Period
to 20 October 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for PhD qualifications. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered over the 6 months to 20 October 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, DPhil)
UK
6 months to
20 Oct 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 365 362 438
Rank change year-on-year -3 +76 +125
Permanent jobs citing PhD 1,403 1,555 1,308
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.86% 0.89% 0.69%
As % of the Qualifications category 3.62% 3.65% 2.59%
Number of salaries quoted 1,204 1,318 1,209
UK median annual salary £62,012 £55,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +12.75% +10.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £29,000 £31,250
90th Percentile £115,000 £90,000 £92,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year +11.11% +5.88% +6.25%

PhD is in the Academic Qualifications and Professional Certifications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for academic qualifications or professional certifications.

All Academic and Professional Certifications
UK
Permanent vacancies requiring academic qualifications or professional certifications 38,782 42,567 50,529
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 23.72% 24.41% 26.46%
Number of salaries quoted 28,746 32,680 40,569
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +6.38% +4.44% -
10th Percentile £26,250 £26,000 £26,250
90th Percentile £80,000 £77,500 £76,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%

PhD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PhD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing PhD.

Salary trend for PhD in the UK

PhD
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing PhD over the 6 months to 20 October 2018.

Salary histogram for PhD in the UK

PhD
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PhD within the UK over the 6 months to 20 October 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 1,368 £62,500 +13.64% 283
London +71 718 £75,000 +11.11% 121
UK excluding London -75 677 £50,000 +11.11% 176
East of England -50 270 £38,750 -0.64% 70
South East +44 256 £50,000 +5.26% 45
South West -36 51 £55,000 - 16
North of England +14 45 £50,000 -2.44% 17
North West -19 39 £50,000 -9.09% 3
Midlands -27 29 £55,000 +69.23% 14
West Midlands +16 28 £55,000 +46.67% 11
Scotland -4 17 £35,000 -15.15% 11
Wales +2 6 £30,000 -39.64% 2
Yorkshire +21 5 £63,750 +34.21% 9
Northern Ireland - 4 £72,500 - 1
North East -11 1 - - 5
East Midlands -42 1 £50,000 +53.85% 3

For the 6 months to 20 October 2018, IT jobs citing PhD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PhD.

1 848 (60.44%) Python
2 731 (52.10%) Machine Learning
3 684 (48.75%) Mathematics
4 667 (47.54%) C++
5 535 (38.13%) Computer Science
6 505 (35.99%) Java
7 474 (33.78%) Artificial Intelligence
8 470 (33.50%) Algorithms
9 461 (32.86%) Degree
10 438 (31.22%) Data Science
11 425 (30.29%) Physics
12 419 (29.86%) Software Engineering
13 408 (29.08%) Deep Learning
14 315 (22.45%) Natural Language Processing
15 310 (22.10%) Analytics
16 283 (20.17%) R
17 269 (19.17%) C#
18 266 (18.96%) C
19 257 (18.32%) Statistics
20 244 (17.39%) Finance
21 237 (16.89%) Big Data
22 236 (16.82%) Bayesian Methods
23 227 (16.18%) SQL
24 214 (15.25%) Neural Network
25 205 (14.61%) TensorFlow
26 191 (13.61%) MATLAB
27 175 (12.47%) Probabilistic Modelling
27 175 (12.47%) Reinforcement Learning
28 174 (12.40%) Computer Vision
29 157 (11.19%) Agile Software Development

