Period
to 18 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 18 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK > England
6 months to
18 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 397 411 521
Rank change year-on-year +14 +110 -133
Permanent jobs citing PhD 873 388 600
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.79% 0.69% 0.52%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.51% 3.40% 2.34%
Number of salaries quoted 317 313 415
10th Percentile £40,750 £40,000 £36,750
25th Percentile £55,000 £50,000 £48,875
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £70,000 £70,000 £72,500
Median % change year-on-year - -3.45% +16.00%
75th Percentile £102,500 £90,000 £92,500
90th Percentile £132,500 £106,000 £113,750
UK median annual salary £70,000 £70,000 £69,650
% change year-on-year - +0.50% +16.08%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
England
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 24,903 11,427 25,621
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 22.56% 20.41% 22.08%
Number of salaries quoted 13,706 8,587 19,399
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £27,500
25th Percentile £41,250 £41,250 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year - +10.00% -
75th Percentile £73,750 £72,000 £67,500
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £83,750
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year - +10.00% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in England

PhD
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD in England.

Salary trend for PhD in England

PhD
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD in England over the 6 months to 18 January 2022.

Salary histogram for PhD in England

PhD
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the England region over the 6 months to 18 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -41 462 £85,000 +7.94% 65
East of England +10 171 £60,000 - 24
South East -93 80 £50,000 -13.04% 27
North of England -118 61 £70,000 - 16
South West -29 56 £41,500 -11.70% 16
Yorkshire -55 46 £70,000 - 4
Midlands -94 18 £31,500 -40.74% 9
North West -105 12 £60,000 -29.41% 11
East Midlands -62 10 £31,500 -40.74% 5
West Midlands -57 8 - - 4
North East -23 3 £65,000 +18.18% 1
PhD
UK

For the 6 months to 18 January 2022, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PhD.

1 524 (60.02%) Python
2 424 (48.57%) Machine Learning
3 393 (45.02%) Mathematics
4 372 (42.61%) Computer Science
5 363 (41.58%) Degree
6 292 (33.45%) Data Science
7 256 (29.32%) Algorithms
8 240 (27.49%) Statistics
9 228 (26.12%) C++
10 204 (23.37%) Artificial Intelligence
11 199 (22.79%) Physics
12 190 (21.76%) Analytics
13 162 (18.56%) Social Skills
14 157 (17.98%) Software Engineering
15 144 (16.49%) Finance
16 140 (16.04%) MATLAB
17 128 (14.66%) Deep Learning
18 127 (14.55%) Natural Language Processing
19 126 (14.43%) Validation
20 125 (14.32%) Data Analysis
21 124 (14.20%) Decision-Making
22 120 (13.75%) Pharmaceutical
23 119 (13.63%) SQL
24 113 (12.94%) Problem-Solving
25 106 (12.14%) TensorFlow
26 105 (12.03%) Inclusion and Diversity
26 105 (12.03%) C
27 102 (11.68%) Biology
28 99 (11.34%) Analytical Skills
29 97 (11.11%) R

