Period
to 21 October 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 21 October 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
21 Oct 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 522 373 362
Rank change year-on-year -149 -11 +82
Permanent jobs citing PhD 701 1,407 1,580
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.51% 0.86% 0.91%
As % of the Qualifications category 2.22% 3.63% 3.72%
Number of salaries quoted 518 1,210 1,311
UK median annual salary £65,000 £60,763 £55,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +6.97% +10.48% +10.00%
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £29,750
90th Percentile £105,750 £115,000 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year -10.00% +11.11% +5.88%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 31,584 38,793 42,519
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 23.06% 23.72% 24.40%
Number of salaries quoted 23,072 28,759 32,642
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +6.38% +4.44%
10th Percentile £27,000 £26,250 £26,000
90th Percentile £82,500 £80,000 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 21 October 2019.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 14 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 21 October 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -169 627 £65,000 +4.00% 173
London -80 383 £75,000 - 72
UK excluding London -156 308 £45,000 -10.00% 119
South East -103 106 £42,189 -15.62% 28
Scotland +59 63 £53,000 +51.43% 14
East of England -89 53 £45,000 +11.11% 37
North of England +14 42 £43,750 -12.50% 16
North West +35 32 £40,250 -19.50% 8
South West -7 27 £42,500 -22.73% 14
Midlands +9 13 £40,000 -27.27% 6
Yorkshire +9 10 £67,500 +5.88% 5
West Midlands +7 8 £40,000 -27.27% 2
East Midlands +34 5 £50,000 +17.65% 4
Wales +4 4 £37,750 +25.83% 1

For the 6 months to 21 October 2019, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 496 (70.76%) Python
2 401 (57.20%) Machine Learning
3 347 (49.50%) Mathematics
4 321 (45.79%) Data Science
5 293 (41.80%) Computer Science
6 291 (41.51%) Degree
7 263 (37.52%) C++
8 230 (32.81%) Algorithms
9 191 (27.25%) Physics
10 189 (26.96%) Statistics
10 189 (26.96%) Artificial Intelligence
11 186 (26.53%) R
12 182 (25.96%) SQL
13 173 (24.68%) Java
13 173 (24.68%) Deep Learning
14 165 (23.54%) Software Engineering
15 149 (21.26%) Analytics
16 125 (17.83%) TensorFlow
17 116 (16.55%) Finance
18 107 (15.26%) Agile Software Development
19 103 (14.69%) MATLAB
20 101 (14.41%) Analytical Skills
21 98 (13.98%) Apache Spark
22 94 (13.41%) Big Data
23 93 (13.27%) AWS
24 83 (11.84%) Master's Degree
25 82 (11.70%) C
26 81 (11.55%) Linux
27 79 (11.27%) Hadoop
28 73 (10.41%) Problem-Solving

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 98 (13.98%) Apache Spark
2 25 (3.57%) SAS
3 8 (1.14%) Apache
3 8 (1.14%) Apache Pig
4 6 (0.86%) Tornado
5 5 (0.71%) Elasticsearch
5 5 (0.71%) nginx
6 4 (0.57%) Ethereum
7 3 (0.43%) Apache Airflow
7 3 (0.43%) Jupyter
7 3 (0.43%) Luigi
8 2 (0.29%) Hyperledger
9 1 (0.14%) CMS
9 1 (0.14%) DNN
Applications
1 11 (1.57%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (0.71%) GNU Octave
2 5 (0.71%) Pipeline Pilot
2 5 (0.71%) Stata
3 4 (0.57%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 4 (0.57%) SPSS
4 3 (0.43%) Mathematica
4 3 (0.43%) Microsoft Office
4 3 (0.43%) Simulink
5 1 (0.14%) Weka
Business Applications
1 3 (0.43%) SAP S/4HANA
2 2 (0.29%) SAP ERP
2 2 (0.29%) Summit
