Period
to 6 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 6 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
6 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 495 402 316
Rank change year-on-year -93 -86 +52
Permanent jobs citing PhD 595 1,146 1,839
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.51% 0.77% 1.04%
As % of the Qualifications category 2.38% 3.13% 4.36%
Number of salaries quoted 421 907 1,596
Median annual salary £67,500 £60,000 £55,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +12.50% +9.09% -
10th Percentile £36,000 £32,500 £30,000
90th Percentile £110,000 £100,500 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +5.00% - +11.11%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 25,045 36,653 42,145
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 21.41% 24.56% 23.74%
Number of salaries quoted 18,435 26,474 32,406
Median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £28,000 £26,750 £26,250
90th Percentile £82,500 £81,250 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,000 £45,000 £43,000
% change year-on-year +4.44% +4.65% +3.61%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 6 April 2020.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 6 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -92 570 £69,650 +16.08% 184
London -22 338 £75,000 +7.14% 70
UK excluding London -116 252 £52,500 +5.00% 119
South East -78 76 £55,000 +15.79% 34
East of England -29 64 £57,500 -4.17% 54
North of England +43 47 £37,654 -16.32% 7
North West +28 33 £37,654 -16.32% 2
Midlands +51 30 £57,500 +21.05% 8
Work from Home -9 25 £50,000 -20.00% 6
East Midlands +50 21 £50,000 -2.44% 5
Scotland 0 19 £57,500 -0.86% 4
South West +29 12 £37,500 -37.50% 11
West Midlands +31 9 £57,500 +21.05% 3
North East -3 9 £31,880 -20.30% 1
Yorkshire +34 5 £35,000 -41.67% 4
Wales +2 3 £52,500 +55.56% 1
Northern Ireland +13 1 - -

For the 6 months to 6 April 2020, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 375 (63.03%) Python
2 314 (52.77%) Data Science
3 274 (46.05%) Machine Learning
4 273 (45.88%) Mathematics
5 250 (42.02%) Computer Science
6 206 (34.62%) Degree
7 201 (33.78%) Algorithms
8 167 (28.07%) Analytics
9 160 (26.89%) C++
10 156 (26.22%) Agile Software Development
11 152 (25.55%) Artificial Intelligence
12 143 (24.03%) Finance
13 142 (23.87%) Statistics
14 112 (18.82%) Physics
15 109 (18.32%) Deep Learning
15 109 (18.32%) SQL
16 107 (17.98%) Java
16 107 (17.98%) Software Engineering
16 107 (17.98%) R
17 99 (16.64%) Data Analysis
18 94 (15.80%) Azure
19 85 (14.29%) Analytical Skills
20 81 (13.61%) AWS
21 80 (13.45%) SDLC
22 78 (13.11%) Pharmaceutical
23 77 (12.94%) Big Data
24 76 (12.77%) Natural Language Processing
25 75 (12.61%) TensorFlow
25 75 (12.61%) Problem-Solving
26 67 (11.26%) Master's Degree

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 54 (9.08%) Apache Spark
2 13 (2.18%) CMS
3 10 (1.68%) Jupyter
4 5 (0.84%) Apache
4 5 (0.84%) SAS
4 5 (0.84%) Tornado
5 2 (0.34%) Apache Airflow
5 2 (0.34%) JBoss
6 1 (0.17%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 1 (0.17%) Apache Solr
6 1 (0.17%) Headless CMS
6 1 (0.17%) Hyperledger
6 1 (0.17%) OpenStack
6 1 (0.17%) Pachyderm
6 1 (0.17%) Tomcat
Applications
1 5 (0.84%) S-PLUS
2 3 (0.50%) Microsoft Office
2 3 (0.50%) Stata
3 2 (0.34%) Microsoft Excel
4 1 (0.17%) Chatbot
4 1 (0.17%) GNU Octave
4 1 (0.17%) Simulink
Business Applications
1 6 (1.01%) SAP S/4HANA
2 4 (0.67%) SAP ERP
3 1 (0.17%) SAP MDG
Cloud Services
