Period
to 21 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 21 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK > England
6 months to
21 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 435 389 541
Rank change year-on-year -46 +152 -186
Permanent jobs citing PhD 741 302 638
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.69% 0.66% 0.49%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.32% 2.96% 2.07%
Number of salaries quoted 262 233 473
10th Percentile £41,250 £41,500 £32,500
25th Percentile £50,120 £52,500 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £70,000 £67,500 £65,000
Median % change year-on-year +3.70% +3.85% +8.33%
75th Percentile £92,500 £90,000 £90,000
90th Percentile £113,750 £112,000 £104,750
UK median annual salary £70,000 £67,500 £65,000
% change year-on-year +3.70% +3.85% +8.33%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
England
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 22,315 10,192 30,838
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 20.78% 22.37% 23.78%
Number of salaries quoted 13,165 7,808 22,855
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £26,750
25th Percentile £41,250 £41,117 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year - +10.00% -
75th Percentile £72,500 £71,250 £67,000
90th Percentile £88,750 £90,000 £82,500
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year - +10.00% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in England

PhD
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD in England.

Salary trend for PhD in England

PhD
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD in England over the 6 months to 21 September 2021.

Salary histogram for PhD in England

PhD
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the England region over the 6 months to 21 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -61 365 £82,500 +10.00% 51
East of England -15 133 £45,500 -39.33% 42
South East -135 81 £50,000 -16.67% 22
North of England -66 74 £70,000 -3.45% 10
South West -54 59 £65,000 +44.44% 11
Yorkshire -53 55 £70,000 +55.56% 1
Midlands -112 17 - - 9
North West -72 14 £75,000 -16.67% 7
West Midlands -95 10 - - 7
East Midlands -64 7 - - 2
North East -36 5 £65,000 +49.63% 2
PhD
UK

For the 6 months to 21 September 2021, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PhD.

1 418 (56.41%) Python
2 289 (39.00%) Machine Learning
3 284 (38.33%) Computer Science
4 280 (37.79%) Degree
5 239 (32.25%) Algorithms
6 237 (31.98%) Mathematics
7 234 (31.58%) Data Science
8 216 (29.15%) Social Skills
9 171 (23.08%) C++
10 167 (22.54%) Software Engineering
11 166 (22.40%) Analytics
12 160 (21.59%) Artificial Intelligence
13 156 (21.05%) Statistics
14 150 (20.24%) Deep Learning
15 139 (18.76%) Problem-Solving
16 138 (18.62%) Analytical Skills
17 136 (18.35%) Physics
18 134 (18.08%) TensorFlow
19 129 (17.41%) MATLAB
20 127 (17.14%) Finance
21 125 (16.87%) Computer Vision
22 124 (16.73%) Natural Language Processing
23 118 (15.92%) SQL
24 110 (14.84%) Agile Software Development
25 106 (14.30%) Marketing
26 102 (13.77%) PyTorch
27 99 (13.36%) Neural Network
28 97 (13.09%) Pharmaceutical
29 96 (12.96%) Java
30 93 (12.55%) Visualisation

