Period
to 15 August 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 15 August 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

PhD
UK
6 months to
15 Aug 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 362 406 449
Rank change year-on-year +44 +43 +176
Permanent jobs citing PhD 1,493 1,381 1,333
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.88% 0.78% 0.67%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.72% 3.18% 2.49%
Number of salaries quoted 1,301 1,272 1,278
UK median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.55% +10.00% +11.11%
10th Percentile £31,250 £28,750 £31,775
90th Percentile £107,500 £100,000 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £42,500 £41,250
% change year-on-year +17.65% +3.03% +3.13%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 40,163 43,367 53,557
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 23.68% 24.50% 26.99%
Number of salaries quoted 29,870 33,333 43,258
UK median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +11.11% - -
10th Percentile £26,250 £26,250 £26,250
90th Percentile £80,000 £77,500 £75,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 15 August 2018.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 15 August 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +38 1,457 £60,000 +9.09% 226
UK excluding London +10 782 £50,000 +17.65% 131
London +72 714 £70,000 - 103
South East +99 302 £50,000 +11.11% 42
East of England +1 301 £37,500 - 63
Midlands -10 56 £55,000 +46.67% 6
West Midlands +35 53 £55,000 +37.50% 6
North of England -33 49 £50,000 -2.44% 4
South West -68 44 £55,000 - 8
North West -28 38 £52,500 +5.00% 1
Scotland -13 17 £40,000 -13.51% 4
Yorkshire +27 9 £32,500 -35.00% 3
Northern Ireland - 8 £57,500 - 3
Wales +1 6 £30,000 -35.97% 1
East Midlands -37 3 £41,500 +22.96%
North East -27 2 £44,500 -62.92%

For the 6 months to 15 August 2018, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 941 (63.03%) Python
2 819 (54.86%) Machine Learning
3 719 (48.16%) Mathematics
4 717 (48.02%) C++
5 596 (39.92%) Computer Science
6 536 (35.90%) Java
7 530 (35.50%) Data Science
8 506 (33.89%) Degree
9 496 (33.22%) Algorithms
10 481 (32.22%) Artificial Intelligence
11 433 (29.00%) Physics
12 421 (28.20%) Software Engineering
13 384 (25.72%) Deep Learning
14 361 (24.18%) Analytics
15 322 (21.57%) R
16 315 (21.10%) Big Data
17 314 (21.03%) Natural Language Processing
18 300 (20.09%) C
19 268 (17.95%) Statistics
20 232 (15.54%) Bayesian Methods
21 226 (15.14%) C#
22 215 (14.40%) MATLAB
22 215 (14.40%) Finance
23 210 (14.07%) SQL
24 208 (13.93%) Neural Network
25 203 (13.60%) TensorFlow
26 177 (11.86%) Computer Vision
27 162 (10.85%) Agile Software Development
28 153 (10.25%) Reinforcement Learning
28 153 (10.25%) Analytical Skills

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 147 (9.85%) Apache Spark
2 37 (2.48%) SAS
3 27 (1.81%) Apache Pig
4 21 (1.41%) Ethereum
5 19 (1.27%) Apache
6 10 (0.67%) Elasticsearch
7 9 (0.60%) DNN
8 5 (0.33%) Amazon Alexa
8 5 (0.33%) CMS
8 5 (0.33%) Hyperledger
8 5 (0.33%) Tomcat
9 3 (0.20%) Jupyter
10 2 (0.13%) Apache Solr
10 2 (0.13%) Kinematics
10 2 (0.13%) Luigi
11 1 (0.067%) Confluence
11 1 (0.067%) nginx
Applications
1 35 (2.34%) GNU Octave
2 27 (1.81%) SPSS
3 18 (1.21%) Microsoft Excel
4 12 (0.80%) Chatbot
5 10 (0.67%) Microsoft Office
6 5 (0.33%) Stata
7 4 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 2 (0.13%) Mathematica
8 2 (0.13%) Simulink
9 1 (0.067%) Gephi
9 1 (0.067%) Microsoft Project
9 1 (0.067%) MS Visio
