Period
to 26 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 26 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
26 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 404 494 390
Rank change year-on-year +90 -104 -61
Permanent jobs citing PhD 427 653 1,200
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.66% 0.53% 0.80%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.25% 2.41% 3.29%
Number of salaries quoted 397 473 994
Median annual salary £70,000 £67,500 £60,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +3.70% +12.50% +9.09%
10th Percentile £40,850 £36,250 £32,500
90th Percentile £103,750 £110,000 £115,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £62,500 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year +25.00% +5.26% -5.00%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 13,157 27,110 36,478
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.24% 21.88% 24.19%
Number of salaries quoted 9,596 20,445 27,046
Median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%
10th Percentile £31,250 £27,500 £26,250
90th Percentile £85,000 £82,500 £81,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £49,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +8.89% - +5.88%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 26 January 2021.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 26 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +101 403 £70,000 - 218
UK excluding London +137 233 £62,500 +25.00% 169
London +61 183 £75,000 -3.23% 60
Work from Home -20 70 £70,000 - 20
South East +122 64 £60,000 +33.33% 72
North of England +108 56 £70,000 +85.90% 27
East of England +81 48 £65,000 +13.04% 39
South West +82 31 £47,000 +7.43% 9
Yorkshire +62 28 £70,000 +100.00% 4
North West +74 27 £80,000 +112.46% 14
Scotland +16 17 £55,000 +3.77% 6
Midlands +69 13 £53,153 +32.88% 13
East Midlands +46 12 £53,153 +32.88% 10
Wales +41 2 £45,000 +19.21% 3
Northern Ireland - 2 - - 2
West Midlands +54 1 - - 3
North East - 1 £55,000 - 9

For the 6 months to 26 January 2021, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 251 (58.78%) Python
2 209 (48.95%) Machine Learning
3 169 (39.58%) Degree
4 162 (37.94%) Mathematics
5 151 (35.36%) Algorithms
6 145 (33.96%) Data Science
7 132 (30.91%) Computer Science
8 125 (29.27%) Artificial Intelligence
9 100 (23.42%) Deep Learning
10 98 (22.95%) C++
11 96 (22.48%) Agile Software Development
12 95 (22.25%) Finance
13 91 (21.31%) SQL
14 87 (20.37%) TensorFlow
15 71 (16.63%) Java
16 69 (16.16%) Statistics
16 69 (16.16%) Physics
17 67 (15.69%) Software Engineering
18 62 (14.52%) C
19 59 (13.82%) Docker
20 58 (13.58%) R
21 55 (12.88%) Analytics
21 55 (12.88%) Azure
22 52 (12.18%) PyTorch
23 51 (11.94%) Master's Degree
23 51 (11.94%) Computer Vision
24 48 (11.24%) Natural Language Processing
25 47 (11.01%) Visualisation
25 47 (11.01%) C#
26 45 (10.54%) Git (software)

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 23 (5.39%) CMS
2 19 (4.45%) Apache Spark
3 8 (1.87%) SAS
4 7 (1.64%) Apache
5 6 (1.41%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 6 (1.41%) Jupyter
6 2 (0.47%) Apache Pig
6 2 (0.47%) Confluence
6 2 (0.47%) FileNet
7 1 (0.23%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 17 (3.98%) Simulink
2 12 (2.81%) Stateflow
3 10 (2.34%) SOLIDWORKS
4 7 (1.64%) Microsoft Office
5 1 (0.23%) Maya
5 1 (0.23%) Microsoft Excel
5 1 (0.23%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 8 (1.87%) FINCAD Analytics
