Period
to 7 July 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 7 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
7 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 465 450 324
Rank change year-on-year -15 -126 +34
Permanent jobs citing PhD 433 950 1,734
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.55% 0.65% 0.97%
As % of the Qualifications category 2.54% 2.65% 4.09%
Number of salaries quoted 323 754 1,498
Median annual salary £65,000 £60,819 £55,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +6.87% +10.58% +4.76%
10th Percentile £37,500 £32,500 £30,000
90th Percentile £110,000 £95,000 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £60,000 £54,860 £50,000
% change year-on-year +9.37% +9.72% +25.00%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 17,078 35,789 42,347
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 21.71% 24.35% 23.71%
Number of salaries quoted 12,463 25,876 31,767
Median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% - +11.11%
10th Percentile £29,518 £26,490 £26,250
90th Percentile £85,000 £82,500 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £44,529
% change year-on-year +5.56% +1.06% +4.77%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 7 July 2020.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 7 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +32 405 £66,250 +6.00% 105
London +8 236 £75,000 +7.14% 46
UK excluding London +5 192 £60,000 +9.37% 63
East of England +45 53 £55,000 -12.00% 21
South East +36 52 £60,000 +33.33% 22
North of England +96 32 £42,500 -24.44% 6
Midlands +97 22 £57,500 +27.78% 4
Work from Home +39 22 £58,750 -16.07% 21
Scotland +45 21 £65,000 +12.07% 1
North West +64 12 £40,000 -17.95% 3
Yorkshire +108 11 £45,000 -25.00% 3
West Midlands +75 11 £57,500 +35.29% 1
East Midlands +73 11 £50,000 -20.00% 3
North East +33 9 £31,880 +11.18%
South West +77 8 £60,000 - 6
Wales +22 3 £52,500 +40.00% 3
Northern Ireland +20 2 - -

For the 6 months to 7 July 2020, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 270 (62.36%) Python
2 196 (45.27%) Data Science
3 193 (44.57%) Machine Learning
4 191 (44.11%) Mathematics
5 167 (38.57%) Computer Science
6 146 (33.72%) Algorithms
7 128 (29.56%) C++
8 122 (28.18%) Degree
9 112 (25.87%) Analytics
10 107 (24.71%) Artificial Intelligence
11 101 (23.33%) Finance
12 86 (19.86%) Statistics
13 84 (19.40%) SQL
14 81 (18.71%) Agile Software Development
15 77 (17.78%) Physics
16 74 (17.09%) Software Engineering
17 72 (16.63%) Java
18 66 (15.24%) R
19 64 (14.78%) Deep Learning
20 60 (13.86%) Data Analysis
21 56 (12.93%) Analytical Skills
21 56 (12.93%) Problem-Solving
22 55 (12.70%) Azure
23 53 (12.24%) Big Data
24 51 (11.78%) TensorFlow
25 47 (10.85%) AWS
26 46 (10.62%) Visualisation
27 45 (10.39%) Natural Language Processing
28 43 (9.93%) Pharmaceutical
29 42 (9.70%) SDLC

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 28 (6.47%) Apache Spark
2 18 (4.16%) CMS
3 13 (3.00%) Jupyter
4 5 (1.15%) SAS
5 4 (0.92%) Apache Airflow
6 3 (0.69%) Apache
7 2 (0.46%) JBoss
8 1 (0.23%) Apache Solr
8 1 (0.23%) Pachyderm
8 1 (0.23%) Tomcat
Applications
1 7 (1.62%) S-PLUS
2 3 (0.69%) Microsoft Office
3 2 (0.46%) Microsoft Excel
4 1 (0.23%) Chatbot
4 1 (0.23%) Stata
Business Applications
1 2 (0.46%) SAP S/4HANA
2 1 (0.23%) Salesforce.com CRM
2 1 (0.23%) SAP MDG
Cloud Services