9 1 (0.067%) Spreadsheet
9 1 (0.067%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 2 (0.13%) Distributed Ledger
1 2 (0.13%) Misys Midas
2 1 (0.067%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 97 (6.50%) Amazon AWS
2 47 (3.15%) Microsoft Azure
3 34 (2.28%) Cloud Computing
4 21 (1.41%) Google Cloud Platform
5 11 (0.74%) GitHub
6 8 (0.54%) Cortana Intelligence Suite
7 4 (0.27%) Google Analytics
8 2 (0.13%) Amazon EMR
8 2 (0.13%) AWS Lambda
8 2 (0.13%) Serverless
9 1 (0.067%) Amazon EC2
9 1 (0.067%) AWS Data Pipeline
9 1 (0.067%) SaaS
Communications & Networking
1 26 (1.74%) Internet
2 10 (0.67%) SMS
3 9 (0.60%) Network Security
4 8 (0.54%) TCP/IP
5 7 (0.47%) Ethernet
6 4 (0.27%) HTTP
6 4 (0.27%) Radio Access Network
7 3 (0.20%) 5G
7 3 (0.20%) DMZ
7 3 (0.20%) Firewall
8 1 (0.067%) GSM
8 1 (0.067%) HTTPS
8 1 (0.067%) LTE
8 1 (0.067%) UMTS
8 1 (0.067%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 315 (21.10%) Big Data
2 110 (7.37%) Blockchain
3 104 (6.97%) Hadoop
4 86 (5.76%) NoSQL
5 58 (3.88%) Data Mining
6 51 (3.42%) Relational Database
7 47 (3.15%) Apache Hive
8 38 (2.55%) MongoDB
9 31 (2.08%) Apache Cassandra
10 30 (2.01%) MySQL
11 23 (1.54%) SQL Server
12 22 (1.47%) Hazelcast
13 17 (1.14%) PostgreSQL
14 14 (0.94%) HBase
14 14 (0.94%) Impala
15 13 (0.87%) Power BI
16 11 (0.74%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 11 (0.74%) Amazon Redshift
16 11 (0.74%) RDBMS
17 9 (0.60%) QlikView
Development Applications
1 43 (2.88%) Git (software)
2 29 (1.94%) LabVIEW
3 24 (1.61%) Subversion
4 7 (0.47%) Gradle
5 6 (0.40%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
6 5 (0.33%) Jenkins
6 5 (0.33%) JIRA
6 5 (0.33%) JUnit
7 4 (0.27%) Eclipse
7 4 (0.27%) Maven
8 2 (0.13%) Bitbucket
8 2 (0.13%) Visual Studio
9 1 (0.067%) Cucumber
9 1 (0.067%) RStudio
9 1 (0.067%) Selenium
9 1 (0.067%) SpecFlow
9 1 (0.067%) Spinnaker
9 1 (0.067%) TestNG
9 1 (0.067%) Travis CI
9 1 (0.067%) Xcode
General
1 215 (14.40%) Finance
2 76 (5.09%) Games
3 66 (4.42%) Banking
4 55 (3.68%) Telecoms
5 53 (3.55%) Marketing
6 50 (3.35%) Electronics
7 48 (3.22%) Manufacturing
8 37 (2.48%) Retail
9 35 (2.34%) Front Office
10 34 (2.28%) Publishing
11 30 (2.01%) Financial Institution
12 29 (1.94%) Advertising
13 25 (1.67%) Investment Banking
14 18 (1.21%) Pharmaceutical
15 16 (1.07%) Automotive
16 12 (0.80%) Aerospace
17 7 (0.47%) Legal
18 5 (0.33%) Law
19 4 (0.27%) Private Banking
20 2 (0.13%) Military
Job Titles
1 326 (21.84%) Data Scientist
2 278 (18.62%) Developer
3 251 (16.81%) Software Engineer
4 157 (10.52%) Graduate
5 108 (7.23%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 103 (6.90%) Analyst
7 102 (6.83%) Software Developer
8 95 (6.36%) Senior Data Scientist
9 87 (5.83%) C++ Developer
10 85 (5.69%) Developer/Software Engineer
11 76 (5.09%) C++ Software Engineer
12 72 (4.82%) Machine Learning Researcher
13 68 (4.55%) Graduate Software Engineer
14 67 (4.49%) Computer Engineer
15 66 (4.42%) Computer Vision Engineer
15 66 (4.42%) Research Engineer
16 63 (4.22%) Java Developer
17 60 (4.02%) Python Engineer
18 52 (3.48%) C++ Software Developer
19 51 (3.42%) Machine Learning Scientist
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 314 (21.03%) Natural Language Processing
2 203 (13.60%) TensorFlow
3 61 (4.09%) NumPy
4 56 (3.75%) Pandas
5 54 (3.62%) scikit-learn
6 49 (3.28%) XML
7 46 (3.08%) Ajax
8 45 (3.01%) HTML
8 45 (3.01%) Web Services
9 41 (2.75%) Keras
10 37 (2.48%) REST
10 37 (2.48%) SciPy
11 35 (2.34%) .NET
11 35 (2.34%) CSS
12 32 (2.14%) Node.js
