Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 18 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
18 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 429 426 478
Rank change year-on-year -3 +52 -41
Permanent jobs citing PhD 1,318 594 530
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.82% 0.66% 0.55%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.34% 3.17% 2.58%
Number of salaries quoted 407 324 355
10th Percentile £42,500 £35,000 £37,500
25th Percentile £55,000 £45,938 £51,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £70,000 £65,000 £67,500
Median % change year-on-year +7.69% -3.70% +12.50%
75th Percentile £105,000 £86,250 £90,000
90th Percentile £137,500 £110,000 £110,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £57,250 £50,000 £57,500
% change year-on-year +14.50% -13.04% +15.00%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 39,479 18,744 20,508
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 24.57% 20.84% 21.46%
Number of salaries quoted 16,915 12,251 15,426
10th Percentile £31,000 £31,250 £28,750
25th Percentile £41,000 £41,250 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £73,675 £72,500 £68,750
90th Percentile £91,250 £86,250 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 18 May 2022.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 18 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -5 1,157 £70,000 +7.69% 155
London -33 628 £90,000 +12.50% 55
UK excluding London -35 524 £57,250 +14.50% 106
Work from Home -89 395 £80,000 +14.29% 54
East of England +4 198 £55,000 +37.50% 45
South East -9 133 £45,000 -9.82% 20
North of England -88 83 £70,000 - 20
South West -13 81 £60,000 -2.04% 7
Yorkshire -48 61 £70,000 - 6
Midlands -36 25 £41,500 +64.70% 9
North West -76 17 £57,500 +15.00% 11
West Midlands -40 16 £41,500 - 4
East Midlands -34 9 £27,750 +10.13% 5
North East - 5 £48,872 - 3
Scotland -83 3 £61,750 +33.43% 6
Northern Ireland -17 1 - -

For the 6 months to 18 May 2022, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 820 (62.22%) Python
2 631 (47.88%) Machine Learning
3 621 (47.12%) Mathematics
4 549 (41.65%) Computer Science
5 501 (38.01%) Degree
6 483 (36.65%) Data Science
7 376 (28.53%) Artificial Intelligence
8 368 (27.92%) Algorithms
9 339 (25.72%) Physics
10 338 (25.64%) Analytics
11 334 (25.34%) C++
12 318 (24.13%) Statistics
13 297 (22.53%) Social Skills
14 258 (19.58%) Software Engineering
15 257 (19.50%) Finance
16 230 (17.45%) Problem-Solving
17 223 (16.92%) Analytical Skills
17 223 (16.92%) Agile
18 211 (16.01%) SQL
19 203 (15.40%) Java
20 196 (14.87%) Deep Learning
21 195 (14.80%) R
22 186 (14.11%) Natural Language Processing
23 184 (13.96%) Mentoring
24 176 (13.35%) Inclusion and Diversity
25 172 (13.05%) Data Analysis
26 161 (12.22%) C
26 161 (12.22%) MATLAB
27 148 (11.23%) TensorFlow