1 55 (12.70%) Azure
2 47 (10.85%) AWS
3 36 (8.31%) GCP
4 27 (6.24%) PaaS
5 13 (3.00%) Power Platform
6 8 (1.85%) Cloud Computing
7 2 (0.46%) Amazon EC2
7 2 (0.46%) Amazon EMR
7 2 (0.46%) Amazon S3
7 2 (0.46%) Amazon SageMaker
7 2 (0.46%) AWS Data Pipeline
7 2 (0.46%) Google Sheets
7 2 (0.46%) SaaS
7 2 (0.46%) Slack
8 1 (0.23%) AWS CodeDeploy
8 1 (0.23%) G Suite
8 1 (0.23%) Google App Engine
Communications & Networking
1 12 (2.77%) Internet
2 2 (0.46%) DNS
2 2 (0.46%) Modbus
3 1 (0.23%) Broadband
3 1 (0.23%) Firewall
3 1 (0.23%) NAS
3 1 (0.23%) Network Security
3 1 (0.23%) SSH
3 1 (0.23%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 53 (12.24%) Big Data
2 25 (5.77%) Hadoop
3 22 (5.08%) Relational Database
4 17 (3.93%) Blockchain
5 13 (3.00%) PostgreSQL
5 13 (3.00%) Power BI
5 13 (3.00%) SQL Server
6 12 (2.77%) BigQuery
6 12 (2.77%) Data Mining
6 12 (2.77%) NoSQL
7 11 (2.54%) Apache Hive
8 10 (2.31%) Amazon Redshift
9 9 (2.08%) Data Warehouse
9 9 (2.08%) MongoDB
10 7 (1.62%) QlikView
10 7 (1.62%) RDBMS
11 5 (1.15%) MySQL
12 4 (0.92%) KDB
12 4 (0.92%) Kdb+
13 3 (0.69%) Snowflake Schema
Development Applications
1 34 (7.85%) Git (software)
2 12 (2.77%) Subversion
3 10 (2.31%) Jenkins
4 7 (1.62%) Atlassian Bamboo
4 7 (1.62%) Travis CI
5 4 (0.92%) GitLab
5 4 (0.92%) LabVIEW
5 4 (0.92%) Visual Studio
6 3 (0.69%) Eclipse
6 3 (0.69%) Mercurial
6 3 (0.69%) Metasploit
6 3 (0.69%) PyCharm
6 3 (0.69%) RStudio
6 3 (0.69%) Snyk
6 3 (0.69%) SonarQube
6 3 (0.69%) Visual Studio Code
7 2 (0.46%) JIRA
7 2 (0.46%) MLflow
8 1 (0.23%) gulp
8 1 (0.23%) webpack
General
1 101 (23.33%) Finance
2 43 (9.93%) Pharmaceutical
3 20 (4.62%) Banking
3 20 (4.62%) Front Office
4 19 (4.39%) Marketing
5 15 (3.46%) Games
6 13 (3.00%) Electronics
7 12 (2.77%) Retail
8 10 (2.31%) Advertising
9 8 (1.85%) Law
10 7 (1.62%) Manufacturing
11 6 (1.39%) Automotive
12 4 (0.92%) Telecoms
13 3 (0.69%) Financial Institution
14 2 (0.46%) German Language
14 2 (0.46%) Military
14 2 (0.46%) Publishing
15 1 (0.23%) Brand Awareness
15 1 (0.23%) Public Sector
15 1 (0.23%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 97 (22.40%) Data Scientist
2 50 (11.55%) Analyst
3 49 (11.32%) Architect
4 47 (10.85%) Developer
4 47 (10.85%) Senior Data Scientist
5 43 (9.93%) Software Engineer
6 37 (8.55%) Qualitative Analyst
6 37 (8.55%) Quantitative Analyst
7 31 (7.16%) Machine Learning Engineer
8 27 (6.24%) Software Architect
9 20 (4.62%) Quantitative Developer
10 19 (4.39%) Data Engineer
10 19 (4.39%) Machine Learning Scientist
11 18 (4.16%) Analyst Developer
12 17 (3.93%) Quantitative Analyst Developer
13 16 (3.70%) C++ Software Engineer
14 12 (2.77%) C++ Developer
14 12 (2.77%) Python Engineer
14 12 (2.77%) Senior Software Engineer
15 9 (2.08%) Quantitative Risk Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 51 (11.78%) TensorFlow
2 45 (10.39%) Natural Language Processing
3 33 (7.62%) PyTorch
4 31 (7.16%) scikit-learn
5 28 (6.47%) Keras
6 27 (6.24%) Pandas
7 24 (5.54%) NumPy
8 20 (4.62%) .NET
9 16 (3.70%) OpenCL
10 14 (3.23%) OpenGL ES
10 14 (3.23%) Vulkan
11 13 (3.00%) Qt
12 10 (2.31%) HTML
13 8 (1.85%) Boost C++ Libraries
13 8 (1.85%) MFC
13 8 (1.85%) Node.js
13 8 (1.85%) OpenGL
13 8 (1.85%) REST
13 8 (1.85%) Web Services
13 8 (1.85%) WinForms
Miscellaneous
1 146 (33.72%) Algorithms
2 56 (12.93%) Analytical Skills
3 25 (5.77%) Derivative
4 20 (4.62%) Market Risk