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 48 (5.50%) SAS
2 45 (5.15%) Apache Spark
3 12 (1.37%) Elasticsearch
4 7 (0.80%) Ethereum
5 6 (0.69%) Apache
6 4 (0.46%) CMS
6 4 (0.46%) OpenStack
6 4 (0.46%) SugarCRM
7 3 (0.34%) Facebook Platform
7 3 (0.34%) Jupyter
8 2 (0.23%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 2 (0.23%) Apache Pig
8 2 (0.23%) concrete5
9 1 (0.11%) Apache Airflow
9 1 (0.11%) Confluence
9 1 (0.11%) Kinematics
9 1 (0.11%) Luigi
9 1 (0.11%) SharePoint Server
Applications
1 25 (2.86%) Simulink
2 14 (1.60%) Stateflow
3 9 (1.03%) Microsoft Excel
4 8 (0.92%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 2 (0.23%) Microsoft Office
5 2 (0.23%) Stata
6 1 (0.11%) Chatbot
6 1 (0.11%) GNU Octave
Business Applications
1 14 (1.60%) Magento
1 14 (1.60%) Shopify
2 6 (0.69%) SAP S/4HANA
3 2 (0.23%) SAP BPC
3 2 (0.23%) SAP IBP
4 1 (0.11%) Adobe Campaign
Cloud Services
1 56 (6.41%) AWS
2 26 (2.98%) SaaS
3 23 (2.63%) Azure
4 20 (2.29%) Serverless
5 16 (1.83%) GCP
6 9 (1.03%) Azure Machine Learning
7 8 (0.92%) Amazon EC2
7 8 (0.92%) Amazon S3
8 7 (0.80%) Cloud Computing
9 5 (0.57%) AWS Lambda
10 3 (0.34%) Power Platform
11 2 (0.23%) Amazon CloudWatch
11 2 (0.23%) Amazon SageMaker
11 2 (0.23%) Route 53
12 1 (0.11%) Datadog
12 1 (0.11%) GitHub
12 1 (0.11%) iTunes
12 1 (0.11%) Slack
12 1 (0.11%) Trello
Communications & Networking
1 28 (3.21%) Wi-Fi
1 28 (3.21%) Wireless
2 27 (3.09%) DVB
2 27 (3.09%) MIMO
3 6 (0.69%) NAS
4 3 (0.34%) Network Security
5 1 (0.11%) Bluetooth
5 1 (0.11%) HTTP
5 1 (0.11%) RFID
5 1 (0.11%) TCP/IP
5 1 (0.11%) ZigBee
Database & Business Intelligence
1 41 (4.70%) Big Data
2 33 (3.78%) Data Warehouse
3 32 (3.67%) Hadoop
4 28 (3.21%) Data Mining
5 26 (2.98%) MySQL
6 24 (2.75%) Relational Database
7 23 (2.63%) GIS
8 19 (2.18%) Neo4j
9 18 (2.06%) Tableau
10 17 (1.95%) PostgreSQL
10 17 (1.95%) Text Mining
11 16 (1.83%) NoSQL
12 15 (1.72%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
13 13 (1.49%) Electronic Patient Records
13 13 (1.49%) Metadata
14 12 (1.37%) Apache Cassandra
15 8 (0.92%) Blockchain
15 8 (0.92%) SQL Server
16 7 (0.80%) Base SAS
17 5 (0.57%) Apache Hive
Development Applications
1 32 (3.67%) Git (software)
2 14 (1.60%) WiX
3 5 (0.57%) PostCSS
3 5 (0.57%) Storybook
4 4 (0.46%) MLflow
5 3 (0.34%) git-flow
5 3 (0.34%) Jenkins
5 3 (0.34%) JIRA
5 3 (0.34%) Subversion
6 2 (0.23%) Bitbucket
6 2 (0.23%) CircleCI
6 2 (0.23%) CMake
7 1 (0.11%) GitLab
7 1 (0.11%) PyCharm
General
1 162 (18.56%) Social Skills
2 144 (16.49%) Finance
3 120 (13.75%) Pharmaceutical
4 105 (12.03%) Inclusion and Diversity
5 99 (11.34%) Analytical Skills
6 62 (7.10%) Marketing
7 44 (5.04%) Games
8 38 (4.35%) Manufacturing
9 37 (4.24%) Military
10 36 (4.12%) Presentation Skills
10 36 (4.12%) Retail
11 28 (3.21%) Banking
12 27 (3.09%) Public Sector
13 26 (2.98%) Law
14 22 (2.52%) Electronics
15 18 (2.06%) Advertising
16 13 (1.49%) Legal
17 11 (1.26%) Front Office
17 11 (1.26%) Telecoms
18 8 (0.92%) Social Science
Job Titles
1 172 (19.70%) Data Scientist
2 81 (9.28%) Developer
2 81 (9.28%) Senior Data Scientist
3 61 (6.99%) Software Engineer
4 48 (5.50%) Programmer
5 40 (4.58%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 31 (3.55%) Architect
6 31 (3.55%) Research Engineer
7 29 (3.32%) Graduate
7 29 (3.32%) Senior Programmer
8 28 (3.21%) Analyst
9 27 (3.09%) Algorithm Engineer
9 27 (3.09%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
9 27 (3.09%) DSP Engineer
9 27 (3.09%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
9 27 (3.09%) Senior DSP Engineer
9 27 (3.09%) Wireless Engineer
10 24 (2.75%) Machine Learning Scientist
10 24 (2.75%) Python Developer
10 24 (2.75%) Quantitative Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 106 (12.14%) TensorFlow
2 77 (8.82%) PyTorch
3 52 (5.96%) scikit-learn
4 43 (4.93%) React
5 34 (3.89%) SciPy
6 31 (3.55%) Keras
7 30 (3.44%) Pandas
