Period
to 15 July 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 15 July 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
15 Jul 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 459 334 347
Rank change year-on-year -125 +13 +99
Permanent jobs citing PhD 916 1,709 1,649
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.63% 0.97% 0.92%
As % of the Qualifications category 2.58% 4.08% 3.72%
Number of salaries quoted 690 1,418 1,448
UK median annual salary £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% +2.94%
10th Percentile £32,500 £30,000 £28,750
90th Percentile £97,750 £100,000 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year - +25.00% -5.88%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 35,438 41,842 44,338
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 24.28% 23.77% 24.81%
Number of salaries quoted 25,669 31,138 34,450
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +11.11% -2.17%
10th Percentile £26,500 £26,250 £26,250
90th Percentile £82,500 £80,000 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £44,582 £42,500
% change year-on-year +0.94% +4.90% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 15 July 2019.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 15 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 15 July 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -140 822 £62,500 +8.70% 207
UK excluding London -154 456 £50,000 - 159
London -68 443 £70,000 - 65
South East -79 157 £45,000 -10.00% 41
East of England -99 98 £62,500 +78.57% 59
Scotland +58 72 £58,000 +45.00% 10
North of England +38 59 £57,500 +15.00% 17
North West +32 43 £52,500 +5.00% 8
South West +2 32 £50,000 -9.09% 17
Midlands +12 31 £45,000 -18.18% 8
West Midlands -5 28 £42,500 -22.73% 7
Yorkshire +20 16 £60,000 +84.62% 1
Northern Ireland -16 5 £32,000 -28.89% 5
East Midlands +24 3 £62,500 +53.37% 1
Wales +11 2 £37,500 +25.00% 2

For the 6 months to 15 July 2019, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 620 (67.69%) Python
2 523 (57.10%) Mathematics
3 472 (51.53%) Machine Learning
4 417 (45.52%) Data Science
5 362 (39.52%) Computer Science
6 358 (39.08%) Degree
7 355 (38.76%) C++
8 323 (35.26%) Algorithms
9 308 (33.62%) Java
10 273 (29.80%) Software Engineering
11 269 (29.37%) R
12 266 (29.04%) Physics
13 249 (27.18%) Artificial Intelligence
14 234 (25.55%) Analytics
15 226 (24.67%) MATLAB
16 199 (21.72%) Deep Learning
17 198 (21.62%) Statistics
18 194 (21.18%) Finance
19 187 (20.41%) SQL
20 162 (17.69%) Agile Software Development
21 161 (17.58%) C#
22 150 (16.38%) Data Analysis
23 141 (15.39%) Problem-Solving
24 132 (14.41%) Big Data
25 121 (13.21%) Analytical Skills
26 116 (12.66%) C
27 114 (12.45%) TensorFlow
28 102 (11.14%) Amazon AWS
29 100 (10.92%) Natural Language Processing
30 98 (10.70%) JavaScript