4 20 (4.62%) Robotics
5 18 (4.16%) Swaptions
6 17 (3.93%) Self-Motivation
7 16 (3.70%) Greenfield Project
8 14 (3.23%) CUDA
9 12 (2.77%) Hedge funds
9 12 (2.77%) Management Information System
10 11 (2.54%) Internet of Things
11 9 (2.08%) User Experience
12 8 (1.85%) Credit Risk
12 8 (1.85%) Equities
12 8 (1.85%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 7 (1.62%) Renewable Energy
14 6 (1.39%) PKI
15 5 (1.15%) Embedded Systems
15 5 (1.15%) Exotic Derivative
Operating Systems
1 24 (5.54%) Linux
2 8 (1.85%) Windows
3 5 (1.15%) Embedded Linux
4 4 (0.92%) Unix
4 4 (0.92%) VMS
5 3 (0.69%) Kali Linux
5 3 (0.69%) Robot Operating System
5 3 (0.69%) Ubuntu
6 2 (0.46%) Debian
6 2 (0.46%) Fedora
7 1 (0.23%) Android
7 1 (0.23%) Apple iOS
7 1 (0.23%) CentOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 196 (45.27%) Data Science
2 193 (44.57%) Machine Learning
3 191 (44.11%) Mathematics
4 167 (38.57%) Computer Science
5 112 (25.87%) Analytics
6 107 (24.71%) Artificial Intelligence
7 86 (19.86%) Statistics
8 81 (18.71%) Agile Software Development
9 77 (17.78%) Physics
10 74 (17.09%) Software Engineering
11 64 (14.78%) Deep Learning
12 60 (13.86%) Data Analysis
13 56 (12.93%) Problem-Solving
14 46 (10.62%) Visualisation
15 42 (9.70%) SDLC
16 34 (7.85%) Data Analytics
17 33 (7.62%) Threat Modelling
18 31 (7.16%) Stochastic Calculus
19 28 (6.47%) Software Architecture
20 27 (6.24%) Innovative Thinking
Programming Languages
1 270 (62.36%) Python
2 128 (29.56%) C++
3 84 (19.40%) SQL
4 72 (16.63%) Java
5 66 (15.24%) R
6 41 (9.47%) C
7 29 (6.70%) C#
7 29 (6.70%) MATLAB
7 29 (6.70%) Scala
8 20 (4.62%) Go
9 19 (4.39%) JavaScript
10 11 (2.54%) Assembly Language
11 9 (2.08%) Rust
12 8 (1.85%) Bash Shell
12 8 (1.85%) Julia
13 7 (1.62%) TypeScript
14 4 (0.92%) Haskell
14 4 (0.92%) ML
14 4 (0.92%) PHP
15 3 (0.69%) PowerShell
Qualifications
1 122 (28.18%) Degree
2 36 (8.31%) Master's Degree
3 19 (4.39%) Computer Science Degree
4 9 (2.08%) Numerate Degree
5 5 (1.15%) PMI Certification
5 5 (1.15%) Security Cleared
6 4 (0.92%) CISSP
6 4 (0.92%) MBA
7 3 (0.69%) (ISC)2 CCSP
7 3 (0.69%) CEH
7 3 (0.69%) Cisco Certification
7 3 (0.69%) CSSLP
7 3 (0.69%) GWAPT
7 3 (0.69%) ISSAP
7 3 (0.69%) ISSEP
7 3 (0.69%) Postgraduate
8 2 (0.46%) DV Cleared
9 1 (0.23%) AWS Certification
9 1 (0.23%) CREST Certified
9 1 (0.23%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 6 (1.39%) MiFID
2 5 (1.15%) COBIT
2 5 (1.15%) Dodd-Frank
2 5 (1.15%) EMIR
2 5 (1.15%) NIST
3 4 (0.92%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 4 (0.92%) QA
4 2 (0.46%) Basel II
4 2 (0.46%) Basel III
5 1 (0.23%) Actionable Recommendations
5 1 (0.23%) Data Quality
5 1 (0.23%) ISO 13485
5 1 (0.23%) PMO
System Software
1 24 (5.54%) Docker
2 7 (1.62%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 25 (5.77%) Kubernetes
2 10 (2.31%) Terraform
3 6 (1.39%) Istio
4 3 (0.69%) Nessus
4 3 (0.69%) Nmap
4 3 (0.69%) Sysdig
5 2 (0.46%) Ansible
6 1 (0.23%) Puppet
Vendors
1 18 (4.16%) Tableau
2 17 (3.93%) Oracle
3 11 (2.54%) Google
4 7 (1.62%) Alteryx
5 6 (1.39%) Autodesk
5 6 (1.39%) Microsoft
6 4 (0.92%) SAP
6 4 (0.92%) Sybase
6 4 (0.92%) Yahoo!
7 3 (0.69%) Databricks
7 3 (0.69%) Perforce
7 3 (0.69%) Qualys
7 3 (0.69%) Salesforce.com
7 3 (0.69%) Teradata
8 2 (0.46%) Cognizant
8 2 (0.46%) Foundry
8 2 (0.46%) MicroStrategy
8 2 (0.46%) Palantir
8 2 (0.46%) Samsung
9 1 (0.23%) Twitter