Period
to 19 March 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 19 March 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
19 Mar 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 382 311 373
Rank change year-on-year -71 +62 +99
Permanent jobs citing PhD 1,178 1,814 1,415
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.79% 1.03% 0.82%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.24% 4.34% 3.24%
Number of salaries quoted 906 1,524 1,217
UK median annual salary £58,000 £55,000 £55,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.45% - -
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,000 £29,750
90th Percentile £102,500 £97,500 £115,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +5.56% +5.88%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 36,305 41,841 43,698
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 24.45% 23.80% 25.41%
Number of salaries quoted 26,347 32,312 34,421
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -
10th Percentile £26,500 £26,250 £26,250
90th Percentile £81,250 £80,000 £76,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,000
% change year-on-year +5.88% +1.19% -1.18%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 19 March 2019.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 19 March 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -74 1,110 £60,000 +9.09% 229
UK excluding London -92 595 £47,500 - 161
London -16 573 £70,000 - 84
South East +17 245 £47,500 - 37
East of England -97 160 £55,000 +22.22% 74
North of England +69 78 £45,000 -14.29% 13
North West +63 45 £45,000 -10.00% 3
Scotland +30 44 £55,000 +22.22% 11
Midlands +11 29 £43,750 +4.17% 1
West Midlands -3 25 £43,750 -2.78% 1
South West -57 25 £55,000 - 19
Yorkshire +32 21 £60,000 +14.29% 5
North East +26 12 £40,000 -40.74% 5
Northern Ireland -17 11 £42,500 -2.86% 3
East Midlands +19 4 £51,250 +73.73%
Wales +9 3 £35,000 -36.36% 3

For the 6 months to 19 March 2019, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 709 (60.19%) Python
2 634 (53.82%) Mathematics
3 583 (49.49%) Machine Learning
4 505 (42.87%) C++
5 454 (38.54%) Data Science
6 439 (37.27%) Degree
7 437 (37.10%) Computer Science
8 436 (37.01%) Java
9 431 (36.59%) Algorithms
10 387 (32.85%) Software Engineering
11 374 (31.75%) Artificial Intelligence
12 298 (25.30%) Analytics
13 291 (24.70%) Physics
14 287 (24.36%) Deep Learning
15 284 (24.11%) R
16 271 (23.01%) C#
17 270 (22.92%) MATLAB
18 246 (20.88%) Data Analysis
19 228 (19.35%) Finance
20 197 (16.72%) Natural Language Processing
21 190 (16.13%) Agile Software Development
22 189 (16.04%) Statistics
23 185 (15.70%) Analytical Skills
24 178 (15.11%) Problem-Solving
25 175 (14.86%) C
26 168 (14.26%) Big Data
27 167 (14.18%) SQL
28 165 (14.01%) Neural Network
29 151 (12.82%) TensorFlow
