Period
to 13 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 13 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
13 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 400 495 399
Rank change year-on-year +95 -96 -85
Permanent jobs citing PhD 564 579 1,127
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.68% 0.51% 0.76%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.27% 2.37% 3.07%
Number of salaries quoted 358 397 843
10th Percentile £35,000 £36,250 £32,500
25th Percentile £46,250 £50,000 £40,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £67,500 £60,000
Median % change year-on-year -3.70% +12.50% +9.09%
75th Percentile £86,250 £91,250 £82,500
90th Percentile £107,000 £112,500 £101,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £55,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year -9.09% +15.79% -5.00%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 17,258 24,425 36,696
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.78% 21.46% 24.65%
Number of salaries quoted 11,686 18,392 26,841
10th Percentile £31,250 £28,000 £26,500
25th Percentile £41,250 £36,250 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £50,500 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +8.91% +1.00% +5.26%
75th Percentile £72,500 £67,500 £66,250
90th Percentile £86,250 £83,750 £81,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +6.38% +4.44% +3.45%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 15 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 13 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +89 526 £65,000 -7.14% 198
UK excluding London +154 317 £50,000 -9.09% 146
London +34 234 £80,000 +6.67% 62
Work from Home -50 96 £70,000 +36.59% 21
North of England +80 77 £70,000 +88.62% 17
East of England +68 72 £40,000 -30.43% 40
South West +70 59 £52,500 +27.27% 11
South East +64 56 £50,000 -9.09% 58
Yorkshire +53 52 £70,000 +115.38% 3
Scotland +18 27 £46,280 -21.23% 8
North West +33 25 £50,000 +32.79% 11
Midlands +35 22 £28,252 -50.87% 11
East Midlands +18 18 £28,252 -43.50% 6
West Midlands +23 4 - - 5
Northern Ireland +6 4 £40,000 - 1

For the 6 months to 13 April 2021, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 337 (59.75%) Python
2 242 (42.91%) Machine Learning
3 230 (40.78%) Degree
4 201 (35.64%) Mathematics
5 194 (34.40%) Data Science
6 193 (34.22%) Algorithms
7 178 (31.56%) Computer Science
8 155 (27.48%) Artificial Intelligence
9 117 (20.74%) Deep Learning
10 115 (20.39%) C++
11 108 (19.15%) Agile Software Development
11 108 (19.15%) Software Engineering
12 101 (17.91%) Finance
13 98 (17.38%) SQL
14 94 (16.67%) Statistics
15 93 (16.49%) Physics
16 91 (16.13%) Analytics
17 90 (15.96%) TensorFlow
18 88 (15.60%) C
19 78 (13.83%) R
19 78 (13.83%) Natural Language Processing
20 76 (13.48%) Computer Vision
21 74 (13.12%) MATLAB
22 72 (12.77%) Java
23 71 (12.59%) Analytical Skills
24 66 (11.70%) Docker
24 66 (11.70%) Problem-Solving
24 66 (11.70%) Neural Network
25 63 (11.17%) Signal Processing
26 62 (10.99%) PyTorch

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 24 (4.26%) CMS
2 18 (3.19%) Apache Spark
3 17 (3.01%) SAS
4 12 (2.13%) Jupyter
5 8 (1.42%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 7 (1.24%) Apache
7 2 (0.35%) Apache Airflow
7 2 (0.35%) Apache Pig
7 2 (0.35%) Confluence
7 2 (0.35%) SugarCRM
8 1 (0.18%) Elasticsearch
8 1 (0.18%) OpenStack
Applications
1 32 (5.67%) Simulink
2 28 (4.96%) Stateflow
3 21 (3.72%) SOLIDWORKS
4 13 (2.30%) Microsoft Office
5 7 (1.24%) Microsoft Excel
6 5 (0.89%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 2 (0.35%) Zemax
Business Applications
