Period
to 3 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 3 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK > England
6 months to
3 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 387 498 390
Rank change year-on-year +111 -108 -78
Permanent jobs citing PhD 473 606 1,134
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 0.70% 0.54% 0.82%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.40% 2.46% 3.33%
Number of salaries quoted 385 451 912
Median annual salary £70,000 £70,000 £60,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +16.67% +9.09%
10th Percentile £40,000 £36,250 £32,500
90th Percentile £105,000 £113,750 £107,375
UK median annual salary £67,500 £70,000 £60,000
% change year-on-year -3.57% +16.67% +9.09%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
England
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 13,927 24,624 34,044
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 20.51% 21.83% 24.55%
Number of salaries quoted 9,921 18,632 25,360
Median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%
10th Percentile £31,250 £27,750 £26,500
90th Percentile £86,250 £83,750 £82,500
UK median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in England

PhD
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD in England.

Salary trend for PhD in England

PhD
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD in England over the 6 months to 3 March 2021.

Salary histogram for PhD in England

PhD
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the England region over the 6 months to 3 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +58 229 £73,750 -4.84% 80
North of England +91 65 £70,000 +85.90% 33
South East +110 58 £53,000 -3.64% 60
East of England +67 49 £55,000 +12.82% 43
South West +69 48 £49,000 +18.79% 13
Yorkshire +62 37 £70,000 +100.00% 7
North West +52 28 £50,000 +32.79% 20
Midlands +41 18 £31,305 -45.56% 22
East Midlands +29 14 £31,305 -37.39% 12
West Midlands +42 4 - - 10
PhD
UK

For the 6 months to 3 March 2021, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for PhD.

1 281 (59.41%) Python
2 227 (47.99%) Machine Learning
3 200 (42.28%) Degree
4 169 (35.73%) Mathematics
5 162 (34.25%) Data Science
6 158 (33.40%) Algorithms
7 155 (32.77%) Computer Science
8 136 (28.75%) Artificial Intelligence
9 111 (23.47%) Deep Learning
10 109 (23.04%) Finance
11 98 (20.72%) C++
12 93 (19.66%) TensorFlow
13 90 (19.03%) Agile Software Development
14 86 (18.18%) SQL
15 85 (17.97%) Software Engineering
16 83 (17.55%) Physics
17 77 (16.28%) Statistics
18 70 (14.80%) R
19 68 (14.38%) Analytics
20 67 (14.16%) Natural Language Processing
21 63 (13.32%) Analytical Skills
21 63 (13.32%) PyTorch
21 63 (13.32%) Master's Degree
22 61 (12.90%) Java
22 61 (12.90%) C
22 61 (12.90%) Computer Vision
23 58 (12.26%) Docker
24 55 (11.63%) MATLAB
25 54 (11.42%) Neural Network
26 51 (10.78%) Stakeholder Management