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 49 (6.61%) Apache Spark
2 24 (3.24%) SAS
3 13 (1.75%) Elasticsearch
4 12 (1.62%) Jupyter
5 6 (0.81%) Ethereum
6 3 (0.40%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 3 (0.40%) CMS
6 3 (0.40%) SugarCRM
7 2 (0.27%) Apache
Applications
1 38 (5.13%) Simulink
2 24 (3.24%) Stateflow
3 9 (1.21%) SOLIDWORKS
3 9 (1.21%) Zemax
4 3 (0.40%) GNU Octave
5 2 (0.27%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.27%) Stata
6 1 (0.13%) Final Cut Pro
6 1 (0.13%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 11 (1.48%) SAP S/4HANA
2 5 (0.67%) Primavera
3 4 (0.54%) FINCAD Analytics
3 4 (0.54%) SAP BPC
3 4 (0.54%) Summit
4 3 (0.40%) SAP IBP
Cloud Services
1 57 (7.69%) AWS
2 35 (4.72%) SaaS
3 34 (4.59%) GCP
4 27 (3.64%) Serverless
5 16 (2.16%) Azure
6 10 (1.35%) Veeva
7 8 (1.08%) Cloud Computing
8 7 (0.94%) Amazon S3
8 7 (0.94%) Power Platform
9 5 (0.67%) AWS Lambda
10 4 (0.54%) Amazon ECS
10 4 (0.54%) AWS Fargate
10 4 (0.54%) Cloud Functions
10 4 (0.54%) Firebase
10 4 (0.54%) PaaS
10 4 (0.54%) Slack
11 3 (0.40%) Amazon SageMaker
12 2 (0.27%) GitHub
13 1 (0.13%) Google Drive
13 1 (0.13%) MailChimp
Communications & Networking
1 53 (7.15%) Wireless
2 36 (4.86%) DVB
2 36 (4.86%) MIMO
2 36 (4.86%) Wi-Fi
3 12 (1.62%) Internet
4 5 (0.67%) GSM
4 5 (0.67%) Network Security
5 3 (0.40%) Software-Defined Radio
6 2 (0.27%) Broadband
7 1 (0.13%) 5G
7 1 (0.13%) NAS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 41 (5.53%) Big Data
1 41 (5.53%) Data Warehouse
2 33 (4.45%) Hadoop
3 27 (3.64%) NoSQL
4 26 (3.51%) Data Mining
5 21 (2.83%) Relational Database
6 19 (2.56%) PostgreSQL
7 17 (2.29%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
8 16 (2.16%) Tableau
9 13 (1.75%) Electronic Patient Records
9 13 (1.75%) Redis
10 9 (1.21%) Blockchain
11 8 (1.08%) Apache Cassandra
11 8 (1.08%) BigQuery
12 7 (0.94%) Power BI
13 5 (0.67%) Metadata
13 5 (0.67%) RDBMS
14 4 (0.54%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 4 (0.54%) MySQL
14 4 (0.54%) SQL Server
Development Applications
1 45 (6.07%) Git (software)
2 18 (2.43%) Storybook
3 16 (2.16%) GitLab
3 16 (2.16%) PostCSS
4 12 (1.62%) Maven
5 9 (1.21%) LabVIEW
6 7 (0.94%) gulp
6 7 (0.94%) webpack
7 6 (0.81%) Bitbucket
7 6 (0.81%) Jenkins
8 5 (0.67%) JIRA
9 2 (0.27%) CircleCI
10 1 (0.13%) CMake
10 1 (0.13%) git-flow
10 1 (0.13%) Subversion
General
1 216 (29.15%) Social Skills
2 138 (18.62%) Analytical Skills
3 127 (17.14%) Finance
4 106 (14.30%) Marketing
5 97 (13.09%) Pharmaceutical
6 76 (10.26%) Games
7 66 (8.91%) Presentation Skills
8 53 (7.15%) Manufacturing
9 40 (5.40%) Banking
10 39 (5.26%) Retail
11 36 (4.86%) Telecoms
12 35 (4.72%) Inclusion and Diversity
12 35 (4.72%) Law
13 19 (2.56%) Front Office
13 19 (2.56%) Public Sector
14 17 (2.29%) Legal
15 15 (2.02%) Advertising
16 11 (1.48%) Electronics
16 11 (1.48%) Financial Institution
17 9 (1.21%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 123 (16.60%) Data Scientist
2 80 (10.80%) Developer
3 53 (7.15%) Senior Data Scientist
4 50 (6.75%) Software Engineer
5 46 (6.21%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 36 (4.86%) Algorithm Engineer
6 36 (4.86%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
6 36 (4.86%) DSP Engineer
6 36 (4.86%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
6 36 (4.86%) Senior DSP Engineer
6 36 (4.86%) Wireless Engineer
7 34 (4.59%) Computer Engineer
8 32 (4.32%) Consultant
9 31 (4.18%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 30 (4.05%) Computer Vision Engineer
10 30 (4.05%) Systems Engineer
11 28 (3.78%) Research Engineer
12 21 (2.83%) Machine Learning Scientist
13 19 (2.56%) Product Manager
13 19 (2.56%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 134 (18.08%) TensorFlow
2 102 (13.77%) PyTorch
3 74 (9.99%) scikit-learn
4 53 (7.15%) Keras
4 53 (7.15%) NumPy
4 53 (7.15%) React