1 17 (3.01%) SAP S/4HANA
2 9 (1.60%) FINCAD Analytics
3 3 (0.53%) SAP BPC
3 3 (0.53%) SAP IBP
4 1 (0.18%) Oracle HRMS
Cloud Services
1 41 (7.27%) AWS
2 37 (6.56%) Azure
3 35 (6.21%) GCP
4 17 (3.01%) GitHub
5 9 (1.60%) Amazon SageMaker
6 7 (1.24%) Cloud Computing
6 7 (1.24%) SaaS
7 6 (1.06%) Amazon S3
8 5 (0.89%) Serverless
9 4 (0.71%) AWS Lambda
10 3 (0.53%) Veeva
11 2 (0.35%) Amazon EC2
11 2 (0.35%) Oracle CX
11 2 (0.35%) Power Platform
12 1 (0.18%) Akamai
12 1 (0.18%) Apigee
12 1 (0.18%) Azure Data Factory
12 1 (0.18%) npm
12 1 (0.18%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 52 (9.22%) Wireless
2 29 (5.14%) Wi-Fi
3 26 (4.61%) DVB
3 26 (4.61%) MIMO
4 6 (1.06%) Internet
4 6 (1.06%) NAS
4 6 (1.06%) Network Security
5 5 (0.89%) TCP/IP
6 4 (0.71%) Broadband
6 4 (0.71%) Ethernet
6 4 (0.71%) Software-Defined Radio
6 4 (0.71%) VSAT
7 3 (0.53%) Bluetooth
8 1 (0.18%) 5G
8 1 (0.18%) Firewall
8 1 (0.18%) Skype
Database & Business Intelligence
1 51 (9.04%) Big Data
2 26 (4.61%) Hadoop
3 20 (3.55%) Data Mining
3 20 (3.55%) NoSQL
4 15 (2.66%) PostgreSQL
4 15 (2.66%) SQL Server
5 14 (2.48%) Tableau
6 11 (1.95%) Redis
7 10 (1.77%) MongoDB
8 9 (1.60%) Data Warehouse
9 8 (1.42%) Relational Database
10 7 (1.24%) MySQL
11 5 (0.89%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
11 5 (0.89%) Spotfire
12 4 (0.71%) Blockchain
12 4 (0.71%) Electronic Patient Records
12 4 (0.71%) Flink
13 3 (0.53%) Apache Hive
13 3 (0.53%) Data Lake
13 3 (0.53%) Impala
Development Applications
1 34 (6.03%) Git (software)
2 18 (3.19%) GitLab
3 7 (1.24%) Maven
4 6 (1.06%) Travis CI
5 5 (0.89%) Subversion
6 4 (0.71%) webpack
7 3 (0.53%) gulp
7 3 (0.53%) Jenkins
7 3 (0.53%) JIRA
7 3 (0.53%) Sonatype Nexus
7 3 (0.53%) Storybook
8 2 (0.35%) Bitbucket
8 2 (0.35%) LabVIEW
9 1 (0.18%) Babel
9 1 (0.18%) CircleCI
9 1 (0.18%) Cypress.io
9 1 (0.18%) Gradle
9 1 (0.18%) MLflow
9 1 (0.18%) Mockito
9 1 (0.18%) Rational DOORS
General
1 101 (17.91%) Finance
2 45 (7.98%) Telecoms
3 41 (7.27%) Manufacturing
4 40 (7.09%) Marketing
5 31 (5.50%) Law
6 24 (4.26%) Games
7 23 (4.08%) Pharmaceutical
8 22 (3.90%) Electronics
9 18 (3.19%) Retail
10 16 (2.84%) Advertising
11 15 (2.66%) Legal
12 9 (1.60%) Banking
13 7 (1.24%) Financial Institution
14 6 (1.06%) Aerospace
14 6 (1.06%) Military
15 5 (0.89%) French Language
16 3 (0.53%) Public Sector
16 3 (0.53%) Publishing
17 2 (0.35%) Automotive
17 2 (0.35%) Police
Job Titles
1 119 (21.10%) Data Scientist
2 62 (10.99%) Developer
3 37 (6.56%) Senior Data Scientist
4 36 (6.38%) Software Engineer
5 33 (5.85%) Systems Engineer
6 30 (5.32%) Algorithm Engineer
6 30 (5.32%) Machine Learning Engineer
7 27 (4.79%) Consultant
8 26 (4.61%) Design Engineer
8 26 (4.61%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
8 26 (4.61%) DSP Engineer
8 26 (4.61%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
8 26 (4.61%) Senior DSP Engineer
8 26 (4.61%) Wireless Engineer
9 25 (4.43%) Computer Engineer
9 25 (4.43%) Computer Vision Engineer
10 23 (4.08%) Graduate
11 21 (3.72%) Mechanical Design Engineer
11 21 (3.72%) Radio Engineer
11 21 (3.72%) Telecoms Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 90 (15.96%) TensorFlow
2 78 (13.83%) Natural Language Processing
3 62 (10.99%) PyTorch
4 36 (6.38%) scikit-learn
5 35 (6.21%) NumPy
5 35 (6.21%) REST
6 26 (4.61%) OpenCV
7 21 (3.72%) Keras
8 19 (3.37%) SciPy
8 19 (3.37%) Web Services
9 18 (3.19%) Pandas
10 17 (3.01%) Node.js
11 16 (2.84%) .NET
11 16 (2.84%) React
12 13 (2.30%) AngularJS
13 11 (1.95%) CSS
13 11 (1.95%) Django
13 11 (1.95%) Torch
14 10 (1.77%) Celery
14 10 (1.77%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 193 (34.22%) Algorithms