28 147 (11.15%) Pharmaceutical

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 78 (5.92%) Apache Spark
2 58 (4.40%) SAS
3 28 (2.12%) Apache Airflow
4 26 (1.97%) Elasticsearch
5 21 (1.59%) Apache
6 17 (1.29%) Jupyter
7 10 (0.76%) Ethereum
8 8 (0.61%) SugarCRM
9 6 (0.46%) Apache Pig
9 6 (0.46%) nginx
10 3 (0.23%) Kinematics
11 2 (0.15%) CMS
11 2 (0.15%) Confluence
12 1 (0.076%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 1 (0.076%) Drupal
12 1 (0.076%) OpenStack
12 1 (0.076%) R Markdown
12 1 (0.076%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 15 (1.14%) Simulink
2 8 (0.61%) Microsoft Excel
3 6 (0.46%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 6 (0.46%) Stateflow
4 2 (0.15%) Microsoft Office
4 2 (0.15%) Sketch
5 1 (0.076%) Maya
5 1 (0.076%) MotionBuilder
5 1 (0.076%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 22 (1.67%) Shopify
2 15 (1.14%) Magento
3 8 (0.61%) Payment Gateway
4 1 (0.076%) Adobe Campaign
4 1 (0.076%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 1 (0.076%) SAP BPC
4 1 (0.076%) SAP Hybris
4 1 (0.076%) SAP IBP
4 1 (0.076%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 136 (10.32%) AWS
2 106 (8.04%) GCP
3 75 (5.69%) Azure
4 31 (2.35%) SaaS
5 27 (2.05%) Slack
6 23 (1.75%) Cloud Computing
7 18 (1.37%) Azure Machine Learning
8 14 (1.06%) GitHub
9 12 (0.91%) Google Workspace
10 11 (0.83%) Power Platform
11 9 (0.68%) Datadog
12 8 (0.61%) Squarespace
13 7 (0.53%) Amazon SageMaker
14 6 (0.46%) AWS Lambda
14 6 (0.46%) Serverless
15 5 (0.38%) Snowflake
16 3 (0.23%) Amazon EMR
16 3 (0.23%) Vertex AI
17 2 (0.15%) Amazon Neptune
17 2 (0.15%) Azure Synapse Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 53 (4.02%) Wireless
2 27 (2.05%) Wi-Fi
3 26 (1.97%) DVB
3 26 (1.97%) MIMO
4 11 (0.83%) Internet
5 9 (0.68%) HTTP
6 8 (0.61%) NAS
7 4 (0.30%) TCP/IP
8 3 (0.23%) RS-232
8 3 (0.23%) RS-485
9 2 (0.15%) Broadband
9 2 (0.15%) PPP
10 1 (0.076%) Ethernet
10 1 (0.076%) Gigabit Ethernet
10 1 (0.076%) Network Security
Database & Business Intelligence
1 66 (5.01%) Big Data
2 54 (4.10%) Data Mining
3 48 (3.64%) GIS
4 46 (3.49%) NoSQL
5 36 (2.73%) Hadoop
6 35 (2.66%) MySQL
7 34 (2.58%) PostgreSQL
8 32 (2.43%) Tableau
9 26 (1.97%) Metadata
10 24 (1.82%) Text Mining
11 22 (1.67%) Neo4j
12 21 (1.59%) Data Warehouse
13 20 (1.52%) Spotfire
14 13 (0.99%) ClickHouse
14 13 (0.99%) Redis
14 13 (0.99%) Relational Database
15 11 (0.83%) MongoDB
15 11 (0.83%) Power BI
15 11 (0.83%) SQL Server
16 8 (0.61%) OLAP
Development Applications
1 74 (5.61%) Git (software)
2 27 (2.05%) JIRA
3 25 (1.90%) GDB
4 16 (1.21%) Selenium
5 14 (1.06%) WiX
6 13 (0.99%) GitLab
7 12 (0.91%) Appium
8 8 (0.61%) git-flow
9 6 (0.46%) CircleCI
9 6 (0.46%) Jenkins
9 6 (0.46%) MLflow
10 5 (0.38%) LabVIEW
10 5 (0.38%) Octopus Deploy
11 4 (0.30%) RSpec
12 3 (0.23%) GCC
13 2 (0.15%) Bitbucket
