Period
to 29 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 29 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil, EngD, Doctorate)
UK
6 months to
29 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 403 438 491
Rank change year-on-year +35 +53 -146
Permanent jobs citing PhD 841 394 858
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.74% 0.57% 0.60%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.47% 2.59% 2.47%
Number of salaries quoted 325 283 655
10th Percentile £35,800 £37,500 £32,500
25th Percentile £43,903 £51,875 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,500 £65,000 £62,500
Median % change year-on-year -3.85% +4.00% +8.70%
75th Percentile £87,500 £90,000 £90,000
90th Percentile £112,000 £110,000 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,845 £60,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year -15.26% +26.32% -5.00%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 24,207 15,214 34,792
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 21.44% 22.05% 24.16%
Number of salaries quoted 13,990 11,405 25,623
10th Percentile £31,250 £30,000 £26,400
25th Percentile £41,250 £38,000 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% -
75th Percentile £72,500 £70,000 £66,250
90th Percentile £87,500 £85,000 £82,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +1.05% +5.56% -

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 29 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +36 754 £65,000 -0.76% 154
UK excluding London +73 436 £50,845 -15.26% 93
London -16 359 £80,000 +6.67% 67
Work from Home -119 158 £70,000 +16.67% 17
East of England +32 124 £40,000 -30.43% 32
North of England -9 85 £70,000 +55.56% 11
South East -50 85 £50,000 -16.67% 27
South West -16 73 £61,250 -2.00% 12
Yorkshire -20 60 £70,000 +40.00% 1
Northern Ireland -17 23 £40,000 -
Scotland -65 23 £46,280 -28.80% 6
North West -41 22 £67,500 -25.00% 8
Midlands -81 21 £25,198 -56.93% 5
West Midlands -64 11 - - 3
East Midlands -47 10 £25,198 -58.00% 2
North East -28 3 £65,000 +103.89% 2
Wales -24 2 - -

For the 6 months to 29 July 2021, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 488 (58.03%) Python
2 333 (39.60%) Computer Science
3 326 (38.76%) Degree
4 304 (36.15%) Machine Learning
5 296 (35.20%) Social Skills
6 277 (32.94%) Mathematics
7 266 (31.63%) Algorithms
8 249 (29.61%) Data Science
9 207 (24.61%) C++
10 200 (23.78%) Artificial Intelligence
11 199 (23.66%) Analytics
12 197 (23.42%) Software Engineering
13 179 (21.28%) Deep Learning
14 166 (19.74%) Statistics
15 155 (18.43%) Physics
15 155 (18.43%) Problem-Solving
16 152 (18.07%) SQL
17 150 (17.84%) Analytical Skills
18 148 (17.60%) Computer Vision
19 145 (17.24%) TensorFlow
20 134 (15.93%) MATLAB
21 132 (15.70%) Finance
21 132 (15.70%) Agile Software Development
22 120 (14.27%) Natural Language Processing
23 114 (13.56%) Neural Network
23 114 (13.56%) Pharmaceutical
24 112 (13.32%) Java
25 111 (13.20%) PyTorch
26 107 (12.72%) C
27 105 (12.49%) Marketing

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 48 (5.71%) SAS
2 34 (4.04%) Apache Spark
3 18 (2.14%) Jupyter
4 9 (1.07%) Elasticsearch
5 7 (0.83%) CMS
6 4 (0.48%) Apache
7 3 (0.36%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 2 (0.24%) Apache Airflow
8 2 (0.24%) SugarCRM
9 1 (0.12%) OpenStack
Applications
1 49 (5.83%) Simulink
2 35 (4.16%) Stateflow
3 16 (1.90%) SOLIDWORKS
4 9 (1.07%) Zemax
5 7 (0.83%) Microsoft Office
6 6 (0.71%) Microsoft Excel
7 4 (0.48%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 3 (0.36%) GNU Octave