1 94 (15.80%) Azure
2 81 (13.61%) AWS
3 51 (8.57%) PaaS
4 47 (7.90%) GCP
5 12 (2.02%) Cloud Computing
6 10 (1.68%) Power Platform
7 4 (0.67%) Amazon SageMaker
8 3 (0.50%) Slack
9 2 (0.34%) Dialogflow
9 2 (0.34%) Google Analytics
9 2 (0.34%) Google Sheets
10 1 (0.17%) Apigee
10 1 (0.17%) AWS CodeDeploy
10 1 (0.17%) Boomi
10 1 (0.17%) G Suite
10 1 (0.17%) GitHub
10 1 (0.17%) Serverless
Communications & Networking
1 17 (2.86%) Internet
2 8 (1.34%) 5G
3 7 (1.18%) LTE
4 6 (1.01%) Ethernet
4 6 (1.01%) Wireless
5 5 (0.84%) 4G
5 5 (0.84%) DVB
5 5 (0.84%) Firewall
5 5 (0.84%) Wireshark
6 2 (0.34%) 3G
6 2 (0.34%) 3GPP
6 2 (0.34%) DNS
6 2 (0.34%) HSPA
6 2 (0.34%) Modbus
6 2 (0.34%) PPP
6 2 (0.34%) UMTS
7 1 (0.17%) Broadband
7 1 (0.17%) Network Security
7 1 (0.17%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 77 (12.94%) Big Data
2 42 (7.06%) PostgreSQL
3 37 (6.22%) Relational Database
4 34 (5.71%) Hadoop
5 24 (4.03%) NoSQL
6 23 (3.87%) Blockchain
7 22 (3.70%) SQL Server
8 18 (3.03%) Data Mining
9 13 (2.18%) MongoDB
10 11 (1.85%) BigQuery
11 10 (1.68%) Power BI
12 9 (1.51%) Data Warehouse
12 9 (1.51%) KDB
12 9 (1.51%) Kdb+
13 7 (1.18%) Amazon Redshift
13 7 (1.18%) Apache Hive
13 7 (1.18%) RDBMS
14 5 (0.84%) MySQL
15 3 (0.50%) QlikView
15 3 (0.50%) Triplestore
Development Applications
1 25 (4.20%) Git (software)
2 11 (1.85%) Jenkins
3 9 (1.51%) GitLab
3 9 (1.51%) JIRA
3 9 (1.51%) Metasploit
3 9 (1.51%) Snyk
3 9 (1.51%) SonarQube
4 4 (0.67%) LabVIEW
4 4 (0.67%) Subversion
5 3 (0.50%) Eclipse
5 3 (0.50%) Visual Studio
6 2 (0.34%) Atlassian Bamboo
6 2 (0.34%) JUnit
6 2 (0.34%) Mercurial
6 2 (0.34%) PyCharm
6 2 (0.34%) RStudio
6 2 (0.34%) Visual Studio Code
7 1 (0.17%) gulp
7 1 (0.17%) Travis CI
7 1 (0.17%) webpack
General
1 143 (24.03%) Finance
2 78 (13.11%) Pharmaceutical
3 31 (5.21%) Marketing
4 29 (4.87%) Banking
4 29 (4.87%) Retail
5 17 (2.86%) Automotive
5 17 (2.86%) Front Office
6 16 (2.69%) Games
7 15 (2.52%) Electronics
8 12 (2.02%) Advertising
9 11 (1.85%) Telecoms
10 9 (1.51%) Financial Institution
11 8 (1.34%) Aerospace
11 8 (1.34%) Law
11 8 (1.34%) Retail Banking
12 7 (1.18%) Manufacturing
13 6 (1.01%) Military
14 4 (0.67%) Investment Banking
15 3 (0.50%) Legal
15 3 (0.50%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 141 (23.70%) Data Scientist
2 66 (11.09%) Architect
3 57 (9.58%) Senior Data Scientist
4 55 (9.24%) Analyst
5 54 (9.08%) Software Engineer
6 52 (8.74%) Software Architect
7 46 (7.73%) Machine Learning Engineer
8 45 (7.56%) Developer
9 38 (6.39%) Qualitative Analyst
9 38 (6.39%) Quantitative Analyst
10 34 (5.71%) Python Engineer
11 30 (5.04%) Python Software Engineer
12 21 (3.53%) Graduate
13 18 (3.03%) Machine Learning Scientist
14 17 (2.86%) Data Engineer
15 15 (2.52%) Research Engineer
16 12 (2.02%) Test Engineer
17 11 (1.85%) Data Analyst
17 11 (1.85%) Project Manager
17 11 (1.85%) Quantitative Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 76 (12.77%) Natural Language Processing
2 75 (12.61%) TensorFlow
3 62 (10.42%) PyTorch
4 35 (5.88%) Keras
5 33 (5.55%) scikit-learn
6 32 (5.38%) Pandas
7 31 (5.21%) NumPy
8 23 (3.87%) Django
9 20 (3.36%) Dask
10 17 (2.86%) .NET
11 16 (2.69%) Kafka
12 13 (2.18%) Web Services
13 12 (2.02%) HTML
13 12 (2.02%) Spring
14 11 (1.85%) PySpark
14 11 (1.85%) SciPy
14 11 (1.85%) Spring Boot
15 9 (1.51%) OAuth
15 9 (1.51%) OpenID
15 9 (1.51%) PyMC3
Miscellaneous
1 201 (33.78%) Algorithms
2 85 (14.29%) Analytical Skills
3 26 (4.37%) Credit Risk
4 24 (4.03%) Derivative