13 2 (0.15%) ERwin
13 2 (0.15%) fastlane
13 2 (0.15%) Gradle
13 2 (0.15%) Subversion
General
1 297 (22.53%) Social Skills
2 257 (19.50%) Finance
3 223 (16.92%) Analytical Skills
4 176 (13.35%) Inclusion and Diversity
5 147 (11.15%) Pharmaceutical
6 73 (5.54%) Military
7 60 (4.55%) Public Sector
8 54 (4.10%) Marketing
9 53 (4.02%) Retail
10 50 (3.79%) Banking
11 49 (3.72%) Electronics
12 46 (3.49%) Games
13 45 (3.41%) Manufacturing
14 26 (1.97%) Front Office
15 25 (1.90%) Advertising
16 24 (1.82%) Presentation Skills
17 19 (1.44%) Aerospace
18 13 (0.99%) Law
19 12 (0.91%) Telecoms
20 10 (0.76%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 292 (22.15%) Data Scientist
2 142 (10.77%) Developer
2 142 (10.77%) Senior Data Scientist
3 125 (9.48%) Software Engineer
4 76 (5.77%) Machine Learning Engineer
5 69 (5.24%) Architect
6 56 (4.25%) Programmer
6 56 (4.25%) Senior Software Engineer
7 54 (4.10%) Graduate
8 49 (3.72%) Machine Learning Scientist
9 45 (3.41%) Principal Architect
9 45 (3.41%) Software Developer
10 42 (3.19%) Python Developer
11 39 (2.96%) Analyst
12 29 (2.20%) Computer Scientist
12 29 (2.20%) Computer Vision Scientist
12 29 (2.20%) Quantitative Developer
13 28 (2.12%) Development Director
13 28 (2.12%) Research Engineer
14 27 (2.05%) DSP Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 148 (11.23%) TensorFlow
2 115 (8.73%) scikit-learn
3 102 (7.74%) PyTorch
4 76 (5.77%) Pandas
5 68 (5.16%) React
6 55 (4.17%) HTML
6 55 (4.17%) SciPy
7 47 (3.57%) NumPy
8 44 (3.34%) HTML5
8 44 (3.34%) Keras
9 38 (2.88%) Torch
10 35 (2.66%) Node.js
11 29 (2.20%) RESTful
12 27 (2.05%) GraphQL
13 26 (1.97%) Web Services
14 25 (1.90%) CSS
14 25 (1.90%) Redux
15 23 (1.75%) PySpark
16 22 (1.67%) Chainer
16 22 (1.67%) Theano
Miscellaneous
1 368 (27.92%) Algorithms
2 88 (6.68%) User Experience
3 79 (5.99%) Equities
4 55 (4.17%) Cyberattack
5 52 (3.95%) Self-Motivation
6 51 (3.87%) Mobile App
7 47 (3.57%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 45 (3.41%) Life Science
9 44 (3.34%) Embedded Systems
9 44 (3.34%) Fixed Income
10 42 (3.19%) Robotics
11 37 (2.81%) Cyber Defence
12 32 (2.43%) Acoustics
12 32 (2.43%) FPGA
13 31 (2.35%) Biotechnology
14 30 (2.28%) Derivative
15 28 (2.12%) Market Risk
16 26 (1.97%) Hedge funds
17 25 (1.90%) Blockchain
18 23 (1.75%) Cybercrime
Operating Systems
1 138 (10.47%) Linux
2 54 (4.10%) Windows
3 17 (1.29%) Android
4 13 (0.99%) Mac OS
5 12 (0.91%) Unix
6 5 (0.38%) Apple iOS
7 4 (0.30%) Robot Operating System
8 3 (0.23%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 1 (0.076%) CentOS
9 1 (0.076%) Debian
9 1 (0.076%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 631 (47.88%) Machine Learning
2 621 (47.12%) Mathematics
3 549 (41.65%) Computer Science
4 483 (36.65%) Data Science
5 376 (28.53%) Artificial Intelligence
6 339 (25.72%) Physics