30 143 (12.14%) JavaScript

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 84 (7.13%) Apache Spark
2 35 (2.97%) SAS
3 25 (2.12%) Apache
4 19 (1.61%) Ethereum
5 14 (1.19%) Elasticsearch
6 8 (0.68%) Apache Pig
6 8 (0.68%) DNN
7 6 (0.51%) ArcGIS
7 6 (0.51%) GeoServer
8 5 (0.42%) Jupyter
8 5 (0.42%) nginx
9 3 (0.25%) OpenStack
10 2 (0.17%) Apache Solr
11 1 (0.085%) Exchange Server 2007
11 1 (0.085%) Luigi
11 1 (0.085%) MS Exchange
11 1 (0.085%) Skype for Business
Applications
1 37 (3.14%) Microsoft Excel
2 22 (1.87%) GNU Octave
3 12 (1.02%) Microsoft Office
4 10 (0.85%) Spreadsheet
5 9 (0.76%) Chatbot
6 8 (0.68%) Simulink
6 8 (0.68%) SPSS
7 4 (0.34%) AutoCAD
7 4 (0.34%) Mathcad
7 4 (0.34%) SOLIDWORKS
8 3 (0.25%) S-PLUS
8 3 (0.25%) Stata
9 2 (0.17%) CPLEX
10 1 (0.085%) Abaqus
10 1 (0.085%) NASTRAN
10 1 (0.085%) Weka
Business Applications
1 18 (1.53%) Summit
2 1 (0.085%) SAP ERP
2 1 (0.085%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 105 (8.91%) Amazon AWS
2 39 (3.31%) GitHub
2 39 (3.31%) Microsoft Azure
3 27 (2.29%) Cloud Computing
3 27 (2.29%) Google Cloud Platform
4 14 (1.19%) Amazon S3
4 14 (1.19%) CloudFront
5 10 (0.85%) PaaS
6 6 (0.51%) OpenShift
6 6 (0.51%) Slack
7 5 (0.42%) Azure Data Factory
7 5 (0.42%) Cortana Intelligence Suite
7 5 (0.42%) SaaS
8 4 (0.34%) Azure Machine Learning
8 4 (0.34%) iTunes
8 4 (0.34%) Serverless
9 3 (0.25%) Amazon Alexa
9 3 (0.25%) Siri
10 2 (0.17%) Wit.ai
11 1 (0.085%) Dropbox
Communications & Networking
1 17 (1.44%) Network Security
2 15 (1.27%) Internet
3 14 (1.19%) Skype
4 6 (0.51%) HTTP
4 6 (0.51%) Wireless
5 5 (0.42%) DNS
6 3 (0.25%) 5G
6 3 (0.25%) Radio Access Network
7 2 (0.17%) GSM
7 2 (0.17%) LTE
7 2 (0.17%) MIMO
7 2 (0.17%) Software-Defined Radio
7 2 (0.17%) TCP/IP
7 2 (0.17%) UMTS
7 2 (0.17%) Wi-Fi
8 1 (0.085%) Broadband
8 1 (0.085%) Cisco ASA
8 1 (0.085%) DHCP
8 1 (0.085%) VoIP
8 1 (0.085%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 168 (14.26%) Big Data
2 64 (5.43%) Hadoop
3 51 (4.33%) Data Mining
4 40 (3.40%) Relational Database
5 36 (3.06%) NoSQL
6 30 (2.55%) Blockchain
6 30 (2.55%) PostgreSQL
7 21 (1.78%) Neo4j
8 20 (1.70%) MySQL
9 18 (1.53%) Apache Cassandra
9 18 (1.53%) Apache Hive
9 18 (1.53%) SQL Server
10 17 (1.44%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 15 (1.27%) Hazelcast
12 14 (1.19%) Text Mining
13 11 (0.93%) Redis
14 10 (0.85%) Data Warehouse
14 10 (0.85%) GIS
14 10 (0.85%) MongoDB
15 9 (0.76%) VoltDB
Development Applications
1 73 (6.20%) Git (software)
2 39 (3.31%) Subversion
3 14 (1.19%) CircleCI
3 14 (1.19%) GitLab
3 14 (1.19%) IntelliJ
4 12 (1.02%) JIRA
5 10 (0.85%) Visual Studio
6 9 (0.76%) Team Foundation Server
7 4 (0.34%) Visual Studio Team System
8 3 (0.25%) Gradle
8 3 (0.25%) LabVIEW
9 2 (0.17%) CMake
9 2 (0.17%) Mercurial
9 2 (0.17%) RStudio
10 1 (0.085%) Bitbucket
