Period
to 18 December 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 18 December 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
18 Dec 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 388 338 448
Rank change year-on-year -50 +110 +76
Permanent jobs citing PhD 1,268 1,740 1,248
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.80% 0.97% 0.68%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.35% 4.06% 2.60%
Number of salaries quoted 1,078 1,433 1,096
UK median annual salary £64,750 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +17.73% +4.76% -
10th Percentile £32,500 £30,000 £30,000
90th Percentile £119,125 £95,000 £107,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,750 £47,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +2.63% +11.76% +2.41%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 37,899 42,909 47,961
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 23.83% 23.95% 26.08%
Number of salaries quoted 27,744 33,026 38,279
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -
10th Percentile £26,250 £26,250 £26,250
90th Percentile £81,250 £77,500 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +1.19%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 18 December 2018.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 18 December 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -57 1,228 £65,000 +18.18% 251
London +53 677 £77,500 +10.71% 100
UK excluding London -114 588 £48,750 +2.63% 167
South East +27 248 £50,000 +1.01% 54
East of England -92 204 £47,500 +5.56% 55
North of England +7 47 £45,000 -14.29% 11
South West -63 39 £55,000 - 16
North West +8 34 £50,000 -9.09% 4
Scotland -2 26 £35,000 -22.22% 11
Midlands -24 13 £55,000 +69.23% 15
West Midlands +5 10 £55,000 +57.14% 9
Northern Ireland - 9 £42,500 - 3
North East +10 7 £40,000 - 5
Yorkshire +24 6 £63,750 +21.43% 2
East Midlands +5 3 £37,500 +29.31% 6
Wales +8 2 £43,750 +5.42% 2

For the 6 months to 18 December 2018, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 743 (58.60%) Python
2 649 (51.18%) Machine Learning
3 596 (47.00%) Mathematics
4 554 (43.69%) C++
5 472 (37.22%) Artificial Intelligence
6 466 (36.75%) Computer Science
7 440 (34.70%) Java
8 430 (33.91%) Degree
9 403 (31.78%) Algorithms
10 393 (30.99%) Deep Learning
11 390 (30.76%) Data Science
12 380 (29.97%) Physics
13 373 (29.42%) Software Engineering
14 292 (23.03%) Natural Language Processing
15 274 (21.61%) R
16 265 (20.90%) Analytics
17 264 (20.82%) C#
18 244 (19.24%) Statistics
19 236 (18.61%) Neural Network
20 230 (18.14%) Finance
21 218 (17.19%) SQL
22 208 (16.40%) C
23 207 (16.32%) Bayesian Methods
24 195 (15.38%) TensorFlow
25 189 (14.91%) Big Data
25 189 (14.91%) MATLAB
26 179 (14.12%) Computer Vision
27 173 (13.64%) Agile Software Development
28 167 (13.17%) Probabilistic Modelling
29 166 (13.09%) Data Analysis

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 100 (7.89%) Apache Spark
2 35 (2.76%) SAS
3 26 (2.05%) Apache
4 22 (1.74%) Ethereum
5 19 (1.50%) Apache Pig
6 9 (0.71%) DNN
6 9 (0.71%) Elasticsearch
7 3 (0.24%) Jupyter
7 3 (0.24%) Kinematics
7 3 (0.24%) nginx
8 2 (0.16%) Apache Solr
9 1 (0.079%) IPython
9 1 (0.079%) OpenStack
Applications
1 39 (3.08%) Microsoft Excel
2 35 (2.76%) GNU Octave
3 18 (1.42%) Microsoft Office
4 15 (1.18%) SPSS
5 12 (0.95%) Chatbot
6 9 (0.71%) Simulink
6 9 (0.71%) Spreadsheet
7 5 (0.39%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 4 (0.32%) AutoCAD
8 4 (0.32%) Mathcad
8 4 (0.32%) SOLIDWORKS
9 2 (0.16%) Stata
10 1 (0.079%) Abaqus
10 1 (0.079%) Maya
10 1 (0.079%) MotionBuilder
10 1 (0.079%) NASTRAN
10 1 (0.079%) S-PLUS