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 92 (10.04%) Apache Spark
2 42 (4.59%) SAS
3 16 (1.75%) Apache
4 10 (1.09%) Elasticsearch
5 9 (0.98%) Apache Pig
5 9 (0.98%) nginx
6 6 (0.66%) ArcGIS
6 6 (0.66%) GeoServer
7 5 (0.55%) Jupyter
8 4 (0.44%) Luigi
9 3 (0.33%) Apache Airflow
9 3 (0.33%) Ethereum
9 3 (0.33%) OpenStack
9 3 (0.33%) Tornado
10 1 (0.11%) Apache Solr
10 1 (0.11%) CMS
10 1 (0.11%) DNN
10 1 (0.11%) Exchange Server 2007
10 1 (0.11%) MS Exchange
10 1 (0.11%) Skype for Business
Applications
1 20 (2.18%) Microsoft Excel
2 13 (1.42%) GNU Octave
3 4 (0.44%) Mathematica
3 4 (0.44%) Microsoft Office
3 4 (0.44%) SPSS
4 3 (0.33%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 3 (0.33%) Stata
5 2 (0.22%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.22%) Spreadsheet
5 2 (0.22%) Weka
6 1 (0.11%) Pipeline Pilot
6 1 (0.11%) Simulink
6 1 (0.11%) S-PLUS
Business Applications
1 30 (3.28%) Summit
2 5 (0.55%) SAP S/4HANA
3 3 (0.33%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 102 (11.14%) Amazon AWS
2 52 (5.68%) Microsoft Azure
3 45 (4.91%) Google Cloud Platform
4 37 (4.04%) GitHub
5 13 (1.42%) Cloud Computing
6 10 (1.09%) Power Platform
7 8 (0.87%) OpenShift
8 5 (0.55%) PaaS
9 4 (0.44%) Amazon ECS
9 4 (0.44%) Amazon S3
9 4 (0.44%) CloudFront
10 2 (0.22%) AWS CloudFormation
10 2 (0.22%) Google App Engine
11 1 (0.11%) Amazon Alexa
11 1 (0.11%) Azure Data Factory
11 1 (0.11%) Dropbox
11 1 (0.11%) Office 365
11 1 (0.11%) PowerApps
11 1 (0.11%) SaaS
11 1 (0.11%) Siri
Communications & Networking
1 21 (2.29%) Internet
2 17 (1.86%) Network Security
3 5 (0.55%) 5G
3 5 (0.55%) ATM
3 5 (0.55%) Radio Access Network
4 4 (0.44%) GSM
4 4 (0.44%) LTE
4 4 (0.44%) MIMO
4 4 (0.44%) Skype
4 4 (0.44%) TCP/IP
4 4 (0.44%) UMTS
4 4 (0.44%) Wi-Fi
5 3 (0.33%) Reverse Proxy
6 2 (0.22%) VoIP
6 2 (0.22%) Wireless
7 1 (0.11%) DHCP
7 1 (0.11%) DNS
7 1 (0.11%) HTTP
7 1 (0.11%) SAN
7 1 (0.11%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 132 (14.41%) Big Data
2 75 (8.19%) Hadoop
3 54 (5.90%) Data Mining
4 35 (3.82%) NoSQL
5 29 (3.17%) MySQL
5 29 (3.17%) Relational Database
6 27 (2.95%) Apache Hive
7 26 (2.84%) Neo4j
8 21 (2.29%) PostgreSQL
9 15 (1.64%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 12 (1.31%) Apache Cassandra
10 12 (1.31%) MariaDB
10 12 (1.31%) QlikView
10 12 (1.31%) Redis
10 12 (1.31%) SQL Server
11 10 (1.09%) Amazon Redshift
11 10 (1.09%) Blockchain
11 10 (1.09%) Power BI
12 9 (0.98%) Data Warehouse
12 9 (0.98%) MongoDB
Development Applications
1 58 (6.33%) Git (software)
2 21 (2.29%) Subversion
3 18 (1.97%) JIRA
4 16 (1.75%) Jenkins
5 7 (0.76%) Visual Studio
6 6 (0.66%) Rational DOORS
7 5 (0.55%) GitLab
7 5 (0.55%) Team Foundation Server
7 5 (0.55%) Travis CI
8 4 (0.44%) CircleCI
8 4 (0.44%) IntelliJ
9 3 (0.33%) Gradle
9 3 (0.33%) Jasmine
9 3 (0.33%) Mercurial
9 3 (0.33%) Mocha