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 23 (4.86%) CMS
2 18 (3.81%) Apache Spark
3 12 (2.54%) SAS
4 10 (2.11%) Jupyter
5 8 (1.69%) Apache
6 7 (1.48%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 2 (0.42%) Apache Pig
7 2 (0.42%) Confluence
7 2 (0.42%) FileNet
8 1 (0.21%) Apache Airflow
8 1 (0.21%) OpenStack
Applications
1 27 (5.71%) Simulink
2 22 (4.65%) Stateflow
3 15 (3.17%) SOLIDWORKS
4 10 (2.11%) Microsoft Office
5 7 (1.48%) Microsoft Excel
6 5 (1.06%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 14 (2.96%) SAP S/4HANA
2 8 (1.69%) FINCAD Analytics
3 2 (0.42%) SAP BPC
3 2 (0.42%) SAP IBP
4 1 (0.21%) Dynamics AX
4 1 (0.21%) Oracle HRMS
Cloud Services
1 45 (9.51%) Azure
2 37 (7.82%) AWS
3 36 (7.61%) GCP
4 14 (2.96%) GitHub
5 10 (2.11%) Amazon SageMaker
6 6 (1.27%) SaaS
7 5 (1.06%) Cloud Computing
8 3 (0.63%) Veeva
9 2 (0.42%) AWS Lambda
9 2 (0.42%) Oracle CX
9 2 (0.42%) Power Platform
9 2 (0.42%) Serverless
10 1 (0.21%) Akamai
10 1 (0.21%) Amazon S3
10 1 (0.21%) Amazon SQS
10 1 (0.21%) Apigee
10 1 (0.21%) Dynamics 365
10 1 (0.21%) npm
10 1 (0.21%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 37 (7.82%) Wireless
2 22 (4.65%) Wi-Fi
3 17 (3.59%) DVB
3 17 (3.59%) MIMO
4 8 (1.69%) NAS
5 7 (1.48%) Internet
6 6 (1.27%) TCP/IP
7 5 (1.06%) Bluetooth
7 5 (1.06%) Broadband
7 5 (1.06%) Ethernet
7 5 (1.06%) Software-Defined Radio
7 5 (1.06%) VSAT
8 3 (0.63%) Network Security
9 1 (0.21%) 5G
9 1 (0.21%) Cisco ASA
9 1 (0.21%) Firewall
9 1 (0.21%) FTP
9 1 (0.21%) Skype
9 1 (0.21%) SNMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 43 (9.09%) Big Data
2 26 (5.50%) Hadoop
3 20 (4.23%) Data Mining
3 20 (4.23%) NoSQL
4 19 (4.02%) SQL Server
5 12 (2.54%) PostgreSQL
5 12 (2.54%) Tableau
6 11 (2.33%) MongoDB
7 7 (1.48%) Data Warehouse
7 7 (1.48%) Redis
8 5 (1.06%) Data Lake
8 5 (1.06%) Relational Database
9 4 (0.85%) Apache Hive
9 4 (0.85%) Flink
9 4 (0.85%) MySQL
10 3 (0.63%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 3 (0.63%) Impala
10 3 (0.63%) Spotfire
11 2 (0.42%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
11 2 (0.42%) Qlik Sense
Development Applications
1 35 (7.40%) Git (software)
2 11 (2.33%) GitLab
3 5 (1.06%) Jenkins
4 4 (0.85%) JIRA
4 4 (0.85%) Travis CI
5 3 (0.63%) Gradle
5 3 (0.63%) IntelliJ
5 3 (0.63%) JUnit
5 3 (0.63%) Maven
5 3 (0.63%) Mockito
5 3 (0.63%) Sonatype Nexus
5 3 (0.63%) Subversion
5 3 (0.63%) TeamCity
5 3 (0.63%) webpack
6 2 (0.42%) Bitbucket
6 2 (0.42%) gulp
7 1 (0.21%) Babel
7 1 (0.21%) CMake
7 1 (0.21%) Cypress.io
7 1 (0.21%) Rational DOORS
General
1 109 (23.04%) Finance
2 33 (6.98%) Marketing
2 33 (6.98%) Telecoms
3 32 (6.77%) Manufacturing
4 24 (5.07%) Law
5 22 (4.65%) Games
6 20 (4.23%) Electronics
7 18 (3.81%) Advertising
8 16 (3.38%) Banking
9 13 (2.75%) Pharmaceutical
10 12 (2.54%) Legal
10 12 (2.54%) Retail
11 9 (1.90%) Aerospace
12 5 (1.06%) Financial Institution
12 5 (1.06%) Military
13 4 (0.85%) French Language
14 3 (0.63%) Automotive
14 3 (0.63%) Public Sector
14 3 (0.63%) Publishing
15 2 (0.42%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 99 (20.93%) Data Scientist
2 62 (13.11%) Developer
3 36 (7.61%) Software Engineer
4 35 (7.40%) Senior Data Scientist
5 32 (6.77%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 26 (5.50%) Consultant
6 26 (5.50%) Systems Engineer
7 24 (5.07%) Senior Developer
8 22 (4.65%) Analyst
9 21 (4.44%) Algorithm Engineer
9 21 (4.44%) Design Engineer
10 19 (4.02%) Graduate
11 18 (3.81%) DSP Engineer
12 17 (3.59%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
12 17 (3.59%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
12 17 (3.59%) Senior DSP Engineer
12 17 (3.59%) Wireless Engineer
13 15 (3.17%) Computer Vision Engineer
13 15 (3.17%) Radio Design Engineer
13 15 (3.17%) Radio Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 93 (19.66%) TensorFlow