3 1 (0.14%) Magento
Cloud Services
1 93 (13.27%) AWS
2 53 (7.56%) Azure
3 38 (5.42%) GCP
4 9 (1.28%) Power Platform
5 6 (0.86%) PaaS
6 5 (0.71%) Cloud Computing
6 5 (0.71%) OpenShift
6 5 (0.71%) Slack
7 4 (0.57%) GitHub
8 2 (0.29%) Amazon EC2
8 2 (0.29%) Amazon ECS
8 2 (0.29%) Amazon S3
8 2 (0.29%) AWS CloudFormation
8 2 (0.29%) AWS Lambda
8 2 (0.29%) Google App Engine
8 2 (0.29%) Serverless
9 1 (0.14%) Dialogflow
9 1 (0.14%) Google Analytics
9 1 (0.14%) PowerApps
9 1 (0.14%) Siri
Communications & Networking
1 23 (3.28%) Internet
2 11 (1.57%) Network Security
3 3 (0.43%) ATM
3 3 (0.43%) Reverse Proxy
4 2 (0.29%) 5G
4 2 (0.29%) GSM
4 2 (0.29%) LTE
4 2 (0.29%) MIMO
4 2 (0.29%) Radio Access Network
4 2 (0.29%) UMTS
4 2 (0.29%) Wi-Fi
4 2 (0.29%) Wireshark
5 1 (0.14%) Ethernet
5 1 (0.14%) TCP/IP
5 1 (0.14%) VoIP
5 1 (0.14%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 94 (13.41%) Big Data
2 79 (11.27%) Hadoop
3 38 (5.42%) Data Mining
3 38 (5.42%) Relational Database
4 29 (4.14%) Apache Hive
4 29 (4.14%) NoSQL
5 25 (3.57%) MySQL
6 17 (2.43%) SQL Server
7 16 (2.28%) Blockchain
8 14 (2.00%) MongoDB
8 14 (2.00%) PostgreSQL
9 13 (1.85%) Data Warehouse
10 9 (1.28%) MariaDB
10 9 (1.28%) Power BI
10 9 (1.28%) QlikView
11 8 (1.14%) Neo4j
11 8 (1.14%) ObjectStore
12 7 (1.00%) Data Lake
12 7 (1.00%) Triplestore
13 5 (0.71%) KNIME
Development Applications
1 36 (5.14%) Git (software)
2 14 (2.00%) Jenkins
3 7 (1.00%) Subversion
3 7 (1.00%) Travis CI
4 6 (0.86%) JIRA
5 4 (0.57%) GitLab
6 3 (0.43%) Jasmine
6 3 (0.43%) Metasploit
6 3 (0.43%) Mocha
6 3 (0.43%) Rational DOORS
6 3 (0.43%) Snyk
6 3 (0.43%) SonarQube
7 2 (0.29%) Eclipse
7 2 (0.29%) Gradle
8 1 (0.14%) Maven
8 1 (0.14%) Mercurial
8 1 (0.14%) Redmine
8 1 (0.14%) RStudio
8 1 (0.14%) Sonatype Nexus
8 1 (0.14%) Visual Studio Code
General
1 116 (16.55%) Finance
2 58 (8.27%) Banking
3 42 (5.99%) Marketing
4 35 (4.99%) Pharmaceutical
4 35 (4.99%) Retail
5 34 (4.85%) Electronics
6 29 (4.14%) Games
7 27 (3.85%) Manufacturing
8 25 (3.57%) Military
9 24 (3.42%) Automotive
10 22 (3.14%) Telecoms
11 14 (2.00%) Publishing
12 13 (1.85%) Financial Institution
12 13 (1.85%) Front Office
13 12 (1.71%) Advertising
13 12 (1.71%) Aerospace
14 10 (1.43%) Investment Banking
15 9 (1.28%) Legal
15 9 (1.28%) Public Sector
16 6 (0.86%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 217 (30.96%) Data Scientist
2 84 (11.98%) Senior Data Scientist
3 58 (8.27%) Software Engineer
4 53 (7.56%) Analyst
5 48 (6.85%) Developer
6 40 (5.71%) Machine Learning Engineer
7 39 (5.56%) Qualitative Analyst
7 39 (5.56%) Quantitative Analyst
8 36 (5.14%) Graduate
9 32 (4.56%) Architect
10 27 (3.85%) Data Engineer
11 26 (3.71%) Junior
12 19 (2.71%) Research Engineer
13 18 (2.57%) Machine Learning Scientist
14 17 (2.43%) Python Developer
15 15 (2.14%) Computer Engineer
15 15 (2.14%) Computer Vision Engineer
16 14 (2.00%) Junior Data Scientist
16 14 (2.00%) Python Engineer
16 14 (2.00%) Quantitative Risk Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 125 (17.83%) TensorFlow
2 67 (9.56%) Natural Language Processing
3 56 (7.99%) NumPy
4 52 (7.42%) Pandas
5 45 (6.42%) scikit-learn
6 41 (5.85%) Keras
7 26 (3.71%) SciPy
8 25 (3.57%) Caffe
9 21 (3.00%) Web Services
10 19 (2.71%) Kafka
11 18 (2.57%) GraphQL
12 17 (2.43%) Torch
13 15 (2.14%) .NET
13 15 (2.14%) React
14 13 (1.85%) Flask
14 13 (1.85%) Node.js
15 11 (1.57%) AngularJS
15 11 (1.57%) HTML
15 11 (1.57%) Spring
16 10 (1.43%) D3.js