Business Applications
1 2 (0.16%) Distributed Ledger
1 2 (0.16%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 107 (8.44%) Amazon AWS
2 48 (3.79%) Cloud Computing
3 43 (3.39%) Microsoft Azure
4 27 (2.13%) Google Cloud Platform
5 14 (1.10%) Cortana Intelligence Suite
6 12 (0.95%) GitHub
7 10 (0.79%) Amazon Alexa
7 10 (0.79%) Siri
8 6 (0.47%) Azure Data Factory
8 6 (0.47%) SaaS
9 5 (0.39%) PaaS
9 5 (0.39%) Slack
10 4 (0.32%) Azure Machine Learning
10 4 (0.32%) iTunes
10 4 (0.32%) Serverless
11 2 (0.16%) Amazon EMR
11 2 (0.16%) Google Analytics
11 2 (0.16%) OpenShift
11 2 (0.16%) Wit.ai
12 1 (0.079%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 11 (0.87%) Network Security
2 10 (0.79%) Internet
3 7 (0.55%) HTTP
3 7 (0.55%) Wireless
4 5 (0.39%) Ethernet
4 5 (0.39%) TCP/IP
5 4 (0.32%) DNS
6 2 (0.16%) 5G
6 2 (0.16%) Broadband
6 2 (0.16%) LTE
6 2 (0.16%) Software-Defined Radio
7 1 (0.079%) 3GPP
7 1 (0.079%) GSM
7 1 (0.079%) Radio Access Network
7 1 (0.079%) Skype
7 1 (0.079%) SMS
7 1 (0.079%) UMTS
7 1 (0.079%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 189 (14.91%) Big Data
2 69 (5.44%) Hadoop
3 57 (4.50%) Blockchain
4 45 (3.55%) Data Mining
5 43 (3.39%) NoSQL
6 35 (2.76%) Apache Hive
7 34 (2.68%) Relational Database
8 25 (1.97%) SQL Server
9 23 (1.81%) MongoDB
10 18 (1.42%) Apache Cassandra
11 15 (1.18%) Power BI
12 14 (1.10%) Data Warehouse
13 11 (0.87%) PostgreSQL
14 10 (0.79%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 10 (0.79%) MySQL
14 10 (0.79%) Oracle Database
15 9 (0.71%) Text Mining
16 8 (0.63%) GIS
16 8 (0.63%) HBase
16 8 (0.63%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 75 (5.91%) Git (software)
2 42 (3.31%) Subversion
3 18 (1.42%) LabVIEW
4 6 (0.47%) Gradle
5 4 (0.32%) Team Foundation Server
5 4 (0.32%) Visual Studio
5 4 (0.32%) Visual Studio Team System
6 2 (0.16%) JIRA
6 2 (0.16%) RStudio
6 2 (0.16%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
7 1 (0.079%) Bitbucket
7 1 (0.079%) CircleCI
7 1 (0.079%) CMake
7 1 (0.079%) GitLab
7 1 (0.079%) IntelliJ
7 1 (0.079%) Octopus Deploy
7 1 (0.079%) SpecFlow
7 1 (0.079%) TeamCity
7 1 (0.079%) Travis CI
General
1 230 (18.14%) Finance
2 74 (5.84%) Publishing
3 69 (5.44%) Games
4 66 (5.21%) Telecoms
5 56 (4.42%) Banking
6 54 (4.26%) Marketing
7 52 (4.10%) Manufacturing
8 50 (3.94%) Electronics
9 49 (3.86%) Pharmaceutical
10 37 (2.92%) Retail
11 23 (1.81%) Advertising
12 20 (1.58%) Front Office
13 19 (1.50%) Investment Banking
14 17 (1.34%) Automotive
15 7 (0.55%) Financial Institution
15 7 (0.55%) Legal
16 6 (0.47%) Aerospace
17 3 (0.24%) German Language
17 3 (0.24%) Law
17 3 (0.24%) Spanish Language
Job Titles
1 297 (23.42%) Developer
2 217 (17.11%) Data Scientist
3 196 (15.46%) Software Engineer
4 114 (8.99%) Developer/Software Engineer
5 112 (8.83%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 109 (8.60%) Graduate
7 103 (8.12%) Software Developer
8 98 (7.73%) Machine Learning Researcher
9 74 (5.84%) Senior Data Scientist
10 69 (5.44%) C++ Developer
11 66 (5.21%) Java Developer
12 64 (5.05%) Analyst
13 62 (4.89%) C++ Software Engineer
14 59 (4.65%) Computer Engineer
14 59 (4.65%) Computer Vision Engineer
15 56 (4.42%) Python Engineer
16 53 (4.18%) Graduate Developer
17 48 (3.79%) Graduate Software Engineer
17 48 (3.79%) Research Engineer
18 45 (3.55%) C++ Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 292 (23.03%) Natural Language Processing
2 195 (15.38%) TensorFlow
3 57 (4.50%) HTML
4 52 (4.10%) CSS
5 47 (3.71%) Ajax
5 47 (3.71%) NumPy
6 46 (3.63%) .NET
6 46 (3.63%) Pandas
7 43 (3.39%) Keras
8 36 (2.84%) AngularJS
8 36 (2.84%) GWT
9 33 (2.60%) scikit-learn