13 30 (2.01%) Kafka
13 30 (2.01%) Spring
14 26 (1.74%) AngularJS
15 25 (1.67%) JSON
16 23 (1.54%) KnockoutJS
Miscellaneous
1 596 (39.92%) Computer Science
2 496 (33.22%) Algorithms
3 153 (10.25%) Analytical Skills
4 73 (4.89%) Fintech
5 48 (3.22%) Data Structures
6 38 (2.55%) Hedge funds
6 38 (2.55%) Self-Motivation
7 37 (2.48%) Equities
7 37 (2.48%) User Experience
8 35 (2.34%) Bitcoin
9 34 (2.28%) Robotics
10 33 (2.21%) Mobile App
11 29 (1.94%) Smart City
12 28 (1.88%) Derivative
13 27 (1.81%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 25 (1.67%) Optoelectronics
15 23 (1.54%) CUDA
15 23 (1.54%) NHS
15 23 (1.54%) Xbox
16 22 (1.47%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 135 (9.04%) Linux
2 47 (3.15%) Windows
3 18 (1.21%) Android
4 13 (0.87%) Apple iOS
4 13 (0.87%) Unix
5 10 (0.67%) Robot Operating System
6 2 (0.13%) Embedded Linux
7 1 (0.067%) CoreOS
7 1 (0.067%) Mac OS X
7 1 (0.067%) Solaris
Processes & Methodologies
1 819 (54.86%) Machine Learning
2 719 (48.16%) Mathematics
3 530 (35.50%) Data Science
4 481 (32.22%) Artificial Intelligence
5 433 (29.00%) Physics
6 421 (28.20%) Software Engineering
7 384 (25.72%) Deep Learning
8 361 (24.18%) Analytics
9 268 (17.95%) Statistics
10 232 (15.54%) Bayesian Methods
11 208 (13.93%) Neural Network
12 177 (11.86%) Computer Vision
13 162 (10.85%) Agile Software Development
14 153 (10.25%) Reinforcement Learning
15 152 (10.18%) Data Analysis
16 147 (9.85%) Probabilistic Modelling
17 132 (8.84%) Multithreading
18 125 (8.37%) Problem-Solving
19 113 (7.57%) Data Analytics
20 108 (7.23%) Distributed Algorithms
Programming Languages
1 941 (63.03%) Python
2 717 (48.02%) C++
3 536 (35.90%) Java
4 322 (21.57%) R
5 300 (20.09%) C
6 226 (15.14%) C#
7 215 (14.40%) MATLAB
8 210 (14.07%) SQL
9 118 (7.90%) JavaScript
10 93 (6.23%) Scala
11 29 (1.94%) Ruby
12 27 (1.81%) Java 8
13 26 (1.74%) Go
14 13 (0.87%) Fortran
14 13 (0.87%) Kotlin
14 13 (0.87%) Shell Script
15 12 (0.80%) PHP
16 11 (0.74%) Julia
16 11 (0.74%) Perl
17 10 (0.67%) VBA
Qualifications
1 506 (33.89%) Degree
2 77 (5.16%) Numerate Degree
3 72 (4.82%) Master's Degree
4 71 (4.76%) Computer Science Degree
5 16 (1.07%) PMI Certification
5 16 (1.07%) Security Cleared
6 14 (0.94%) DV Cleared
7 13 (0.87%) Postgraduate
8 7 (0.47%) PMP
9 3 (0.20%) MBA
9 3 (0.20%) SC Cleared
10 1 (0.067%) Chartered Engineer
10 1 (0.067%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 48 (3.22%) QA
2 12 (0.80%) MiFID
3 9 (0.60%) Dodd-Frank
3 9 (0.60%) EMIR
3 9 (0.60%) GCP
4 5 (0.33%) Data Quality
5 3 (0.20%) IFRS
5 3 (0.20%) IFRS 9
6 2 (0.13%) Actionable Recommendations
7 1 (0.067%) GDPR
System Software
1 16 (1.07%) Docker
2 13 (0.87%) Apache Flume
3 4 (0.27%) Firmware
4 2 (0.13%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 2 (0.13%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 13 (0.87%) Kubernetes
2 5 (0.33%) Oozie
3 4 (0.27%) Opscode Chef
4 3 (0.20%) Terraform
5 1 (0.067%) Ansible
5 1 (0.067%) Fluentd
5 1 (0.067%) Grafana
5 1 (0.067%) Hadoop YARN
5 1 (0.067%) logstash
5 1 (0.067%) Mesos
5 1 (0.067%) Prometheus
5 1 (0.067%) Puppet
5 1 (0.067%) Rancher
Vendors
1 76 (5.09%) Google
2 30 (2.01%) Tableau
3 20 (1.34%) Microsoft
4 14 (0.94%) SAP
5 11 (0.74%) Capita
5 11 (0.74%) Twitter
6 9 (0.60%) Oracle
7 7 (0.47%) Talend
8 5 (0.33%) Apple
8 5 (0.33%) Facebook
8 5 (0.33%) Xilinx
9 4 (0.27%) Hortonworks
9 4 (0.27%) IBM
9 4 (0.27%) Teradata
9 4 (0.27%) Vertica
10 3 (0.20%) Altera
10 3 (0.20%) Cloudera
10 3 (0.20%) Databricks
10 3 (0.20%) Intel
10 3 (0.20%) Splunk