9 3 (0.33%) Snyk
9 3 (0.33%) SonarQube
10 2 (0.22%) Artifactory
10 2 (0.22%) CMake
10 2 (0.22%) Cobertura
General
1 194 (21.18%) Finance
2 74 (8.08%) Banking
3 58 (6.33%) Pharmaceutical
4 47 (5.13%) Marketing
5 40 (4.37%) Retail
6 34 (3.71%) Games
7 28 (3.06%) Telecoms
8 27 (2.95%) Electronics
9 21 (2.29%) Advertising
10 19 (2.07%) Legal
11 18 (1.97%) Military
12 16 (1.75%) Back Office
13 15 (1.64%) Investment Banking
14 13 (1.42%) Automotive
15 10 (1.09%) Aerospace
15 10 (1.09%) Financial Institution
16 7 (0.76%) Social Science
17 6 (0.66%) Front Office
17 6 (0.66%) Manufacturing
18 3 (0.33%) Billing
Job Titles
1 262 (28.60%) Data Scientist
2 120 (13.10%) Developer
3 91 (9.93%) Software Engineer
4 75 (8.19%) Graduate
5 73 (7.97%) Analyst
5 73 (7.97%) Senior Data Scientist
6 54 (5.90%) Qualitative Analyst
6 54 (5.90%) Quantitative Analyst
7 45 (4.91%) Machine Learning Engineer
8 41 (4.48%) Junior
9 40 (4.37%) Software Developer
10 32 (3.49%) Machine Learning Scientist
11 29 (3.17%) Computer Engineer
11 29 (3.17%) Computer Vision Engineer
12 28 (3.06%) Research Engineer
13 27 (2.95%) Architect
13 27 (2.95%) Banking Analyst
13 27 (2.95%) Quantitative Risk Analyst
13 27 (2.95%) Risk Analyst
13 27 (2.95%) Technical Leader
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 114 (12.45%) TensorFlow
2 100 (10.92%) Natural Language Processing
3 63 (6.88%) .NET
4 62 (6.77%) scikit-learn
5 60 (6.55%) NumPy
6 59 (6.44%) React
7 50 (5.46%) Keras
7 50 (5.46%) Pandas
8 49 (5.35%) AngularJS
9 32 (3.49%) OpenCV
10 31 (3.38%) Caffe
11 30 (3.28%) J2EE
11 30 (3.28%) J2SE
11 30 (3.28%) Ruby on Rails
12 29 (3.17%) Web Services
13 28 (3.06%) HTML
14 27 (2.95%) SciPy
15 23 (2.51%) Kafka
16 20 (2.18%) CSS
16 20 (2.18%) Torch
Miscellaneous
1 323 (35.26%) Algorithms
2 121 (13.21%) Analytical Skills
3 49 (5.35%) Robotics
4 43 (4.69%) Credit Risk
5 41 (4.48%) Self-Motivation
6 33 (3.60%) Hedge funds
7 30 (3.28%) Derivative
8 21 (2.29%) Virtual Team
9 19 (2.07%) Market Risk
10 18 (1.97%) Internet of Things
11 17 (1.86%) Data Structures
11 17 (1.86%) Greenfield Project
12 15 (1.64%) Public Cloud
13 14 (1.53%) CUDA
13 14 (1.53%) User Experience
13 14 (1.53%) Xbox
14 13 (1.42%) Life Science
15 12 (1.31%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 12 (1.31%) Smartphone
16 9 (0.98%) PMI
Operating Systems
1 89 (9.72%) Linux
2 35 (3.82%) Unix
3 8 (0.87%) Android
4 7 (0.76%) VxWorks
5 3 (0.33%) Kali Linux
5 3 (0.33%) Windows
6 2 (0.22%) Robot Operating System
6 2 (0.22%) Solaris
7 1 (0.11%) Apple iOS
7 1 (0.11%) Embedded Linux
7 1 (0.11%) FreeRTOS
7 1 (0.11%) Windows 10
7 1 (0.11%) Windows Server
7 1 (0.11%) Windows Server 2003
7 1 (0.11%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 523 (57.10%) Mathematics
2 472 (51.53%) Machine Learning
3 417 (45.52%) Data Science
4 362 (39.52%) Computer Science