2 71 (12.59%) Analytical Skills
3 42 (7.45%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
4 33 (5.85%) Enterprise Software
5 29 (5.14%) Life Science
6 24 (4.26%) Blog
7 23 (4.08%) Robotics
8 21 (3.72%) ASTM
8 21 (3.72%) Hedge funds
9 20 (3.55%) User Experience
10 19 (3.37%) Self-Motivation
11 15 (2.66%) Cyberattack
12 13 (2.30%) Equities
12 13 (2.30%) Management Information System
13 12 (2.13%) Biotechnology
13 12 (2.13%) Greenfield Project
14 10 (1.77%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 10 (1.77%) Marketing Technology
15 9 (1.60%) Exotic Derivative
15 9 (1.60%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 43 (7.62%) Linux
2 6 (1.06%) Unix
2 6 (1.06%) Windows
3 4 (0.71%) Android
3 4 (0.71%) VxWorks
4 1 (0.18%) Apple iOS
4 1 (0.18%) Robot Operating System
4 1 (0.18%) Windows Phone
4 1 (0.18%) Windows Phone 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 242 (42.91%) Machine Learning
2 201 (35.64%) Mathematics
3 194 (34.40%) Data Science
4 178 (31.56%) Computer Science
5 155 (27.48%) Artificial Intelligence
6 117 (20.74%) Deep Learning
7 108 (19.15%) Agile Software Development
7 108 (19.15%) Software Engineering
8 94 (16.67%) Statistics
9 93 (16.49%) Physics
10 91 (16.13%) Analytics
11 76 (13.48%) Computer Vision
12 66 (11.70%) Neural Network
12 66 (11.70%) Problem-Solving
13 63 (11.17%) Signal Processing
14 57 (10.11%) Stakeholder Management
14 57 (10.11%) Validation
15 43 (7.62%) Visualisation
16 41 (7.27%) Business Transformation
16 41 (7.27%) Collaborative Working
Programming Languages
1 337 (59.75%) Python
2 115 (20.39%) C++
3 98 (17.38%) SQL
4 88 (15.60%) C
5 78 (13.83%) R
6 74 (13.12%) MATLAB
7 72 (12.77%) Java
8 37 (6.56%) C#
9 36 (6.38%) JavaScript
10 15 (2.66%) Cython
11 11 (1.95%) TypeScript
12 10 (1.77%) Bash Shell
12 10 (1.77%) Go
13 9 (1.60%) Scala
14 8 (1.42%) Julia
15 7 (1.24%) Java 8
16 4 (0.71%) Embedded C++
16 4 (0.71%) Fortran
16 4 (0.71%) Rust
17 3 (0.53%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 230 (40.78%) Degree
2 58 (10.28%) Master's Degree
3 27 (4.79%) Computer Science Degree
4 15 (2.66%) Security Cleared
5 13 (2.30%) Numerate Degree
6 10 (1.77%) DV Cleared
7 9 (1.60%) MPhil
8 7 (1.24%) PMI Certification
8 7 (1.24%) Postgraduate
9 6 (1.06%) DBS Check
10 5 (0.89%) PMP
11 4 (0.71%) SC Cleared
12 1 (0.18%) CISSP
12 1 (0.18%) MBA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 13 (2.30%) QA
2 9 (1.60%) Dodd-Frank
2 9 (1.60%) EMIR
2 9 (1.60%) MiFID
3 4 (0.71%) DICOM
3 4 (0.71%) MISRA
4 2 (0.35%) CDISC
4 2 (0.35%) Def Stans
4 2 (0.35%) IEC 62304
4 2 (0.35%) ISO 13485
5 1 (0.18%) Data Quality
5 1 (0.18%) GDPR
5 1 (0.18%) Good Clinical Practice
System Software
1 66 (11.70%) Docker
2 37 (6.56%) Firmware
3 3 (0.53%) VirtualBox
3 3 (0.53%) VMware Infrastructure
4 2 (0.35%) Active Directory
5 1 (0.18%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 31 (5.50%) Kubernetes
2 18 (3.19%) Ansible
3 8 (1.42%) FlexNet
4 4 (0.71%) Puppet
5 3 (0.53%) Nagios
5 3 (0.53%) Opscode Chef
5 3 (0.53%) Terraform
5 3 (0.53%) ZABBIX
6 1 (0.18%) AirWatch
6 1 (0.18%) HAProxy
6 1 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 38 (6.74%) IBM
2 29 (5.14%) ANSYS
2 29 (5.14%) Twitter
3 27 (4.79%) SAP
4 14 (2.48%) Yahoo!
5 12 (2.13%) Google
6 11 (1.95%) Salesforce.com
7 9 (1.60%) Microsoft
8 8 (1.42%) Adobe
8 8 (1.42%) Bloomberg
8 8 (1.42%) Marketo
8 8 (1.42%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
9 7 (1.24%) Oracle
10 4 (0.71%) Sun
10 4 (0.71%) Xilinx
11 3 (0.53%) Ariba
11 3 (0.53%) Siebel
11 3 (0.53%) Sonatype
11 3 (0.53%) VMware
12 2 (0.35%) Databricks