Miscellaneous
1 230 (32.81%) Algorithms
2 101 (14.41%) Analytical Skills
3 51 (7.28%) Robotics
4 30 (4.28%) Credit Risk
4 30 (4.28%) Data Structures
4 30 (4.28%) Derivative
5 22 (3.14%) Hedge funds
6 21 (3.00%) Life Science
7 20 (2.85%) Market Risk
7 20 (2.85%) Virtual Team
8 19 (2.71%) Internet of Things
9 18 (2.57%) Linux Command Line
10 16 (2.28%) Self-Motivation
11 15 (2.14%) Greenfield Project
12 14 (2.00%) Embedded Systems
12 14 (2.00%) Equities
13 13 (1.85%) User Experience
14 12 (1.71%) Digital Media
14 12 (1.71%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 12 (1.71%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 81 (11.55%) Linux
2 47 (6.70%) Unix
3 15 (2.14%) Android
4 6 (0.86%) Windows
5 5 (0.71%) VxWorks
6 3 (0.43%) Kali Linux
7 1 (0.14%) Apple iOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 401 (57.20%) Machine Learning
2 347 (49.50%) Mathematics
3 321 (45.79%) Data Science
4 293 (41.80%) Computer Science
5 191 (27.25%) Physics
6 189 (26.96%) Artificial Intelligence
6 189 (26.96%) Statistics
7 173 (24.68%) Deep Learning
8 165 (23.54%) Software Engineering
9 149 (21.26%) Analytics
10 107 (15.26%) Agile Software Development
11 73 (10.41%) Problem-Solving
12 63 (8.99%) Open Source
12 63 (8.99%) Validation
13 62 (8.84%) Data Analysis
14 55 (7.85%) Computer Vision
15 54 (7.70%) Mentoring
16 53 (7.56%) Visualisation
17 45 (6.42%) Predictive Modelling
18 43 (6.13%) Data Analytics
Programming Languages
1 496 (70.76%) Python
2 263 (37.52%) C++
3 186 (26.53%) R
4 182 (25.96%) SQL
5 173 (24.68%) Java
6 103 (14.69%) MATLAB
7 82 (11.70%) C
8 72 (10.27%) C#
9 61 (8.70%) JavaScript
10 54 (7.70%) Scala
11 36 (5.14%) Go
12 28 (3.99%) TypeScript
13 16 (2.28%) VBA
14 14 (2.00%) PHP
15 9 (1.28%) Perl
16 8 (1.14%) Ruby
17 7 (1.00%) SPARQL
18 5 (0.71%) ES6
18 5 (0.71%) Lua
19 4 (0.57%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 291 (41.51%) Degree
2 83 (11.84%) Master's Degree
3 55 (7.85%) Numerate Degree
4 37 (5.28%) Security Cleared
5 30 (4.28%) Computer Science Degree
6 17 (2.43%) Postgraduate
7 15 (2.14%) CFA
8 11 (1.57%) DBS Check
9 10 (1.43%) SC Cleared
10 5 (0.71%) Chartered Engineer
11 3 (0.43%) DV Cleared
11 3 (0.43%) ISTQB
11 3 (0.43%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 2 (0.29%) PMI Certification
13 1 (0.14%) A+ Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 34 (4.85%) QA
2 17 (2.43%) Data Quality
3 9 (1.28%) CRD IV
4 7 (1.00%) Dodd-Frank
4 7 (1.00%) EMIR
4 7 (1.00%) MiFID
5 6 (0.86%) IFRS
5 6 (0.86%) IFRS 9
6 2 (0.29%) PSD2
7 1 (0.14%) AQAP
7 1 (0.14%) ISO 14001
7 1 (0.14%) ISO 26262
7 1 (0.14%) ISO 9001
7 1 (0.14%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 1 (0.14%) TickIT
System Software
1 43 (6.13%) Docker
2 1 (0.14%) Apache Flume
2 1 (0.14%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 46 (6.56%) Kubernetes
2 17 (2.43%) Terraform
3 16 (2.28%) Consul
4 12 (1.71%) Ansible
5 7 (1.00%) Salt
6 3 (0.43%) HP Quality Center
6 3 (0.43%) Nessus
6 3 (0.43%) Nmap
6 3 (0.43%) Sysdig
6 3 (0.43%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 37 (5.28%) Google
2 26 (3.71%) Tableau
3 9 (1.28%) Microsoft
4 6 (0.86%) Databricks
4 6 (0.86%) Oracle
5 5 (0.71%) Alteryx
5 5 (0.71%) Facebook
5 5 (0.71%) Sybase
6 4 (0.57%) SAP
6 4 (0.57%) Xilinx
7 3 (0.43%) MathWorks
7 3 (0.43%) Perforce
7 3 (0.43%) Qualys
8 2 (0.29%) Dataiku
8 2 (0.29%) Dell
8 2 (0.29%) IBM
8 2 (0.29%) Netezza
8 2 (0.29%) NVIDIA
8 2 (0.29%) Rackspace
8 2 (0.29%) Twitter