Period
to 20 January 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 20 January 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
20 Jan 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 497 387 325
Rank change year-on-year -110 -62 +109
Permanent jobs citing PhD 643 1,199 1,704
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.51% 0.80% 0.98%
As % of the Qualifications category 2.34% 3.32% 4.14%
Number of salaries quoted 439 985 1,408
UK median annual salary £70,000 £60,000 £55,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +16.67% +9.09% -
10th Percentile £36,250 £32,500 £30,000
90th Percentile £110,000 £117,500 £95,375
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% -5.00% +17.65%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 27,490 36,073 41,165
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 21.93% 24.12% 23.78%
Number of salaries quoted 20,328 26,380 31,937
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £27,500 £26,250 £26,250
90th Percentile £82,500 £81,250 £78,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 20 January 2020.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 14 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 20 January 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -118 595 £72,500 +20.83% 200
London -77 360 £77,500 +3.33% 66
UK excluding London -117 278 £50,000 +5.26% 146
South East -90 90 £45,000 -5.26% 36
East of England -32 67 £60,000 +37.93% 51
Scotland +51 41 £53,000 +53.62% 11
North of England +32 36 £37,112 -14.19% 9
North West +33 29 £37,654 -16.32% 2
Midlands +56 20 £40,000 -15.79% 16
South West +6 20 £42,500 -22.73% 22
East Midlands +33 16 £43,750 +16.67% 7
Yorkshire +27 7 £35,000 -41.67% 2
West Midlands +15 4 £38,750 -42.59% 9
Wales -3 4 £37,750 -13.71%

For the 6 months to 20 January 2020, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 421 (65.47%) Python
2 336 (52.26%) Machine Learning
3 320 (49.77%) Data Science
4 292 (45.41%) Mathematics
5 276 (42.92%) Computer Science
6 262 (40.75%) Degree
7 217 (33.75%) Algorithms
8 208 (32.35%) C++
9 166 (25.82%) Statistics
10 160 (24.88%) Artificial Intelligence
11 154 (23.95%) Analytics
12 149 (23.17%) Deep Learning
13 146 (22.71%) Software Engineering
14 141 (21.93%) Physics
15 138 (21.46%) R
16 137 (21.31%) Agile Software Development
17 129 (20.06%) Java
18 128 (19.91%) SQL
19 126 (19.60%) Finance
20 106 (16.49%) TensorFlow
21 100 (15.55%) Big Data
21 100 (15.55%) AWS
22 95 (14.77%) Analytical Skills
23 84 (13.06%) Azure
24 83 (12.91%) Apache Spark
25 82 (12.75%) Master's Degree
26 80 (12.44%) MATLAB
27 79 (12.29%) Data Analysis
28 73 (11.35%) Natural Language Processing
29 70 (10.89%) C#

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 83 (12.91%) Apache Spark
2 9 (1.40%) SAS
3 5 (0.78%) Jupyter
3 5 (0.78%) Tornado
4 4 (0.62%) CMS
5 3 (0.47%) Apache
6 2 (0.31%) Hyperledger
7 1 (0.16%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 1 (0.16%) Apache Pig
7 1 (0.16%) Ethereum
7 1 (0.16%) Headless CMS
7 1 (0.16%) OpenStack
Applications
1 5 (0.78%) Stata
2 3 (0.47%) Pipeline Pilot
2 3 (0.47%) Simulink
3 2 (0.31%) SPSS
4 1 (0.16%) GNU Octave
4 1 (0.16%) Microsoft Excel
4 1 (0.16%) Microsoft Office
4 1 (0.16%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 5 (0.78%) SAP ERP