5 273 (29.80%) Software Engineering
6 266 (29.04%) Physics
7 249 (27.18%) Artificial Intelligence
8 234 (25.55%) Analytics
9 199 (21.72%) Deep Learning
10 198 (21.62%) Statistics
11 162 (17.69%) Agile Software Development
12 150 (16.38%) Data Analysis
13 141 (15.39%) Problem-Solving
14 91 (9.93%) Computer Vision
14 91 (9.93%) Visualisation
15 76 (8.30%) Data Analytics
16 69 (7.53%) Neural Network
17 67 (7.31%) Open Source
18 66 (7.21%) Fintech
19 62 (6.77%) Predictive Modelling
Programming Languages
1 620 (67.69%) Python
2 355 (38.76%) C++
3 308 (33.62%) Java
4 269 (29.37%) R
5 226 (24.67%) MATLAB
6 187 (20.41%) SQL
7 161 (17.58%) C#
8 116 (12.66%) C
9 98 (10.70%) JavaScript
10 66 (7.21%) Scala
11 45 (4.91%) PHP
12 44 (4.80%) Go
13 37 (4.04%) Bash Shell
14 36 (3.93%) Ruby
15 31 (3.38%) VBA
16 30 (3.28%) Bourne shell
16 30 (3.28%) Korn
17 22 (2.40%) TypeScript
18 15 (1.64%) ML
19 14 (1.53%) Java 8
Qualifications
1 358 (39.08%) Degree
2 75 (8.19%) Master's Degree
3 53 (5.79%) Numerate Degree
4 39 (4.26%) Computer Science Degree
5 31 (3.38%) Security Cleared
6 26 (2.84%) CFA
7 23 (2.51%) Postgraduate
8 21 (2.29%) SC Cleared
9 9 (0.98%) ISTQB
9 9 (0.98%) PMI Certification
10 6 (0.66%) DBS Check
11 5 (0.55%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 4 (0.44%) A+ Certification
12 4 (0.44%) DV Cleared
13 1 (0.11%) ISEB
13 1 (0.11%) MBA
13 1 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 33 (3.60%) QA
2 14 (1.53%) IFRS
2 14 (1.53%) IFRS 9
3 13 (1.42%) CRD IV
4 6 (0.66%) Dodd-Frank
4 6 (0.66%) EMIR
4 6 (0.66%) MiFID
5 3 (0.33%) Data Quality
6 2 (0.22%) PSD2
7 1 (0.11%) AQAP
7 1 (0.11%) DO-178B
7 1 (0.11%) IEC 61508
7 1 (0.11%) IEC 62304
7 1 (0.11%) ISO 14001
7 1 (0.11%) ISO 26262
7 1 (0.11%) ISO 9001
7 1 (0.11%) MISRA
7 1 (0.11%) MISRA C
7 1 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 1 (0.11%) TickIT
System Software
1 33 (3.60%) Docker
2 1 (0.11%) Active Directory
2 1 (0.11%) Citrix Hypervisor
2 1 (0.11%) Firmware
2 1 (0.11%) Hyper-V
2 1 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
2 1 (0.11%) vSphere
2 1 (0.11%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 43 (4.69%) Kubernetes
2 11 (1.20%) Ansible
3 9 (0.98%) Terraform
4 8 (0.87%) Consul
5 7 (0.76%) Salt
6 5 (0.55%) HP Quality Center
6 5 (0.55%) ZABBIX
7 4 (0.44%) Prometheus
8 3 (0.33%) Nessus
8 3 (0.33%) Nmap
8 3 (0.33%) Sysdig
9 2 (0.22%) Mesos
9 2 (0.22%) Opscode Chef
9 2 (0.22%) Puppet
9 2 (0.22%) Rancher
Vendors
1 30 (3.28%) Google
2 29 (3.17%) Tableau
3 11 (1.20%) Microsoft
4 8 (0.87%) Oracle
5 7 (0.76%) Intel
6 6 (0.66%) ESRI
6 6 (0.66%) Mapbox
6 6 (0.66%) Mapinfo
6 6 (0.66%) Perforce
6 6 (0.66%) Teradata
7 5 (0.55%) Hortonworks
7 5 (0.55%) IBM
7 5 (0.55%) MathWorks
7 5 (0.55%) SAP
8 4 (0.44%) Cognizant
8 4 (0.44%) Databricks
8 4 (0.44%) Dataiku
9 3 (0.33%) Facebook
9 3 (0.33%) Tumblr
9 3 (0.33%) Twitter