2 5 (1.17%) SAP S/4HANA
3 1 (0.23%) Dynamics AX
3 1 (0.23%) Oracle HRMS
3 1 (0.23%) Salesforce.com CRM
Cloud Services
1 55 (12.88%) Azure
2 42 (9.84%) AWS
3 33 (7.73%) GCP
4 10 (2.34%) Amazon SageMaker
5 9 (2.11%) GitHub
6 6 (1.41%) SaaS
7 4 (0.94%) AWS Lambda
7 4 (0.94%) Cloud Computing
7 4 (0.94%) Serverless
8 3 (0.70%) Amazon SQS
8 3 (0.70%) NuGet
8 3 (0.70%) Veeva
9 1 (0.23%) Akamai
9 1 (0.23%) Amazon S3
9 1 (0.23%) Apigee
9 1 (0.23%) Dynamics 365
9 1 (0.23%) npm
9 1 (0.23%) OpenShift
9 1 (0.23%) Oracle CX
9 1 (0.23%) Power Platform
Communications & Networking
1 27 (6.32%) Wireless
2 17 (3.98%) Wi-Fi
3 12 (2.81%) DVB
3 12 (2.81%) MIMO
4 8 (1.87%) NAS
5 6 (1.41%) Internet
5 6 (1.41%) TCP/IP
6 5 (1.17%) Bluetooth
6 5 (1.17%) Broadband
6 5 (1.17%) Ethernet
6 5 (1.17%) Software-Defined Radio
6 5 (1.17%) VSAT
7 3 (0.70%) SNMP
8 2 (0.47%) Network Security
9 1 (0.23%) Cisco ASA
9 1 (0.23%) Firewall
9 1 (0.23%) FTP
9 1 (0.23%) RFID
9 1 (0.23%) Skype
Database & Business Intelligence
1 33 (7.73%) Big Data
2 25 (5.85%) Hadoop
3 24 (5.62%) NoSQL
4 21 (4.92%) SQL Server
5 19 (4.45%) MongoDB
6 14 (3.28%) Tableau
7 13 (3.04%) PostgreSQL
8 12 (2.81%) Blockchain
9 11 (2.58%) Data Mining
10 8 (1.87%) Apache Hive
11 7 (1.64%) Amazon Redshift
11 7 (1.64%) Relational Database
12 6 (1.41%) QlikView
13 5 (1.17%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 5 (1.17%) Data Warehouse
13 5 (1.17%) MySQL
13 5 (1.17%) Spotfire
14 4 (0.94%) Data Lake
15 3 (0.70%) Amazon RDS
15 3 (0.70%) Flink
Development Applications
1 45 (10.54%) Git (software)
2 11 (2.58%) TeamCity
3 10 (2.34%) Jenkins
4 8 (1.87%) GCC
5 7 (1.64%) GitLab
6 6 (1.41%) IntelliJ
6 6 (1.41%) JUnit
6 6 (1.41%) Mockito
7 4 (0.94%) JIRA
8 3 (0.70%) Gradle
8 3 (0.70%) Sonatype Nexus
8 3 (0.70%) Travis CI
9 2 (0.47%) Bitbucket
9 2 (0.47%) Octopus Deploy
10 1 (0.23%) Atlassian Bamboo
10 1 (0.23%) CircleCI
10 1 (0.23%) CMake
10 1 (0.23%) Cypress.io
10 1 (0.23%) LabVIEW
10 1 (0.23%) Rational DOORS
General
1 95 (22.25%) Finance
2 25 (5.85%) Banking
3 20 (4.68%) Advertising
4 19 (4.45%) Electronics
4 19 (4.45%) Manufacturing
5 16 (3.75%) Games
5 16 (3.75%) Telecoms
6 15 (3.51%) Law
7 14 (3.28%) Marketing
8 9 (2.11%) Aerospace
8 9 (2.11%) Pharmaceutical
9 8 (1.87%) Legal
10 7 (1.64%) Military
10 7 (1.64%) Retail
11 3 (0.70%) French Language
11 3 (0.70%) German Language
12 2 (0.47%) Dutch Language
12 2 (0.47%) Police
12 2 (0.47%) Polish Language
12 2 (0.47%) Spanish Language
Job Titles
1 91 (21.31%) Data Scientist
2 70 (16.39%) Developer
3 46 (10.77%) Machine Learning Engineer
4 30 (7.03%) Software Engineer
5 29 (6.79%) Senior Data Scientist
6 26 (6.09%) Senior Developer
7 21 (4.92%) .NET Developer
8 19 (4.45%) Systems Engineer
9 18 (4.22%) Analyst
9 18 (4.22%) Machine Learning Scientist
10 17 (3.98%) Design Engineer
11 16 (3.75%) Data Engineer
12 15 (3.51%) Consultant
12 15 (3.51%) Graduate
12 15 (3.51%) Quantitative Developer
13 14 (3.28%) DSP Engineer
14 13 (3.04%) Algorithm Engineer
15 12 (2.81%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
15 12 (2.81%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
15 12 (2.81%) Senior DSP Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 87 (20.37%) TensorFlow
2 52 (12.18%) PyTorch
3 48 (11.24%) Natural Language Processing
4 28 (6.56%) .NET
5 25 (5.85%) REST
5 25 (5.85%) scikit-learn
6 22 (5.15%) Keras
7 20 (4.68%) Web Services