1 5 (0.78%) SAP S/4HANA
2 1 (0.16%) Magento
Cloud Services
1 100 (15.55%) AWS
2 84 (13.06%) Azure
3 41 (6.38%) GCP
4 34 (5.29%) PaaS
5 6 (0.93%) Slack
6 5 (0.78%) Cloud Computing
7 4 (0.62%) Amazon SageMaker
8 3 (0.47%) Google Analytics
8 3 (0.47%) Serverless
9 2 (0.31%) Amazon EC2
9 2 (0.31%) Amazon ECS
9 2 (0.31%) Amazon S3
9 2 (0.31%) AWS CloudFormation
9 2 (0.31%) AWS Lambda
9 2 (0.31%) Dialogflow
10 1 (0.16%) Apigee
10 1 (0.16%) Boomi
10 1 (0.16%) GitHub
10 1 (0.16%) Power Platform
Communications & Networking
1 17 (2.64%) Internet
2 8 (1.24%) 5G
3 7 (1.09%) LTE
4 6 (0.93%) Ethernet
4 6 (0.93%) Wireless
4 6 (0.93%) Wireshark
5 5 (0.78%) 4G
5 5 (0.78%) DVB
6 4 (0.62%) Firewall
6 4 (0.62%) Network Security
7 2 (0.31%) 3G
7 2 (0.31%) 3GPP
7 2 (0.31%) HSPA
7 2 (0.31%) PPP
7 2 (0.31%) UMTS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 100 (15.55%) Big Data
2 61 (9.49%) Hadoop
3 36 (5.60%) PostgreSQL
3 36 (5.60%) Relational Database
4 28 (4.35%) NoSQL
5 22 (3.42%) Data Mining
6 20 (3.11%) Blockchain
7 16 (2.49%) SQL Server
8 13 (2.02%) Apache Hive
9 9 (1.40%) MongoDB
9 9 (1.40%) MySQL
10 8 (1.24%) Data Warehouse
10 8 (1.24%) ObjectStore
11 7 (1.09%) KDB
11 7 (1.09%) Kdb+
12 6 (0.93%) Qlik Sense
13 5 (0.78%) ClickHouse
14 4 (0.62%) Amazon Redshift
14 4 (0.62%) BigQuery
14 4 (0.62%) QlikView
Development Applications
1 26 (4.04%) Git (software)
2 10 (1.56%) GitLab
2 10 (1.56%) Jenkins
3 9 (1.40%) JIRA
3 9 (1.40%) Metasploit
3 9 (1.40%) Snyk
3 9 (1.40%) SonarQube
4 2 (0.31%) JUnit
4 2 (0.31%) Travis CI
5 1 (0.16%) Atlassian Bamboo
5 1 (0.16%) Eclipse
5 1 (0.16%) Gradle
5 1 (0.16%) Mockito
5 1 (0.16%) Redmine
5 1 (0.16%) Spock
5 1 (0.16%) Subversion
5 1 (0.16%) TeamCity
General
1 126 (19.60%) Finance
2 67 (10.42%) Pharmaceutical
3 31 (4.82%) Banking
3 31 (4.82%) Retail
4 30 (4.67%) Marketing
5 27 (4.20%) Manufacturing
5 27 (4.20%) Military
6 22 (3.42%) Automotive
7 20 (3.11%) Games
8 16 (2.49%) Electronics
9 15 (2.33%) Front Office
10 14 (2.18%) Telecoms
11 13 (2.02%) Publishing
12 12 (1.87%) Advertising
13 11 (1.71%) Aerospace
13 11 (1.71%) Public Sector
14 10 (1.56%) Financial Institution
15 8 (1.24%) Retail Banking
16 7 (1.09%) Social Science
17 6 (0.93%) Investment Banking
Job Titles
1 167 (25.97%) Data Scientist
2 63 (9.80%) Senior Data Scientist
3 57 (8.86%) Software Engineer
4 47 (7.31%) Analyst
4 47 (7.31%) Architect
5 46 (7.15%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 40 (6.22%) Developer
7 37 (5.75%) Python Engineer
8 36 (5.60%) Software Architect
9 32 (4.98%) Qualitative Analyst
9 32 (4.98%) Quantitative Analyst
10 29 (4.51%) Graduate
11 27 (4.20%) Python Software Engineer
12 20 (3.11%) Data Engineer
13 16 (2.49%) Junior
14 15 (2.33%) Machine Learning Scientist
14 15 (2.33%) Python Developer
14 15 (2.33%) Research Engineer
15 12 (1.87%) Analytics Manager
15 12 (1.87%) Senior Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 106 (16.49%) TensorFlow
2 73 (11.35%) Natural Language Processing
3 63 (9.80%) PyTorch
4 36 (5.60%) Pandas
5 33 (5.13%) Keras
6 31 (4.82%) scikit-learn
7 29 (4.51%) NumPy
8 22 (3.42%) Django
8 22 (3.42%) Kafka
9 18 (2.80%) Dask
10 16 (2.49%) GraphQL
11 15 (2.33%) Caffe
12 14 (2.18%) SciPy
13 12 (1.87%) Web Services
14 11 (1.71%) Spring
15 9 (1.40%) MXNet
15 9 (1.40%) OAuth
15 9 (1.40%) OpenID
15 9 (1.40%) PySpark