5 22 (3.70%) Hedge funds
5 22 (3.70%) Self-Motivation
6 21 (3.53%) Market Risk
6 21 (3.53%) Robotics
7 19 (3.19%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
8 14 (2.35%) Internet of Things
9 13 (2.18%) Renewable Energy
10 12 (2.02%) Data Structures
10 12 (2.02%) Greenfield Project
10 12 (2.02%) Management Information System
10 12 (2.02%) PKI
11 11 (1.85%) Embedded Systems
11 11 (1.85%) VHDL
12 10 (1.68%) Equities
12 10 (1.68%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 10 (1.68%) Verilog
Operating Systems
1 49 (8.24%) Linux
2 13 (2.18%) Unix
3 9 (1.51%) Kali Linux
4 7 (1.18%) VMS
5 5 (0.84%) Embedded Linux
6 4 (0.67%) Ubuntu
7 3 (0.50%) Android
7 3 (0.50%) Debian
7 3 (0.50%) Fedora
7 3 (0.50%) Robot Operating System
7 3 (0.50%) Windows
8 1 (0.17%) Apple iOS
8 1 (0.17%) CentOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 314 (52.77%) Data Science
2 274 (46.05%) Machine Learning
3 273 (45.88%) Mathematics
4 250 (42.02%) Computer Science
5 167 (28.07%) Analytics
6 156 (26.22%) Agile Software Development
7 152 (25.55%) Artificial Intelligence
8 142 (23.87%) Statistics
9 112 (18.82%) Physics
10 109 (18.32%) Deep Learning
11 107 (17.98%) Software Engineering
12 99 (16.64%) Data Analysis
13 80 (13.45%) SDLC
14 75 (12.61%) Problem-Solving
15 63 (10.59%) Innovative Thinking
15 63 (10.59%) Threat Modelling
16 58 (9.75%) Visualisation
17 57 (9.58%) Software Architecture
18 51 (8.57%) TOGAF
19 48 (8.07%) Neural Network
Programming Languages
1 375 (63.03%) Python
2 160 (26.89%) C++
3 109 (18.32%) SQL
4 107 (17.98%) Java
4 107 (17.98%) R
5 64 (10.76%) MATLAB
6 57 (9.58%) C
7 49 (8.24%) C#
8 42 (7.06%) JavaScript
9 32 (5.38%) Scala
10 28 (4.71%) Go
11 14 (2.35%) Julia
12 12 (2.02%) Rust
13 9 (1.51%) Bash Shell
14 8 (1.34%) TypeScript
15 6 (1.01%) SPARQL
16 5 (0.84%) Ruby
17 4 (0.67%) PHP
18 3 (0.50%) Assembly Language
18 3 (0.50%) Perl
Qualifications
1 206 (34.62%) Degree
2 67 (11.26%) Master's Degree
3 30 (5.04%) Computer Science Degree
4 17 (2.86%) Numerate Degree
5 9 (1.51%) PMI Certification
6 8 (1.34%) MBA
7 7 (1.18%) ISTQB
7 7 (1.18%) Postgraduate
8 6 (1.01%) DBS Check
9 5 (0.84%) CFA
9 5 (0.84%) Security Cleared
10 4 (0.67%) CISSP
11 3 (0.50%) (ISC)2 CCSP
11 3 (0.50%) CEH
11 3 (0.50%) Cisco Certification
11 3 (0.50%) CSSLP
11 3 (0.50%) GWAPT
11 3 (0.50%) ISSAP
11 3 (0.50%) ISSEP
11 3 (0.50%) SC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 12 (2.02%) QA
2 9 (1.51%) MiFID
3 8 (1.34%) EMIR
4 7 (1.18%) Dodd-Frank
5 5 (0.84%) COBIT
5 5 (0.84%) NIST
6 3 (0.50%) Data Quality
6 3 (0.50%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 2 (0.34%) Basel II
7 2 (0.34%) Basel III
8 1 (0.17%) Actionable Recommendations
8 1 (0.17%) PMO
System Software
1 27 (4.54%) Docker
2 8 (1.34%) Firmware
3 1 (0.17%) Apache Flume
3 1 (0.17%) Lustre
3 1 (0.17%) oVirt
Systems Management
1 33 (5.55%) Kubernetes
2 9 (1.51%) Nessus
2 9 (1.51%) Nmap
2 9 (1.51%) Sysdig
2 9 (1.51%) Terraform
3 6 (1.01%) Istio
4 3 (0.50%) Ansible
4 3 (0.50%) Consul
5 1 (0.17%) Grafana
5 1 (0.17%) Kibana
5 1 (0.17%) Knative
5 1 (0.17%) Puppet
Vendors
1 48 (8.07%) Google
2 24 (4.03%) Oracle
3 21 (3.53%) Tableau
4 9 (1.51%) Qualys
4 9 (1.51%) SAP
4 9 (1.51%) Sybase
5 7 (1.18%) Alteryx
5 7 (1.18%) Microsoft
6 6 (1.01%) Xilinx
7 4 (0.67%) Databricks
7 4 (0.67%) Sage
7 4 (0.67%) Yahoo!
8 3 (0.50%) Salesforce.com
8 3 (0.50%) Teradata
9 2 (0.34%) Canon
9 2 (0.34%) Cognizant
9 2 (0.34%) Facebook
9 2 (0.34%) Foundry
9 2 (0.34%) MicroStrategy
9 2 (0.34%) Palantir