2 67 (14.16%) Natural Language Processing
3 63 (13.32%) PyTorch
4 33 (6.98%) REST
5 29 (6.13%) scikit-learn
6 27 (5.71%) NumPy
7 22 (4.65%) OpenCV
8 20 (4.23%) .NET
9 18 (3.81%) Keras
9 18 (3.81%) Pandas
10 15 (3.17%) Node.js
10 15 (3.17%) Web Services
11 14 (2.96%) React
12 12 (2.54%) Kafka
12 12 (2.54%) SciPy
13 11 (2.33%) Torch
14 9 (1.90%) AngularJS
15 8 (1.69%) Caffe
15 8 (1.69%) Vue.js
16 7 (1.48%) Theano
Miscellaneous
1 158 (33.40%) Algorithms
2 63 (13.32%) Analytical Skills
3 33 (6.98%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
4 26 (5.50%) Enterprise Software
5 21 (4.44%) Blog
6 20 (4.23%) Robotics
7 16 (3.38%) Equities
7 16 (3.38%) Hedge funds
8 15 (3.17%) ASTM
9 14 (2.96%) Life Science
9 14 (2.96%) User Experience
10 13 (2.75%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 12 (2.54%) Cyberattack
11 12 (2.54%) Market Risk
11 12 (2.54%) Self-Motivation
12 11 (2.33%) Exotic Derivative
13 9 (1.90%) Management Information System
13 9 (1.90%) Marketing Technology
14 8 (1.69%) Embedded Systems
14 8 (1.69%) Greenfield Project
Operating Systems
1 43 (9.09%) Linux
2 9 (1.90%) Windows
3 8 (1.69%) Unix
4 4 (0.85%) Android
4 4 (0.85%) VxWorks
5 1 (0.21%) Windows Phone
5 1 (0.21%) Windows Phone 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 227 (47.99%) Machine Learning
2 169 (35.73%) Mathematics
3 162 (34.25%) Data Science
4 155 (32.77%) Computer Science
5 136 (28.75%) Artificial Intelligence
6 111 (23.47%) Deep Learning
7 90 (19.03%) Agile Software Development
8 85 (17.97%) Software Engineering
9 83 (17.55%) Physics
10 77 (16.28%) Statistics
11 68 (14.38%) Analytics
12 61 (12.90%) Computer Vision
13 54 (11.42%) Neural Network
14 51 (10.78%) Stakeholder Management
15 50 (10.57%) Signal Processing
16 48 (10.15%) Problem-Solving
17 44 (9.30%) Validation
18 39 (8.25%) Visualisation
19 38 (8.03%) Reinforcement Learning
20 35 (7.40%) Business Transformation
Programming Languages
1 281 (59.41%) Python
2 98 (20.72%) C++
3 86 (18.18%) SQL
4 70 (14.80%) R
5 61 (12.90%) C
5 61 (12.90%) Java
6 55 (11.63%) MATLAB
7 40 (8.46%) C#
8 32 (6.77%) JavaScript
9 14 (2.96%) Scala
10 10 (2.11%) Go
11 9 (1.90%) Bash Shell
11 9 (1.90%) Cython
11 9 (1.90%) TypeScript
12 7 (1.48%) Julia
13 4 (0.85%) Java 8
13 4 (0.85%) Rust
14 3 (0.63%) Shell Script
15 2 (0.42%) PHP
15 2 (0.42%) PowerShell
Qualifications
1 200 (42.28%) Degree
2 63 (13.32%) Master's Degree
3 26 (5.50%) Computer Science Degree
4 9 (1.90%) MPhil
4 9 (1.90%) Numerate Degree
5 8 (1.69%) Security Cleared
6 7 (1.48%) Postgraduate
7 6 (1.27%) DBS Check
8 5 (1.06%) PMI Certification
9 4 (0.85%) DV Cleared
10 3 (0.63%) CFA
10 3 (0.63%) PMP
10 3 (0.63%) SC Cleared
11 1 (0.21%) CISSP
11 1 (0.21%) MBA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 12 (2.54%) MiFID
2 11 (2.33%) Dodd-Frank
2 11 (2.33%) EMIR
3 8 (1.69%) QA
4 5 (1.06%) DICOM
5 1 (0.21%) COBIT
5 1 (0.21%) Data Quality
5 1 (0.21%) GDPR
5 1 (0.21%) PMO
System Software
1 58 (12.26%) Docker
2 26 (5.50%) Firmware
3 3 (0.63%) Active Directory
3 3 (0.63%) VirtualBox
3 3 (0.63%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 32 (6.77%) Kubernetes
2 11 (2.33%) Ansible
3 6 (1.27%) FlexNet
4 4 (0.85%) Puppet
5 3 (0.63%) Nagios
5 3 (0.63%) Opscode Chef
5 3 (0.63%) Single Sign-On
5 3 (0.63%) ZABBIX
6 2 (0.42%) Terraform
7 1 (0.21%) AirWatch
7 1 (0.21%) HAProxy
Vendors
1 33 (6.98%) IBM
2 24 (5.07%) SAP
3 21 (4.44%) ANSYS
4 18 (3.81%) Twitter
5 13 (2.75%) Google
6 10 (2.11%) Salesforce.com
7 8 (1.69%) Yahoo!
8 7 (1.48%) Adobe
8 7 (1.48%) Marketo
8 7 (1.48%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
9 6 (1.27%) Bloomberg
9 6 (1.27%) Oracle
10 5 (1.06%) Microsoft
10 5 (1.06%) Xilinx
11 4 (0.85%) Sun
12 3 (0.63%) Siebel
12 3 (0.63%) Sonatype
12 3 (0.63%) VMware
13 2 (0.42%) Canon
13 2 (0.42%) Databricks