9 33 (2.60%) Web Services
10 28 (2.21%) Caffe
11 26 (2.05%) SciPy
12 21 (1.66%) React
12 21 (1.66%) Theano
13 16 (1.26%) REST
14 15 (1.18%) Kafka
15 11 (0.87%) OpenCV
Miscellaneous
1 403 (31.78%) Algorithms
2 150 (11.83%) Analytical Skills
3 68 (5.36%) Fintech
4 59 (4.65%) Hedge funds
5 49 (3.86%) Robotics
6 42 (3.31%) Xbox
7 40 (3.15%) Mobile App
8 33 (2.60%) Data Structures
8 33 (2.60%) Life Science
9 30 (2.37%) Credit Risk
10 28 (2.21%) Optoelectronics
11 27 (2.13%) Equities
12 26 (2.05%) Management Information System
13 25 (1.97%) User Experience
14 23 (1.81%) Derivative
15 21 (1.66%) Social Media
16 20 (1.58%) PMI
17 18 (1.42%) Acoustics
17 18 (1.42%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
18 17 (1.34%) Self-Motivation
Operating Systems
1 123 (9.70%) Linux
2 29 (2.29%) Windows
3 17 (1.34%) Unix
4 15 (1.18%) Android
5 10 (0.79%) Apple iOS
6 7 (0.55%) Robot Operating System
7 5 (0.39%) Debian
7 5 (0.39%) Fedora
7 5 (0.39%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 649 (51.18%) Machine Learning
2 596 (47.00%) Mathematics
3 472 (37.22%) Artificial Intelligence
4 466 (36.75%) Computer Science
5 393 (30.99%) Deep Learning
6 390 (30.76%) Data Science
7 380 (29.97%) Physics
8 373 (29.42%) Software Engineering
9 265 (20.90%) Analytics
10 244 (19.24%) Statistics
11 236 (18.61%) Neural Network
12 207 (16.32%) Bayesian Methods
13 179 (14.12%) Computer Vision
14 173 (13.64%) Agile Software Development
15 167 (13.17%) Probabilistic Modelling
16 166 (13.09%) Data Analysis
17 162 (12.78%) Reinforcement Learning
18 116 (9.15%) Multithreading
19 110 (8.68%) Problem-Solving
20 109 (8.60%) Biology
Programming Languages
1 743 (58.60%) Python
2 554 (43.69%) C++
3 440 (34.70%) Java
4 274 (21.61%) R
5 264 (20.82%) C#
6 218 (17.19%) SQL
7 208 (16.40%) C
8 189 (14.91%) MATLAB
9 111 (8.75%) JavaScript
10 53 (4.18%) Scala
11 46 (3.63%) Java 8
12 27 (2.13%) Ruby
13 25 (1.97%) Julia
14 24 (1.89%) VBA
15 23 (1.81%) T-SQL
16 21 (1.66%) PL/SQL
17 13 (1.03%) Cython
18 12 (0.95%) Haskell
18 12 (0.95%) Perl
18 12 (0.95%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 430 (33.91%) Degree
2 134 (10.57%) MPhil
3 73 (5.76%) Master's Degree
4 61 (4.81%) Computer Science Degree
5 49 (3.86%) Numerate Degree
6 21 (1.66%) Security Cleared
7 20 (1.58%) MBA
7 20 (1.58%) PMI Certification
8 17 (1.34%) DV Cleared
9 13 (1.03%) PMP
10 12 (0.95%) Postgraduate
11 8 (0.63%) ISTQB
12 7 (0.55%) SC Cleared
13 4 (0.32%) MCAD
13 4 (0.32%) MCDBA
13 4 (0.32%) MCSD
13 4 (0.32%) Microsoft Certification
14 1 (0.079%) CFA
14 1 (0.079%) CIMA
14 1 (0.079%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 19 (1.50%) QA
2 10 (0.79%) Dodd-Frank
2 10 (0.79%) EMIR
2 10 (0.79%) MiFID
3 5 (0.39%) Data Quality
4 3 (0.24%) IFRS
4 3 (0.24%) IFRS 9
5 1 (0.079%) CDISC
5 1 (0.079%) GDPR
System Software
1 12 (0.95%) Apache Flume
2 8 (0.63%) Docker
3 4 (0.32%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 3 (0.24%) Firmware
5 2 (0.16%) HDFS
6 1 (0.079%) KVM
6 1 (0.079%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 5 (0.39%) EMC NetWorker
1 5 (0.39%) Kubernetes
2 3 (0.24%) Oozie
2 3 (0.24%) Opscode Chef
3 1 (0.079%) Ambari
3 1 (0.079%) Consul
3 1 (0.079%) Prometheus
3 1 (0.079%) Terraform
Vendors
1 46 (3.63%) Microsoft
2 30 (2.37%) Google
3 18 (1.42%) Talend
4 15 (1.18%) Tableau
5 14 (1.10%) Oracle
6 13 (1.03%) Apple
7 11 (0.87%) SAP
8 7 (0.55%) IBM
8 7 (0.55%) RapidMiner
9 5 (0.39%) Huawei
9 5 (0.39%) Splunk
10 4 (0.32%) Databricks
10 4 (0.32%) EMC
10 4 (0.32%) Hortonworks
10 4 (0.32%) Xilinx
11 3 (0.24%) Facebook
12 2 (0.16%) Atmel
12 2 (0.16%) Cloudera
12 2 (0.16%) Red Hat
12 2 (0.16%) Vertica