9 2 (0.24%) Chatbot
10 1 (0.12%) Final Cut Pro
Business Applications
1 15 (1.78%) SAP S/4HANA
2 5 (0.59%) Primavera
3 4 (0.48%) FINCAD Analytics
3 4 (0.48%) SAP BPC
3 4 (0.48%) Summit
4 3 (0.36%) SAP IBP
Cloud Services
1 73 (8.68%) AWS
2 43 (5.11%) GCP
3 41 (4.88%) Azure
4 33 (3.92%) SaaS
5 23 (2.73%) Cloud Computing
6 22 (2.62%) Serverless
7 11 (1.31%) GitHub
8 10 (1.19%) Veeva
9 9 (1.07%) Amazon S3
10 8 (0.95%) Power Platform
11 7 (0.83%) AWS Lambda
12 6 (0.71%) PaaS
13 4 (0.48%) Amazon ECS
13 4 (0.48%) AWS Fargate
13 4 (0.48%) Cloud Functions
13 4 (0.48%) Firebase
13 4 (0.48%) Slack
14 3 (0.36%) Amazon EC2
14 3 (0.36%) Amazon SageMaker
14 3 (0.36%) Snowflake
Communications & Networking
1 60 (7.13%) Wireless
2 35 (4.16%) DVB
2 35 (4.16%) MIMO
2 35 (4.16%) Wi-Fi
3 13 (1.55%) Internet
4 5 (0.59%) GSM
4 5 (0.59%) Network Security
5 4 (0.48%) RFID
6 3 (0.36%) Software-Defined Radio
7 2 (0.24%) 5G
7 2 (0.24%) Broadband
8 1 (0.12%) NAS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 54 (6.42%) NoSQL
2 53 (6.30%) Big Data
3 36 (4.28%) Data Mining
4 32 (3.80%) Data Warehouse
5 30 (3.57%) PostgreSQL
6 23 (2.73%) Hadoop
7 20 (2.38%) Redis
8 19 (2.26%) Tableau
9 17 (2.02%) Relational Database
10 12 (1.43%) Electronic Patient Records
11 11 (1.31%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
12 8 (0.95%) BigQuery
12 8 (0.95%) Power BI
12 8 (0.95%) SQL Server
13 7 (0.83%) MySQL
14 5 (0.59%) MongoDB
14 5 (0.59%) RDBMS
15 4 (0.48%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 4 (0.48%) Apache Cassandra
15 4 (0.48%) Neo4j
Development Applications
1 54 (6.42%) Git (software)
2 23 (2.73%) GitLab
3 15 (1.78%) Maven
4 14 (1.66%) Storybook
5 12 (1.43%) PostCSS
6 9 (1.07%) gulp
6 9 (1.07%) LabVIEW
6 9 (1.07%) webpack
7 6 (0.71%) Subversion
8 5 (0.59%) Bitbucket
9 4 (0.48%) JIRA
10 3 (0.36%) Jenkins
10 3 (0.36%) Travis CI
General
1 296 (35.20%) Social Skills
2 150 (17.84%) Analytical Skills
3 132 (15.70%) Finance
4 114 (13.56%) Pharmaceutical
5 105 (12.49%) Marketing
6 83 (9.87%) Presentation Skills
7 73 (8.68%) Games
8 55 (6.54%) Telecoms
9 52 (6.18%) Manufacturing
10 45 (5.35%) Banking
11 40 (4.76%) Law
12 38 (4.52%) Inclusion and Diversity
13 35 (4.16%) Retail
14 18 (2.14%) Legal
15 17 (2.02%) Financial Institution
15 17 (2.02%) Front Office
16 12 (1.43%) Electronics
17 11 (1.31%) Advertising
17 11 (1.31%) Organisational Skills
18 10 (1.19%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 138 (16.41%) Data Scientist
2 87 (10.34%) Developer
3 76 (9.04%) Software Engineer
4 55 (6.54%) Senior Data Scientist
5 44 (5.23%) Computer Engineer
6 40 (4.76%) Computer Vision Engineer
7 39 (4.64%) Consultant
7 39 (4.64%) Systems Engineer
8 38 (4.52%) Algorithm Engineer
8 38 (4.52%) Machine Learning Engineer
9 35 (4.16%) DSP Algorithm Engineer
9 35 (4.16%) DSP Engineer
9 35 (4.16%) Senior Algorithm Engineer
9 35 (4.16%) Senior DSP Engineer
9 35 (4.16%) Wireless Engineer
10 30 (3.57%) Programmer
11 23 (2.73%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 23 (2.73%) Senior Developer
12 22 (2.62%) Research Engineer
13 21 (2.50%) Cloud Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 145 (17.24%) TensorFlow
2 111 (13.20%) PyTorch
3 80 (9.51%) scikit-learn
4 62 (7.37%) NumPy
5 57 (6.78%) Keras
6 50 (5.95%) AngularJS
7 46 (5.47%) SciPy
8 45 (5.35%) React
9 44 (5.23%) REST
10 38 (4.52%) OpenCV
11 37 (4.40%) Node.js
12 35 (4.16%) Pandas
12 35 (4.16%) Torch
13 33 (3.92%) CSS
14 22 (2.62%) Django
14 22 (2.62%) Web Services
15 20 (2.38%) Celery
15 20 (2.38%) HTML
16 17 (2.02%) RESTful