10 1 (0.085%) Jenkins
10 1 (0.085%) Octopus Deploy
10 1 (0.085%) Rational DOORS
10 1 (0.085%) SpecFlow
10 1 (0.085%) TeamCity
General
1 228 (19.35%) Finance
2 121 (10.27%) Pharmaceutical
3 65 (5.52%) Games
4 56 (4.75%) Banking
5 46 (3.90%) Telecoms
6 39 (3.31%) Publishing
7 37 (3.14%) Marketing
8 36 (3.06%) Electronics
9 22 (1.87%) Retail
10 21 (1.78%) Advertising
10 21 (1.78%) Legal
11 19 (1.61%) Manufacturing
12 16 (1.36%) Investment Banking
13 15 (1.27%) Military
14 14 (1.19%) Automotive
15 10 (0.85%) Aerospace
15 10 (0.85%) Front Office
16 7 (0.59%) Back Office
16 7 (0.59%) Law
17 4 (0.34%) French Language
Job Titles
1 257 (21.82%) Developer
2 232 (19.69%) Data Scientist
3 164 (13.92%) Software Engineer
4 118 (10.02%) Machine Learning Engineer
5 111 (9.42%) Software Developer
6 109 (9.25%) Graduate
7 68 (5.77%) Developer/Software Engineer
8 62 (5.26%) Analyst
9 53 (4.50%) Machine Learning Researcher
10 49 (4.16%) Computer Engineer
10 49 (4.16%) Computer Vision Engineer
11 47 (3.99%) C++ Software Engineer
11 47 (3.99%) Graduate Developer
11 47 (3.99%) Research Engineer
12 42 (3.57%) Senior Data Scientist
13 39 (3.31%) Graduate Software Engineer
13 39 (3.31%) Java Developer
14 38 (3.23%) Java Engineer
15 35 (2.97%) Junior
15 35 (2.97%) Python Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 197 (16.72%) Natural Language Processing
2 151 (12.82%) TensorFlow
3 88 (7.47%) .NET
4 63 (5.35%) AngularJS
5 60 (5.09%) React
6 56 (4.75%) HTML
7 50 (4.24%) Keras
8 46 (3.90%) CSS
9 43 (3.65%) scikit-learn
10 41 (3.48%) NumPy
11 38 (3.23%) Pandas
12 34 (2.89%) Ajax
13 32 (2.72%) Caffe
14 30 (2.55%) GWT
15 25 (2.12%) OpenCV
15 25 (2.12%) SciPy
16 24 (2.04%) Node.js
17 23 (1.95%) Web Services
18 21 (1.78%) Vue.js
19 20 (1.70%) Kafka
Miscellaneous
1 431 (36.59%) Algorithms
2 185 (15.70%) Analytical Skills
3 61 (5.18%) Fintech
4 48 (4.07%) Robotics
5 43 (3.65%) Hedge funds
6 42 (3.57%) Xbox
7 38 (3.23%) Credit Risk
8 29 (2.46%) Data Structures
8 29 (2.46%) Derivative
8 29 (2.46%) Life Science
8 29 (2.46%) PMI
9 26 (2.21%) Self-Motivation
9 26 (2.21%) User Experience
10 25 (2.12%) Mobile App
11 20 (1.70%) Management Information System
12 18 (1.53%) Social Media
13 17 (1.44%) Equities
14 16 (1.36%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 16 (1.36%) Market Risk
15 14 (1.19%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 99 (8.40%) Linux
2 22 (1.87%) Unix
3 14 (1.19%) Windows
4 6 (0.51%) Debian
4 6 (0.51%) Fedora
4 6 (0.51%) Robot Operating System
4 6 (0.51%) Ubuntu
5 1 (0.085%) Android
5 1 (0.085%) Embedded Linux
5 1 (0.085%) VxWorks
5 1 (0.085%) Windows 10
5 1 (0.085%) Windows Server
5 1 (0.085%) Windows Server 2003
5 1 (0.085%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 634 (53.82%) Mathematics
2 583 (49.49%) Machine Learning