15 9 (1.40%) SAML
Miscellaneous
1 217 (33.75%) Algorithms
2 95 (14.77%) Analytical Skills
3 43 (6.69%) Robotics
4 31 (4.82%) Credit Risk
5 23 (3.58%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
6 22 (3.42%) Data Structures
7 21 (3.27%) Derivative
8 20 (3.11%) Hedge funds
9 18 (2.80%) Life Science
9 18 (2.80%) Market Risk
10 17 (2.64%) Equities
11 16 (2.49%) Linux Command Line
12 15 (2.33%) Embedded Systems
12 15 (2.33%) Self-Motivation
12 15 (2.33%) Virtual Team
13 14 (2.18%) Internet of Things
14 13 (2.02%) Management Information System
15 12 (1.87%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 12 (1.87%) Renewable Energy
16 11 (1.71%) VHDL
Operating Systems
1 67 (10.42%) Linux
2 35 (5.44%) Unix
3 9 (1.40%) Kali Linux
4 8 (1.24%) Android
5 7 (1.09%) Windows
6 5 (0.78%) VMS
7 1 (0.16%) Debian
7 1 (0.16%) Embedded Linux
7 1 (0.16%) Fedora
7 1 (0.16%) Robot Operating System
7 1 (0.16%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 336 (52.26%) Machine Learning
2 320 (49.77%) Data Science
3 292 (45.41%) Mathematics
4 276 (42.92%) Computer Science
5 166 (25.82%) Statistics
6 160 (24.88%) Artificial Intelligence
7 154 (23.95%) Analytics
8 149 (23.17%) Deep Learning
9 146 (22.71%) Software Engineering
10 141 (21.93%) Physics
11 137 (21.31%) Agile Software Development
12 79 (12.29%) Data Analysis
13 69 (10.73%) Problem-Solving
14 68 (10.58%) Innovative Thinking
15 57 (8.86%) SDLC
16 48 (7.47%) Visualisation
17 47 (7.31%) Neural Network
18 46 (7.15%) Software Architecture
18 46 (7.15%) Validation
19 43 (6.69%) Threat Modelling
Programming Languages
1 421 (65.47%) Python
2 208 (32.35%) C++
3 138 (21.46%) R
4 129 (20.06%) Java
5 128 (19.91%) SQL
6 80 (12.44%) MATLAB
7 70 (10.89%) C#
8 67 (10.42%) C
9 48 (7.47%) JavaScript
10 38 (5.91%) Scala
11 30 (4.67%) Go
12 15 (2.33%) TypeScript
13 11 (1.71%) Rust
14 9 (1.40%) Perl
15 8 (1.24%) Julia
16 7 (1.09%) Ruby
17 6 (0.93%) SPARQL
18 4 (0.62%) Embedded C
18 4 (0.62%) Smalltalk
19 3 (0.47%) VBA
Qualifications
1 262 (40.75%) Degree
2 82 (12.75%) Master's Degree
3 44 (6.84%) Numerate Degree
4 30 (4.67%) Security Cleared
5 25 (3.89%) Computer Science Degree
6 11 (1.71%) DBS Check
6 11 (1.71%) Postgraduate
7 7 (1.09%) ISTQB
7 7 (1.09%) PMI Certification
8 6 (0.93%) CFA
8 6 (0.93%) SC Cleared
9 5 (0.78%) Chartered Engineer
9 5 (0.78%) MBA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 39 (6.07%) QA
2 17 (2.64%) Data Quality
3 12 (1.87%) MiFID
4 11 (1.71%) EMIR
5 10 (1.56%) Dodd-Frank
6 2 (0.31%) CRD IV
7 1 (0.16%) IFRS
7 1 (0.16%) IFRS 9
System Software
1 31 (4.82%) Docker
2 6 (0.93%) Firmware
3 2 (0.31%) Apache Flume
4 1 (0.16%) Lustre
4 1 (0.16%) oVirt
Systems Management
1 36 (5.60%) Kubernetes
2 14 (2.18%) Consul
2 14 (2.18%) Terraform
3 9 (1.40%) Nessus
3 9 (1.40%) Nmap
3 9 (1.40%) Sysdig
4 2 (0.31%) Ansible
5 1 (0.16%) Grafana
5 1 (0.16%) Istio
5 1 (0.16%) Kibana
5 1 (0.16%) Knative
Vendors
1 62 (9.64%) Google
2 19 (2.95%) Tableau
3 14 (2.18%) Oracle
4 12 (1.87%) Sybase
5 9 (1.40%) Qualys
6 8 (1.24%) Xilinx
7 7 (1.09%) SAP
8 6 (0.93%) Microsoft
9 5 (0.78%) Facebook
10 4 (0.62%) Alteryx
10 4 (0.62%) Databricks
10 4 (0.62%) Sage
11 3 (0.47%) YouTube
12 2 (0.31%) Canon
13 1 (0.16%) Keysight
13 1 (0.16%) MuleSoft
13 1 (0.16%) NVIDIA
13 1 (0.16%) Samsung
13 1 (0.16%) Snapchat
13 1 (0.16%) Spotify