7 338 (25.64%) Analytics
8 318 (24.13%) Statistics
9 258 (19.58%) Software Engineering
10 230 (17.45%) Problem-Solving
11 223 (16.92%) Agile
12 196 (14.87%) Deep Learning
13 186 (14.11%) Natural Language Processing
14 184 (13.96%) Mentoring
15 172 (13.05%) Data Analysis
16 146 (11.08%) Neural Network
17 140 (10.62%) Validation
18 139 (10.55%) Decision-Making
19 126 (9.56%) Biology
20 118 (8.95%) Use Case
Programming Languages
1 820 (62.22%) Python
2 334 (25.34%) C++
3 211 (16.01%) SQL
4 203 (15.40%) Java
5 195 (14.80%) R
6 161 (12.22%) C
6 161 (12.22%) MATLAB
7 83 (6.30%) JavaScript
8 42 (3.19%) Shell Script
9 35 (2.66%) Scala
10 31 (2.35%) TypeScript
11 30 (2.28%) C#
12 29 (2.20%) Go
13 20 (1.52%) PHP
14 18 (1.37%) Rust
15 13 (0.99%) Haskell
16 12 (0.91%) Cython
16 12 (0.91%) Groovy
16 12 (0.91%) Kotlin
16 12 (0.91%) VBA
Qualifications
1 501 (38.01%) Degree
2 89 (6.75%) Master's Degree
3 53 (4.02%) Computer Science Degree
4 44 (3.34%) Security Cleared
5 36 (2.73%) SC Cleared
6 23 (1.75%) Numerate Degree
7 8 (0.61%) MBA
8 7 (0.53%) Postgraduate
9 5 (0.38%) CCNA
9 5 (0.38%) Cisco Certification
9 5 (0.38%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
10 4 (0.30%) AWS Certification
11 3 (0.23%) Chartered Engineer
12 2 (0.15%) DBS Check
13 1 (0.076%) CESG Certified Professional
13 1 (0.076%) CISSP
13 1 (0.076%) CREST Certified
13 1 (0.076%) HND
13 1 (0.076%) PMI Certification
13 1 (0.076%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 46 (3.49%) QA
2 40 (3.03%) CDISC
3 28 (2.12%) Data Quality
4 17 (1.29%) GLP
5 14 (1.06%) Dodd-Frank
5 14 (1.06%) EMIR
5 14 (1.06%) IFRS
5 14 (1.06%) IFRS 9
5 14 (1.06%) MiFID
6 12 (0.91%) Good Clinical Practice
7 8 (0.61%) GxP
8 7 (0.53%) Accessibility
9 5 (0.38%) GDPR
9 5 (0.38%) HIPAA
9 5 (0.38%) ISO 9001
9 5 (0.38%) SOC 2
10 3 (0.23%) ISO 13485
10 3 (0.23%) ISO 9000
11 2 (0.15%) IEC 61131
11 2 (0.15%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 81 (6.15%) Docker
2 43 (3.26%) Firmware
3 14 (1.06%) NFS
4 9 (0.68%) Hyper-V
4 9 (0.68%) VMware Infrastructure
5 8 (0.61%) LXC
5 8 (0.61%) Virtual Machines
6 1 (0.076%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 42 (3.19%) Ansible
2 41 (3.11%) Kubernetes
3 37 (2.81%) Terraform
4 7 (0.53%) Kubeflow
5 6 (0.46%) Prometheus
6 5 (0.38%) Docker Swarm
6 5 (0.38%) Opsgenie
7 4 (0.30%) Kibana
7 4 (0.30%) Kustomize
8 1 (0.076%) Grafana
8 1 (0.076%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 70 (5.31%) Google
2 61 (4.63%) Twitter
3 30 (2.28%) Facebook
4 20 (1.52%) Microsoft
5 14 (1.06%) VMware
6 13 (0.99%) Databricks
7 10 (0.76%) IBM
7 10 (0.76%) SAP
7 10 (0.76%) Sun
8 9 (0.68%) YouTube
9 8 (0.61%) ConsenSys
9 8 (0.61%) TikTok
9 8 (0.61%) WooCommerce
10 7 (0.53%) EMC
10 7 (0.53%) Samsung
11 6 (0.46%) Minitab
11 6 (0.46%) OpenAI
11 6 (0.46%) Oracle
12 5 (0.38%) Alteryx
12 5 (0.38%) Netlify