8 18 (4.22%) NumPy
9 15 (3.51%) OpenCV
9 15 (3.51%) Pandas
10 13 (3.04%) Kafka
11 11 (2.58%) Spring Boot
12 10 (2.34%) Node.js
12 10 (2.34%) OpenGL
13 8 (1.87%) Caffe
13 8 (1.87%) LLVM
13 8 (1.87%) RESTful
13 8 (1.87%) Theano
14 7 (1.64%) Torch
Miscellaneous
1 151 (35.36%) Algorithms
2 43 (10.07%) Analytical Skills
3 25 (5.85%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
4 17 (3.98%) Equities
4 17 (3.98%) Greenfield Project
5 16 (3.75%) Blog
6 14 (3.28%) Enterprise Software
6 14 (3.28%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 14 (3.28%) Market Risk
7 13 (3.04%) Exotic Derivative
7 13 (3.04%) Self-Motivation
8 12 (2.81%) Robotics
9 10 (2.34%) ASTM
9 10 (2.34%) Data Structures
9 10 (2.34%) Life Science
10 9 (2.11%) Management Information System
11 8 (1.87%) Acoustics
11 8 (1.87%) Cyberattack
11 8 (1.87%) Embedded Systems
11 8 (1.87%) Marketing Technology
Operating Systems
1 44 (10.30%) Linux
2 10 (2.34%) Windows
3 8 (1.87%) Android
4 7 (1.64%) Unix
5 4 (0.94%) VxWorks
Processes & Methodologies
1 209 (48.95%) Machine Learning
2 162 (37.94%) Mathematics
3 145 (33.96%) Data Science
4 132 (30.91%) Computer Science
5 125 (29.27%) Artificial Intelligence
6 100 (23.42%) Deep Learning
7 96 (22.48%) Agile Software Development
8 69 (16.16%) Physics
8 69 (16.16%) Statistics
9 67 (15.69%) Software Engineering
10 55 (12.88%) Analytics
11 51 (11.94%) Computer Vision
12 47 (11.01%) Visualisation
13 43 (10.07%) DevOps
14 41 (9.60%) Neural Network
14 41 (9.60%) Signal Processing
15 37 (8.67%) Data Visualisation
16 36 (8.43%) Problem-Solving
16 36 (8.43%) TDD
17 35 (8.20%) Stakeholder Management
Programming Languages
1 251 (58.78%) Python
2 98 (22.95%) C++
3 91 (21.31%) SQL
4 71 (16.63%) Java
5 62 (14.52%) C
6 58 (13.58%) R
7 47 (11.01%) C#
8 43 (10.07%) MATLAB
9 28 (6.56%) JavaScript
10 16 (3.75%) Scala
11 10 (2.34%) Bash Shell
12 7 (1.64%) Go
13 6 (1.41%) F#
14 4 (0.94%) Julia
14 4 (0.94%) PHP
15 3 (0.70%) Java 8
15 3 (0.70%) Rust
16 2 (0.47%) GLSL
16 2 (0.47%) Shell Script
16 2 (0.47%) TypeScript
Qualifications
1 169 (39.58%) Degree
2 51 (11.94%) Master's Degree
3 27 (6.32%) Computer Science Degree
4 8 (1.87%) MPhil
4 8 (1.87%) Numerate Degree
5 4 (0.94%) CFA
5 4 (0.94%) DBS Check
5 4 (0.94%) Security Cleared
6 3 (0.70%) PMI Certification
7 2 (0.47%) DV Cleared
7 2 (0.47%) PMP
7 2 (0.47%) Postgraduate
8 1 (0.23%) CISSP
8 1 (0.23%) SC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 14 (3.28%) MiFID
2 13 (3.04%) Dodd-Frank
2 13 (3.04%) EMIR
3 4 (0.94%) QA
4 2 (0.47%) DICOM
5 1 (0.23%) COBIT
5 1 (0.23%) Data Quality
5 1 (0.23%) MISRA
5 1 (0.23%) PMO
System Software
1 59 (13.82%) Docker
2 18 (4.22%) Firmware
3 3 (0.70%) Active Directory
3 3 (0.70%) VirtualBox
3 3 (0.70%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 31 (7.26%) Kubernetes
2 8 (1.87%) Ansible
3 5 (1.17%) Istio
4 4 (0.94%) Puppet
5 3 (0.70%) Nagios
5 3 (0.70%) Opscode Chef
5 3 (0.70%) Single Sign-On
5 3 (0.70%) ZABBIX
6 1 (0.23%) HAProxy
6 1 (0.23%) Terraform
Vendors
1 20 (4.68%) IBM
2 14 (3.28%) Google
3 10 (2.34%) ANSYS
3 10 (2.34%) Oracle
3 10 (2.34%) Salesforce.com
3 10 (2.34%) SAP
4 6 (1.41%) Adobe
4 6 (1.41%) Marketo
4 6 (1.41%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
5 5 (1.17%) Twitter
5 5 (1.17%) Xilinx
6 4 (0.94%) Sun
7 3 (0.70%) Microsoft
7 3 (0.70%) Siebel
7 3 (0.70%) Sonatype
7 3 (0.70%) VMware
8 2 (0.47%) Alteryx
8 2 (0.47%) Canon
8 2 (0.47%) Databricks
8 2 (0.47%) Siemens