16 17 (2.02%) Theano
Miscellaneous
1 266 (31.63%) Algorithms
2 81 (9.63%) Life Science
3 47 (5.59%) Field-Programmable Gate Array
4 44 (5.23%) User Experience
5 42 (4.99%) Robotics
6 41 (4.88%) Enterprise Software
7 36 (4.28%) Greenfield Project
8 28 (3.33%) Hedge funds
9 26 (3.09%) Management Information System
10 23 (2.73%) Self-Motivation
11 22 (2.62%) Blog
12 20 (2.38%) Biotechnology
13 19 (2.26%) Virtual Team
14 16 (1.90%) ASTM
15 15 (1.78%) Augmented Reality
16 12 (1.43%) Social Media
16 12 (1.43%) W3C
17 11 (1.31%) Fixed Income
17 11 (1.31%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
18 10 (1.19%) Industrial Internet of Things
Operating Systems
1 60 (7.13%) Linux
2 19 (2.26%) Android
3 18 (2.14%) Windows
4 13 (1.55%) Apple iOS
5 8 (0.95%) Unix
6 1 (0.12%) Robot Operating System
6 1 (0.12%) Windows Phone
6 1 (0.12%) Windows Phone 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 333 (39.60%) Computer Science
2 304 (36.15%) Machine Learning
3 277 (32.94%) Mathematics
4 249 (29.61%) Data Science
5 200 (23.78%) Artificial Intelligence
6 199 (23.66%) Analytics
7 197 (23.42%) Software Engineering
8 179 (21.28%) Deep Learning
9 166 (19.74%) Statistics
10 155 (18.43%) Physics
10 155 (18.43%) Problem-Solving
11 148 (17.60%) Computer Vision
12 132 (15.70%) Agile Software Development
13 120 (14.27%) Natural Language Processing
14 114 (13.56%) Neural Network
15 86 (10.23%) Validation
16 77 (9.16%) Collaborative Working
17 75 (8.92%) Signal Processing
17 75 (8.92%) Visualisation
18 65 (7.73%) Data Analysis
Programming Languages
1 488 (58.03%) Python
2 207 (24.61%) C++
3 152 (18.07%) SQL
4 134 (15.93%) MATLAB
5 112 (13.32%) Java
6 107 (12.72%) C
7 81 (9.63%) JavaScript
8 80 (9.51%) R
9 38 (4.52%) C#
10 33 (3.92%) TypeScript
11 24 (2.85%) Cython
12 15 (1.78%) Java 8
13 14 (1.66%) ES6
13 14 (1.66%) Go
14 8 (0.95%) Fortran
14 8 (0.95%) Julia
15 6 (0.71%) Bash Shell
16 5 (0.59%) Ruby
16 5 (0.59%) Scala
16 5 (0.59%) VB
Qualifications
1 326 (38.76%) Degree
2 75 (8.92%) Master's Degree
3 42 (4.99%) Numerate Degree
4 32 (3.80%) Computer Science Degree
4 32 (3.80%) MBA
4 32 (3.80%) Security Cleared
5 15 (1.78%) DV Cleared
5 15 (1.78%) SC Cleared
6 10 (1.19%) DBS Check
6 10 (1.19%) Postgraduate
7 7 (0.83%) PMI Certification
8 6 (0.71%) PMP
9 5 (0.59%) Chartered Engineer
10 3 (0.36%) HND
11 2 (0.24%) APMP
11 2 (0.24%) CFA
12 1 (0.12%) MPhil
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 33 (3.92%) QA
2 14 (1.66%) Accessibility
3 9 (1.07%) GxP
4 8 (0.95%) GLP
5 5 (0.59%) CDISC
5 5 (0.59%) Dodd-Frank
5 5 (0.59%) EMIR
5 5 (0.59%) GDPR
5 5 (0.59%) HAZOP
5 5 (0.59%) IEC 61508
5 5 (0.59%) ISO 26262
5 5 (0.59%) MiFID
6 4 (0.48%) Def Stans
6 4 (0.48%) Good Clinical Practice
7 3 (0.36%) DICOM
7 3 (0.36%) IEC 62304
7 3 (0.36%) ISO 13485
8 2 (0.24%) MISRA
System Software
1 81 (9.63%) Docker
2 44 (5.23%) Firmware
3 2 (0.24%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 54 (6.42%) Kubernetes
2 27 (3.21%) Ansible
3 13 (1.55%) Terraform
4 8 (0.95%) FlexNet
5 5 (0.59%) Docker Swarm
6 3 (0.36%) Kubeflow
7 1 (0.12%) AirWatch
Vendors
1 50 (5.95%) Google
2 32 (3.80%) IBM
3 28 (3.33%) ANSYS
4 25 (2.97%) Yahoo!
5 23 (2.73%) OpenAI
6 22 (2.62%) Instagram
6 22 (2.62%) SAP
7 12 (1.43%) Bloomberg
8 7 (0.83%) Facebook
8 7 (0.83%) Oracle
9 6 (0.71%) Microsoft
10 5 (0.59%) Autodesk
11 4 (0.48%) Agilent
11 4 (0.48%) Sun
12 3 (0.36%) Adobe
12 3 (0.36%) Ariba
12 3 (0.36%) Infragistics
12 3 (0.36%) Marketo
12 3 (0.36%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
12 3 (0.36%) Salesforce.com