Period
to 20 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 20 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
20 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 449 405 511
Rank change year-on-year -44 +106 -131
Permanent jobs citing PhD 836 338 704
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.66% 0.69% 0.52%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.07% 3.21% 2.24%
Number of salaries quoted 266 277 529
10th Percentile £40,371 £41,050 £33,750
25th Percentile £50,000 £51,250 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £70,000 £67,000 £65,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.48% +3.08% +4.00%
75th Percentile £92,500 £90,000 £90,000
90th Percentile £113,750 £110,000 £107,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £57,500 £60,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year -4.17% +33.33% -10.00%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 27,199 10,525 31,439
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 21.60% 21.53% 23.09%
Number of salaries quoted 15,140 8,108 23,398
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £27,000
25th Percentile £40,500 £41,250 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year - +10.00% -
75th Percentile £72,500 £71,250 £66,500
90th Percentile £87,500 £87,500 £82,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,000 £48,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year -1.03% +7.78% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 20 October 2021.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 20 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -54 732 £70,000 +4.48% 161
UK excluding London -65 377 £57,500 -4.17% 115
London -95 363 £83,323 +11.10% 55
Work from Home -172 146 £70,000 +7.69% 21
East of England -26 133 £60,000 -9.09% 33
South East -135 86 £50,422 -15.96% 28
North of England -98 64 £70,000 -22.22% 23
South West -52 47 £65,000 +30.00% 16
Yorkshire -72 47 £70,000 +55.56% 3
Northern Ireland -22 23 - - 2
Midlands -122 13 £35,000 -41.67% 6
North West -105 12 £75,000 -16.67% 16
Scotland -90 10 £46,974 -14.59% 7
West Midlands -100 10 - - 3
North East -26 5 £65,000 +18.18% 4
East Midlands -75 3 £35,000 -53.33% 3
Wales -51 1 - -

For the 6 months to 20 October 2021, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 472 (56.46%) Python
2 371 (44.38%) Computer Science
3 336 (40.19%) Degree
4 320 (38.28%) Machine Learning
5 281 (33.61%) Mathematics
6 264 (31.58%) Data Science
7 262 (31.34%) Algorithms
8 259 (30.98%) Social Skills
9 216 (25.84%) Analytics
10 211 (25.24%) C++
11 204 (24.40%) Statistics
12 202 (24.16%) Artificial Intelligence
13 192 (22.97%) Software Engineering
14 184 (22.01%) Deep Learning
15 162 (19.38%) SQL
16 151 (18.06%) Computer Vision
17 149 (17.82%) Pharmaceutical
18 148 (17.70%) Analytical Skills
19 146 (17.46%) Problem-Solving
20 139 (16.63%) TensorFlow
21 134 (16.03%) Physics
22 132 (15.79%) MATLAB
23 130 (15.55%) Finance
24 128 (15.31%) Natural Language Processing
25 116 (13.88%) Marketing
26 107 (12.80%) PyTorch
27 104 (12.44%) Neural Network
28 103 (12.32%) Life Science
29 101 (12.08%) Visualisation
29 101 (12.08%) Agile Software Development

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 53 (6.34%) SAS
2 52 (6.22%) Apache Spark
3 14 (1.67%) Elasticsearch
4 10 (1.20%) Jupyter
5 8 (0.96%) Ethereum
6 3 (0.36%) Apache
6 3 (0.36%) Apache Airflow
6 3 (0.36%) Facebook Platform
7 2 (0.24%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 2 (0.24%) Apache Pig
7 2 (0.24%) CMS
7 2 (0.24%) OpenStack
8 1 (0.12%) Luigi
8 1 (0.12%) SugarCRM
Applications
1 40 (4.78%) Simulink
2 22 (2.63%) Stateflow
3 6 (0.72%) Zemax
4 5 (0.60%) SOLIDWORKS
5 3 (0.36%) Chatbot
5 3 (0.36%) GNU Octave