8 25 (2.86%) Node.js
8 25 (2.86%) NumPy
9 21 (2.41%) OpenCV
10 19 (2.18%) .NET
11 18 (2.06%) GraphQL
12 16 (1.83%) PySpark
13 15 (1.72%) Torch
14 14 (1.60%) NestJS
14 14 (1.60%) Theano
15 13 (1.49%) Flask
16 10 (1.15%) CSS
17 9 (1.03%) AngularJS
18 8 (0.92%) Chainer
Miscellaneous
1 256 (29.32%) Algorithms
2 69 (7.90%) Life Science
3 64 (7.33%) User Experience
4 51 (5.84%) Equities
5 38 (4.35%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 29 (3.32%) Fixed Income
6 29 (3.32%) Robotics
7 28 (3.21%) FPGA
8 27 (3.09%) Market Risk
9 24 (2.75%) Biotechnology
9 24 (2.75%) Management Information System
10 20 (2.29%) Social Media
11 19 (2.18%) Hedge funds
12 18 (2.06%) Exotic Derivative
13 17 (1.95%) Derivative
14 16 (1.83%) Credit Risk
15 14 (1.60%) Cloud Native
15 14 (1.60%) Data Structures
15 14 (1.60%) Mobile App
16 12 (1.37%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 58 (6.64%) Linux
2 17 (1.95%) Windows
3 12 (1.37%) Android
4 10 (1.15%) Apple iOS
5 5 (0.57%) Robot Operating System
6 2 (0.23%) Unix
7 1 (0.11%) CentOS
7 1 (0.11%) Debian
7 1 (0.11%) Mac OS
7 1 (0.11%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 424 (48.57%) Machine Learning
2 393 (45.02%) Mathematics
3 372 (42.61%) Computer Science
4 292 (33.45%) Data Science
5 240 (27.49%) Statistics
6 204 (23.37%) Artificial Intelligence
7 199 (22.79%) Physics
8 190 (21.76%) Analytics
9 157 (17.98%) Software Engineering
10 128 (14.66%) Deep Learning
11 127 (14.55%) Natural Language Processing
12 126 (14.43%) Validation
13 125 (14.32%) Data Analysis
14 124 (14.20%) Decision-Making
15 113 (12.94%) Problem-Solving
16 102 (11.68%) Biology
17 96 (11.00%) Computer Vision
17 96 (11.00%) Mentoring
18 91 (10.42%) Chemistry
19 89 (10.19%) Bioinformatics
Programming Languages
1 524 (60.02%) Python
2 228 (26.12%) C++
3 140 (16.04%) MATLAB
4 119 (13.63%) SQL
5 105 (12.03%) C
6 97 (11.11%) R
7 94 (10.77%) Java
8 51 (5.84%) C#
9 44 (5.04%) JavaScript
10 31 (3.55%) TypeScript
11 22 (2.52%) Scala
12 13 (1.49%) Go
12 13 (1.49%) PHP
13 11 (1.26%) Rust
14 10 (1.15%) GLSL
14 10 (1.15%) HLSL
14 10 (1.15%) Perl
15 9 (1.03%) Haskell
16 8 (0.92%) F#
16 8 (0.92%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 363 (41.58%) Degree
2 91 (10.42%) Master's Degree
3 45 (5.15%) Computer Science Degree
4 17 (1.95%) Numerate Degree
5 11 (1.26%) PMP
6 6 (0.69%) Security Cleared
7 5 (0.57%) SC Cleared
8 4 (0.46%) Chartered Engineer
8 4 (0.46%) MBA
9 3 (0.34%) DBS Check
9 3 (0.34%) PMI Certification
10 2 (0.23%) APMP
10 2 (0.23%) CESG Certified Professional
10 2 (0.23%) CISSP
10 2 (0.23%) CREST Certified
10 2 (0.23%) HND
11 1 (0.11%) AWS Certification
11 1 (0.11%) CSPO
11 1 (0.11%) HNC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 27 (3.09%) CDISC
2 18 (2.06%) Dodd-Frank
2 18 (2.06%) EMIR
2 18 (2.06%) GLP
2 18 (2.06%) MiFID
3 17 (1.95%) Data Quality
4 14 (1.60%) GxP
5 8 (0.92%) IFRS
5 8 (0.92%) IFRS 9
5 8 (0.92%) QA
6 6 (0.69%) Accessibility
7 5 (0.57%) GMP
8 4 (0.46%) Good Clinical Practice
8 4 (0.46%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 2 (0.23%) IEC 62304
9 2 (0.23%) ISO 13485
9 2 (0.23%) JSP 440
9 2 (0.23%) NCSC
9 2 (0.23%) NIST
10 1 (0.11%) IEC 61131
System Software
1 29 (3.32%) Firmware
2 27 (3.09%) Docker
3 5 (0.57%) LXC
3 5 (0.57%) Virtual Machines
4 3 (0.34%) HDFS
5 1 (0.11%) NFS
Systems Management
1 24 (2.75%) Kubernetes
2 11 (1.26%) Terraform
3 8 (0.92%) Ansible
4 7 (0.80%) Kubeflow
5 2 (0.23%) Single Sign-On
6 1 (0.11%) Kibana
6 1 (0.11%) Kustomize
Vendors
1 61 (6.99%) Twitter
2 28 (3.21%) Facebook
3 24 (2.75%) Google
4 14 (1.60%) OpenAI
5 12 (1.37%) IBM
5 12 (1.37%) SAP
6 9 (1.03%) Oracle
7 7 (0.80%) ConsenSys
7 7 (0.80%) Dataiku
7 7 (0.80%) Microsoft
7 7 (0.80%) Sun
8 5 (0.57%) Infragistics
9 4 (0.46%) CA
9 4 (0.46%) Palo Alto
10 3 (0.34%) ANSYS
10 3 (0.34%) Bloomberg
11 2 (0.23%) Adobe
11 2 (0.23%) Ariba
11 2 (0.23%) Red Hat
12 1 (0.11%) EMC