5 37 (4.99%) Node.js
5 37 (4.99%) SciPy
6 35 (4.72%) Pandas
6 35 (4.72%) Torch
7 34 (4.59%) CSS
8 28 (3.78%) OpenCV
9 27 (3.64%) REST
10 26 (3.51%) AngularJS
11 22 (2.97%) Theano
12 21 (2.83%) HTML
13 20 (2.70%) Web Services
14 18 (2.43%) Redux
15 16 (2.16%) LESS
15 16 (2.16%) Sass
Miscellaneous
1 239 (32.25%) Algorithms
2 88 (11.88%) Life Science
3 44 (5.94%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
3 44 (5.94%) User Experience
4 35 (4.72%) Robotics
5 31 (4.18%) Enterprise Software
6 25 (3.37%) Management Information System
7 22 (2.97%) Social Media
8 19 (2.56%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 19 (2.56%) Hedge funds
9 18 (2.43%) Augmented Reality
10 16 (2.16%) Cloud Native
10 16 (2.16%) W3C
11 15 (2.02%) Equities
12 14 (1.89%) Biotechnology
12 14 (1.89%) Self-Motivation
13 13 (1.75%) Greenfield Project
14 12 (1.62%) Blog
14 12 (1.62%) Fixed Income
14 12 (1.62%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 29 (3.91%) Linux
2 23 (3.10%) Android
3 17 (2.29%) Apple iOS
4 16 (2.16%) Windows
5 5 (0.67%) Unix
Processes & Methodologies
1 289 (39.00%) Machine Learning
2 284 (38.33%) Computer Science
3 237 (31.98%) Mathematics
4 234 (31.58%) Data Science
5 167 (22.54%) Software Engineering
6 166 (22.40%) Analytics
7 160 (21.59%) Artificial Intelligence
8 156 (21.05%) Statistics
9 150 (20.24%) Deep Learning
10 139 (18.76%) Problem-Solving
11 136 (18.35%) Physics
12 125 (16.87%) Computer Vision
13 124 (16.73%) Natural Language Processing
14 110 (14.84%) Agile Software Development
15 99 (13.36%) Neural Network
16 93 (12.55%) Visualisation
17 71 (9.58%) Signal Processing
18 65 (8.77%) Data Analysis
19 61 (8.23%) Data Visualisation
20 59 (7.96%) Validation
Programming Languages
1 418 (56.41%) Python
2 171 (23.08%) C++
3 129 (17.41%) MATLAB
4 118 (15.92%) SQL
5 96 (12.96%) Java
6 89 (12.01%) C
7 75 (10.12%) JavaScript
8 67 (9.04%) R
9 38 (5.13%) TypeScript
10 37 (4.99%) C#
11 18 (2.43%) ES6
12 14 (1.89%) Cython
13 13 (1.75%) Java 8
14 11 (1.48%) Go
15 7 (0.94%) Scala
16 5 (0.67%) Fortran
16 5 (0.67%) PHP
16 5 (0.67%) Ruby
16 5 (0.67%) VB
17 4 (0.54%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 280 (37.79%) Degree
2 68 (9.18%) Master's Degree
3 42 (5.67%) Computer Science Degree
4 37 (4.99%) Numerate Degree
5 31 (4.18%) MBA
6 28 (3.78%) Security Cleared
7 16 (2.16%) SC Cleared
8 10 (1.35%) DV Cleared
9 8 (1.08%) DBS Check
9 8 (1.08%) PMP
10 7 (0.94%) Chartered Engineer
11 6 (0.81%) Postgraduate
12 5 (0.67%) HND
12 5 (0.67%) PMI Certification
13 3 (0.40%) APMP
14 2 (0.27%) CESG Certified Professional
14 2 (0.27%) CFA
14 2 (0.27%) CISSP
14 2 (0.27%) CREST Certified
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 18 (2.43%) Accessibility
1 18 (2.43%) GxP
2 10 (1.35%) Dodd-Frank
2 10 (1.35%) EMIR
2 10 (1.35%) GLP
2 10 (1.35%) MiFID
3 7 (0.94%) Data Quality
4 5 (0.67%) CDISC
4 5 (0.67%) HAZOP
4 5 (0.67%) IEC 61508
4 5 (0.67%) ISO 26262
4 5 (0.67%) QA
5 3 (0.40%) Def Stans
5 3 (0.40%) GDPR
6 2 (0.27%) GMP
6 2 (0.27%) JSP 440
6 2 (0.27%) NCSC
6 2 (0.27%) NIST
7 1 (0.13%) ISO 13485
7 1 (0.13%) ISO 9000
System Software
1 50 (6.75%) Docker
2 41 (5.53%) Firmware
3 2 (0.27%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 35 (4.72%) Kubernetes
2 24 (3.24%) Ansible
3 18 (2.43%) Terraform
4 6 (0.81%) Kubeflow
5 5 (0.67%) Docker Swarm
6 2 (0.27%) FlexNet
6 2 (0.27%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 38 (5.13%) Google
2 37 (4.99%) Instagram
3 26 (3.51%) IBM
4 20 (2.70%) OpenAI
5 17 (2.29%) Facebook
6 16 (2.16%) SAP
7 15 (2.02%) Yahoo!
8 14 (1.89%) ANSYS
9 9 (1.21%) Dataiku
10 6 (0.81%) ConsenSys
11 5 (0.67%) Autodesk
11 5 (0.67%) Bloomberg
11 5 (0.67%) Oracle
12 4 (0.54%) Infragistics
12 4 (0.54%) Sun
13 3 (0.40%) Agilent
13 3 (0.40%) Ariba
13 3 (0.40%) Marketo
13 3 (0.40%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
13 3 (0.40%) Salesforce.com