3 454 (38.54%) Data Science
4 437 (37.10%) Computer Science
5 387 (32.85%) Software Engineering
6 374 (31.75%) Artificial Intelligence
7 298 (25.30%) Analytics
8 291 (24.70%) Physics
9 287 (24.36%) Deep Learning
10 246 (20.88%) Data Analysis
11 190 (16.13%) Agile Software Development
12 189 (16.04%) Statistics
13 178 (15.11%) Problem-Solving
14 165 (14.01%) Neural Network
15 140 (11.88%) Computer Vision
16 104 (8.83%) Visualisation
17 93 (7.89%) Data Analytics
18 92 (7.81%) Bayesian Methods
19 75 (6.37%) Reinforcement Learning
20 73 (6.20%) Innovative Thinking
Programming Languages
1 709 (60.19%) Python
2 505 (42.87%) C++
3 436 (37.01%) Java
4 284 (24.11%) R
5 271 (23.01%) C#
6 270 (22.92%) MATLAB
7 175 (14.86%) C
8 167 (14.18%) SQL
9 143 (12.14%) JavaScript
10 52 (4.41%) Scala
11 44 (3.74%) Java 8
12 34 (2.89%) VBA
13 31 (2.63%) Ruby
14 30 (2.55%) Bash Shell
15 28 (2.38%) Go
16 25 (2.12%) PHP
17 20 (1.70%) TypeScript
18 18 (1.53%) Bourne shell
18 18 (1.53%) Korn
19 15 (1.27%) F#
Qualifications
1 439 (37.27%) Degree
2 73 (6.20%) Master's Degree
3 68 (5.77%) Computer Science Degree
4 55 (4.67%) MPhil
5 53 (4.50%) Numerate Degree
6 37 (3.14%) Security Cleared
7 29 (2.46%) PMI Certification
8 25 (2.12%) Postgraduate
9 18 (1.53%) MBA
10 17 (1.44%) SC Cleared
11 16 (1.36%) ISTQB
12 12 (1.02%) CFA
13 11 (0.93%) DV Cleared
14 9 (0.76%) PMP
15 5 (0.42%) Microsoft Certification
16 4 (0.34%) MCAD
16 4 (0.34%) MCDBA
16 4 (0.34%) MCSD
17 2 (0.17%) Chartered Engineer
18 1 (0.085%) A+ Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 36 (3.06%) QA
2 12 (1.02%) Dodd-Frank
2 12 (1.02%) EMIR
2 12 (1.02%) MiFID
3 7 (0.59%) IFRS
3 7 (0.59%) IFRS 9
4 5 (0.42%) Data Quality
5 4 (0.34%) CRD IV
6 1 (0.085%) CDISC
6 1 (0.085%) DICOM
6 1 (0.085%) DO-178B
6 1 (0.085%) GDPR
6 1 (0.085%) IEC 61508
6 1 (0.085%) IEC 62304
6 1 (0.085%) MISRA
6 1 (0.085%) MISRA C
System Software
1 11 (0.93%) Docker
2 6 (0.51%) Apache Flume
3 4 (0.34%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 1 (0.085%) Active Directory
4 1 (0.085%) Firmware
4 1 (0.085%) HDFS
4 1 (0.085%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.085%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.085%) vSphere
4 1 (0.085%) XenApp
4 1 (0.085%) XenServer
Systems Management
1 14 (1.19%) Consul
1 14 (1.19%) Prometheus
1 14 (1.19%) Terraform
2 13 (1.10%) Kubernetes
3 1 (0.085%) Ambari
3 1 (0.085%) EMC NetWorker
3 1 (0.085%) Oozie
Vendors
1 36 (3.06%) Microsoft
2 28 (2.38%) Google
3 12 (1.02%) Tableau
4 11 (0.93%) Oracle
5 9 (0.76%) IBM
6 7 (0.59%) Talend
7 6 (0.51%) ESRI
7 6 (0.51%) Mapbox
7 6 (0.51%) Mapinfo
8 5 (0.42%) Apple
8 5 (0.42%) Intel
8 5 (0.42%) SAP
9 4 (0.34%) Databricks
9 4 (0.34%) EMC
9 4 (0.34%) Splunk
10 3 (0.25%) Huawei
10 3 (0.25%) Perforce
10 3 (0.25%) RapidMiner
11 2 (0.17%) Facebook
11 2 (0.17%) Hortonworks