6 2 (0.24%) CPLEX
6 2 (0.24%) Stata
7 1 (0.12%) Final Cut Pro
7 1 (0.12%) Microsoft Excel
7 1 (0.12%) Microsoft Office
7 1 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 9 (1.08%) SAP S/4HANA
2 5 (0.60%) Primavera
3 4 (0.48%) Summit
4 3 (0.36%) SAP BPC
5 2 (0.24%) FINCAD Analytics
5 2 (0.24%) SAP IBP
Cloud Services
1 87 (10.41%) AWS
2 42 (5.02%) Azure
3 39 (4.67%) SaaS
4 36 (4.31%) GCP
5 30 (3.59%) Serverless
6 26 (3.11%) Cloud Computing
7 10 (1.20%) Veeva
8 8 (0.96%) Amazon S3
8 8 (0.96%) GitHub
8 8 (0.96%) Power Platform
9 6 (0.72%) AWS Lambda
9 6 (0.72%) PaaS
10 4 (0.48%) Amazon EC2
10 4 (0.48%) Amazon ECS
10 4 (0.48%) Amazon SageMaker
10 4 (0.48%) AWS Fargate
10 4 (0.48%) Cloud Functions
10 4 (0.48%) Firebase
10 4 (0.48%) Slack
11 3 (0.36%) Azure Machine Learning
Communications & Networking
1 45 (5.38%) Wireless
2 30 (3.59%) DVB
2 30 (3.59%) MIMO
2 30 (3.59%) Wi-Fi
3 14 (1.67%) Internet
4 5 (0.60%) GSM
5 4 (0.48%) 5G
5 4 (0.48%) RFID
6 3 (0.36%) LTE
6 3 (0.36%) Modbus
6 3 (0.36%) MPLS
6 3 (0.36%) Network Security
6 3 (0.36%) Software-Defined Radio
7 2 (0.24%) Broadband
7 2 (0.24%) HTTP
7 2 (0.24%) TCP/IP
8 1 (0.12%) NAS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 60 (7.18%) NoSQL
2 47 (5.62%) Data Warehouse
3 38 (4.55%) Big Data
4 37 (4.43%) Hadoop
5 35 (4.19%) Data Mining
6 32 (3.83%) Relational Database
7 20 (2.39%) PostgreSQL
7 20 (2.39%) Tableau
8 18 (2.15%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
9 13 (1.56%) Metadata
10 11 (1.32%) Electronic Patient Records
11 10 (1.20%) Redis
12 8 (0.96%) Apache Cassandra
12 8 (0.96%) BigQuery
12 8 (0.96%) Blockchain
12 8 (0.96%) Power BI
13 6 (0.72%) MySQL
13 6 (0.72%) Text Mining
14 5 (0.60%) RDBMS
15 4 (0.48%) Neo4j
Development Applications
1 60 (7.18%) Git (software)
2 16 (1.91%) PostCSS
2 16 (1.91%) Storybook
3 14 (1.67%) GitLab
4 8 (0.96%) Maven
5 7 (0.84%) Bitbucket
6 6 (0.72%) gulp
6 6 (0.72%) Jenkins
6 6 (0.72%) JIRA
6 6 (0.72%) LabVIEW
6 6 (0.72%) webpack
7 3 (0.36%) Subversion
8 2 (0.24%) CircleCI
8 2 (0.24%) CMake
9 1 (0.12%) git-flow
9 1 (0.12%) MLflow
9 1 (0.12%) PyCharm
General
1 259 (30.98%) Social Skills
2 149 (17.82%) Pharmaceutical
3 148 (17.70%) Analytical Skills
4 130 (15.55%) Finance
5 116 (13.88%) Marketing
6 83 (9.93%) Games
7 64 (7.66%) Presentation Skills
8 53 (6.34%) Manufacturing
9 49 (5.86%) Banking
10 39 (4.67%) Retail
11 36 (4.31%) Inclusion and Diversity
12 33 (3.95%) Law
13 28 (3.35%) Telecoms
14 22 (2.63%) Public Sector
15 20 (2.39%) Front Office
16 14 (1.67%) Legal
17 12 (1.44%) Advertising
17 12 (1.44%) Electronics
18 11 (1.32%) Aerospace
19 10 (1.20%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 140 (16.75%) Data Scientist
2 85 (10.17%) Software Engineer
3 76 (9.09%) Developer
4 66 (7.89%) Senior Data Scientist
5 62 (7.42%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 33 (3.95%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 32 (3.83%) Consultant
8 31 (3.71%) Programmer
8 31 (3.71%) Research Engineer
9 30 (3.59%) Algorithm Engineer
9 30 (3.59%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
9 30 (3.59%) DSP Engineer
9 30 (3.59%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
9 30 (3.59%) Senior DSP Engineer
9 30 (3.59%) Wireless Engineer
10 28 (3.35%) Computer Engineer
10 28 (3.35%) Systems Engineer
11 26 (3.11%) Machine Learning Scientist
12 24 (2.87%) Computer Vision Engineer
12 24 (2.87%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 139 (16.63%) TensorFlow
2 107 (12.80%) PyTorch
3 69 (8.25%) scikit-learn
4 58 (6.94%) Keras
5 50 (5.98%) React
6 46 (5.50%) AngularJS
7 45 (5.38%) NumPy
8 37 (4.43%) Pandas
9 36 (4.31%) Node.js
10 35 (4.19%) CSS
11 33 (3.95%) Torch
12 31 (3.71%) SciPy
13 27 (3.23%) OpenCV
14 24 (2.87%) HTML
