 (0.18%) Grafana
10 15 (0.18%) Terraform
11 12 (0.15%) StatsD
12 11 (0.13%) Mesos
13 10 (0.12%) CloudHub
13 10 (0.12%) Oracle RMAN
14 9 (0.11%) logstash
14 9 (0.11%) McAfee ePO
14 9 (0.11%) Salt
14 9 (0.11%) WebSphere Cast Iron
Vendors
1 1245 (15.06%) Microsoft
2 611 (7.39%) Oracle
3 203 (2.46%) SAP
4 171 (2.07%) HP
5 155 (1.87%) Google
6 128 (1.55%) VMware
7 112 (1.35%) Salesforce.com
8 111 (1.34%) Red Hat
9 87 (1.05%) Atlassian
10 84 (1.02%) Cisco
11 83 (1.00%) Cognizant
12 78 (0.94%) Sun
13 73 (0.88%) IBM
14 61 (0.74%) Citrix
15 59 (0.71%) Tableau
16 58 (0.70%) Adobe
17 51 (0.62%) Siebel
18 49 (0.59%) Apple
18 49 (0.59%) hybris
18 49 (0.59%) Sitecore
Greater Manchester
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Salary: £25000 - £30000 per annum
Posted: 4 hours ago
Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
Computer People
Salary: £50000.00 per annum
Posted: 5 hours ago
Kent
Exposed Solutions
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum
Posted: 6 hours ago
City, London
Understanding Recruitment
Salary: £35000.00 - £45000.00 per annum + benefits
Posted: 11 hours ago
West London
Amicus Recruitment Limited
Salary: £30000 - £40000 per annum + Pension + health
Posted: 7 hours ago
London
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Salary: £180 - £200 per day
Posted: 7 hours ago
Billericay, Essex
Senitor Associates
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + Gym, Health Care & Benefits
Posted: 2 hours ago
South East London
Good & Co
Salary: Competitive Salary plus Generous Benefits
Posted: 8 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
ECM Selection
Salary: to £40,000 DoE + top benefits
Posted: 7 hours ago
Watford, Hertfordshire
Empiric.com
Salary: From £45,000 to £50,000 per annum + Benefits and Bonus
Posted: 11 hours ago
London
Exposed Solutions
Salary: £40000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: 2 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 40k-50k + benefits
Posted: 11 hours ago
Swansea, West Glamorgan
Experis Ltd
Salary: £37428.00 - £60649.00 per annum
Posted: 4 hours ago
Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire
set2recruit
Salary: Up to £35,000 per annum
Posted: 11 hours ago
London
Capita Resourcing - IT Resourcing
Salary: £50000 - £65000 per annum
Posted: 4 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Exposed Solutions
Salary: £45000 - £50000 per annum
Posted: 2 hours ago
East London
Ventula Consulting Ltd
Salary: From £50,000 to £55,000 per annum + excellent package
Posted: 3 hours ago
City, London
Brightred Resourcing Limited
Salary: From £70,000 to £75,000 per annum plus bonus and benefits
Posted: 2 hours ago
London
Empiric.com
Salary: From £50,000 to £55,000 per annum + Benefits & Bonus
Posted: 11 hours ago
London
KPRS
Salary: From £40,000 to £50,000 per annum £40k - £50k + benefits
Posted: 8 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 40k-50k + benefits
Posted: 11 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
4it Recruitment Ltd
Salary: Up to £35,000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: Yesterday
North West London
Spencer Rose
Salary: From £30,000 to £40,000 per annum Bonus + Benefits Package
Posted: 2 days ago
Altrincham, Cheshire
Cloudscope
Salary: From £40,000 to £55,000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Rullion
Salary: £30000 - £37000 per annum
Posted: 2 days ago
St. Helens, Merseyside
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + excellent benefits
Posted: 10 hours ago
North West
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + excellent benefits
Posted: 10 hours ago
Warrington, Cheshire
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + excellent benefits
Posted: 10 hours ago
Leigh, Lancashire
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + excellent benefits
Posted: 10 hours ago
Wigan, Lancashire
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £35000 - £40000 per annum + excellent benefits
Posted: 10 hours ago