14 24 (2.87%) REST
15 22 (2.63%) Theano
16 17 (2.03%) Web Services
17 16 (1.91%) CSS3
17 16 (1.91%) HTML5
17 16 (1.91%) Sass
Miscellaneous
1 262 (31.34%) Algorithms
2 103 (12.32%) Life Science
3 44 (5.26%) User Experience
4 40 (4.78%) Robotics
5 36 (4.31%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
5 36 (4.31%) Greenfield Project
6 30 (3.59%) Social Media
7 29 (3.47%) Management Information System
8 25 (2.99%) Enterprise Software
9 18 (2.15%) Augmented Reality
9 18 (2.15%) Biotechnology
9 18 (2.15%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 17 (2.03%) Blog
10 17 (2.03%) Self-Motivation
11 16 (1.91%) Cloud Native
11 16 (1.91%) W3C
12 15 (1.79%) Data Structures
12 15 (1.79%) Hedge funds
13 13 (1.56%) Equities
13 13 (1.56%) Industrial Internet of Things
Operating Systems
1 66 (7.89%) Linux
2 30 (3.59%) Windows
3 23 (2.75%) Android
4 18 (2.15%) Apple iOS
5 10 (1.20%) Unix
6 7 (0.84%) Mac OS
7 2 (0.24%) Robot Operating System
Processes & Methodologies
1 371 (44.38%) Computer Science
2 320 (38.28%) Machine Learning
3 281 (33.61%) Mathematics
4 264 (31.58%) Data Science
5 216 (25.84%) Analytics
6 204 (24.40%) Statistics
7 202 (24.16%) Artificial Intelligence
8 192 (22.97%) Software Engineering
9 184 (22.01%) Deep Learning
10 151 (18.06%) Computer Vision
11 146 (17.46%) Problem-Solving
12 134 (16.03%) Physics
13 128 (15.31%) Natural Language Processing
14 104 (12.44%) Neural Network
15 101 (12.08%) Agile Software Development
15 101 (12.08%) Visualisation
16 81 (9.69%) Data Analysis
17 73 (8.73%) Validation
18 65 (7.78%) Data Visualisation
18 65 (7.78%) Signal Processing
Programming Languages
1 472 (56.46%) Python
2 211 (25.24%) C++
3 162 (19.38%) SQL
4 132 (15.79%) MATLAB
5 101 (12.08%) Java
6 90 (10.77%) C
7 83 (9.93%) R
8 80 (9.57%) JavaScript
9 48 (5.74%) C#
10 38 (4.55%) TypeScript
11 16 (1.91%) ES6
12 14 (1.67%) Go
12 14 (1.67%) Perl
13 10 (1.20%) Cython
13 10 (1.20%) Shell Script
14 9 (1.08%) Java 8
14 9 (1.08%) Scala
15 8 (0.96%) PHP
16 5 (0.60%) Fortran
16 5 (0.60%) VB
Qualifications
1 336 (40.19%) Degree
2 96 (11.48%) Master's Degree
3 46 (5.50%) Computer Science Degree
4 42 (5.02%) Numerate Degree
5 33 (3.95%) MBA
6 24 (2.87%) Security Cleared
7 15 (1.79%) SC Cleared
8 10 (1.20%) PMP
9 8 (0.96%) DBS Check
10 7 (0.84%) Chartered Engineer
11 6 (0.72%) DV Cleared
11 6 (0.72%) Postgraduate
12 5 (0.60%) HND
13 4 (0.48%) PMI Certification
14 3 (0.36%) APMP
15 2 (0.24%) AWS Certification
15 2 (0.24%) CESG Certified Professional
15 2 (0.24%) CFA
15 2 (0.24%) CISSP
15 2 (0.24%) CREST Certified
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 32 (3.83%) QA
2 19 (2.27%) GxP
3 17 (2.03%) Accessibility
4 12 (1.44%) Data Quality
4 12 (1.44%) GLP
5 8 (0.96%) CDISC
5 8 (0.96%) Dodd-Frank
5 8 (0.96%) EMIR
5 8 (0.96%) MiFID
6 5 (0.60%) GDPR
6 5 (0.60%) HAZOP
6 5 (0.60%) IEC 61508
6 5 (0.60%) ISO 26262
7 3 (0.36%) IEC 62304
7 3 (0.36%) ISO 13485
8 2 (0.24%) Def Stans
8 2 (0.24%) GMP
8 2 (0.24%) JSP 440
8 2 (0.24%) NCSC
8 2 (0.24%) NIST
System Software
1 76 (9.09%) Docker
2 33 (3.95%) Firmware
3 3 (0.36%) NFS
4 2 (0.24%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 58 (6.94%) Kubernetes
2 20 (2.39%) Ansible
3 19 (2.27%) Terraform
4 7 (0.84%) Kubeflow
5 5 (0.60%) Docker Swarm
6 2 (0.24%) Kibana
6 2 (0.24%) Kustomize
6 2 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 61 (7.30%) Google
2 31 (3.71%) Facebook
3 22 (2.63%) IBM
4 21 (2.51%) OpenAI
5 14 (1.67%) SAP
6 11 (1.32%) Yahoo!
7 10 (1.20%) Dataiku
8 9 (1.08%) ANSYS
9 8 (0.96%) Oracle
10 6 (0.72%) ConsenSys
10 6 (0.72%) Infragistics
11 5 (0.60%) Autodesk
12 4 (0.48%) Bloomberg
12 4 (0.48%) Sun
13 3 (0.36%) Cisco
14 2 (0.24%) Adobe
14 2 (0.24%) Ariba
14 2 (0.24%) CA
14 2 (0.24%) Red Hat
14 2 (0.24%) Salesforce.com