PhD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 116 (8.27%) Apache Spark
2 34 (2.42%) SAS
3 23 (1.64%) Apache Pig
4 20 (1.43%) Ethereum
5 15 (1.07%) Apache
6 10 (0.71%) Amazon Alexa
7 9 (0.64%) Elasticsearch
8 5 (0.36%) CMS
9 4 (0.29%) DNN
10 3 (0.21%) Jupyter
10 3 (0.21%) Kinematics
10 3 (0.21%) nginx
11 2 (0.14%) Apache Solr
12 1 (0.071%) Confluence
12 1 (0.071%) IPython
12 1 (0.071%) OpenStack
Applications
1 38 (2.71%) GNU Octave
2 29 (2.07%) Microsoft Excel
3 19 (1.35%) SPSS
4 16 (1.14%) Microsoft Office
5 12 (0.86%) Chatbot
6 7 (0.50%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 6 (0.43%) Simulink
7 6 (0.43%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.071%) Gephi
8 1 (0.071%) Maya
8 1 (0.071%) Microsoft Project
8 1 (0.071%) MotionBuilder
8 1 (0.071%) MS Visio
8 1 (0.071%) SOLIDWORKS
8 1 (0.071%) SPSS Modeler
8 1 (0.071%) Stata
Business Applications
1 2 (0.14%) Distributed Ledger
1 2 (0.14%) Misys Midas
1 2 (0.14%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 91 (6.49%) Amazon AWS
2 47 (3.35%) Cloud Computing
3 42 (2.99%) Microsoft Azure
4 20 (1.43%) Google Cloud Platform
5 14 (1.00%) Cortana Intelligence Suite
6 13 (0.93%) GitHub
7 10 (0.71%) Siri
8 3 (0.21%) Amazon EMR
8 3 (0.21%) SaaS
9 2 (0.14%) Azure Data Factory
9 2 (0.14%) Google Analytics
9 2 (0.14%) iTunes
9 2 (0.14%) OpenShift
10 1 (0.071%) Amazon EC2
10 1 (0.071%) AWS Data Pipeline
10 1 (0.071%) AWS Lambda
10 1 (0.071%) IaaS
10 1 (0.071%) PaaS
10 1 (0.071%) Serverless
Communications & Networking
1 13 (0.93%) Internet
1 13 (0.93%) Network Security
2 10 (0.71%) TCP/IP
3 7 (0.50%) Ethernet
4 6 (0.43%) HTTP
4 6 (0.43%) SMS
5 4 (0.29%) 5G
6 3 (0.21%) Wireless
7 2 (0.14%) Broadband
7 2 (0.14%) DNS
7 2 (0.14%) LTE
7 2 (0.14%) Radio Access Network
8 1 (0.071%) 3GPP
8 1 (0.071%) AMQP
8 1 (0.071%) GSM
8 1 (0.071%) MQTT
8 1 (0.071%) Software-Defined Radio
8 1 (0.071%) UMTS
8 1 (0.071%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 237 (16.89%) Big Data
2 90 (6.41%) Blockchain
3 88 (6.27%) Hadoop
4 52 (3.71%) NoSQL
5 48 (3.42%) Apache Hive
6 39 (2.78%) Data Mining
7 37 (2.64%) Relational Database
8 34 (2.42%) MongoDB
9 25 (1.78%) Apache Cassandra
10 24 (1.71%) SQL Server
11 21 (1.50%) MySQL
12 15 (1.07%) PostgreSQL
13 14 (1.00%) Hazelcast
14 11 (0.78%) GIS
14 11 (0.78%) Text Mining
15 10 (0.71%) Impala
16 9 (0.64%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 9 (0.64%) Power BI
16 9 (0.64%) RDBMS
17 8 (0.57%) HBase
Development Applications
1 59 (4.21%) Git (software)
2 33 (2.35%) Subversion
3 27 (1.92%) LabVIEW
4 6 (0.43%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
5 5 (0.36%) Gradle
5 5 (0.36%) JIRA
6 3 (0.21%) Jenkins
7 2 (0.14%) Bitbucket
7 2 (0.14%) Eclipse
7 2 (0.14%) JUnit
7 2 (0.14%) Maven
7 2 (0.14%) RStudio
8 1 (0.071%) Octopus Deploy
8 1 (0.071%) Selenium
8 1 (0.071%) SpecFlow
8 1 (0.071%) TeamCity
8 1 (0.071%) Travis CI
8 1 (0.071%) Visual Studio
8 1 (0.071%) Xcode
General
1 244 (17.39%) Finance
2 77 (5.49%) Banking
3 69 (4.92%) Games
4 68 (4.85%) Telecoms
5 57 (4.06%) Publishing
6 48 (3.42%) Manufacturing
7 46 (3.28%) Marketing
8 44 (3.14%) Electronics
9 37 (2.64%) Retail
10 33 (2.35%) Front Office
11 27 (1.92%) Advertising
12 22 (1.57%) Investment Banking
13 21 (1.50%) Financial Institution
13 21 (1.50%) Pharmaceutical
14 18 (1.28%) Automotive
15 14 (1.00%) Aerospace
16 7 (0.50%) Legal
17 3 (0.21%) German Language
17 3 (0.21%) Law
18 2 (0.14%) Avionics
Job Titles
1 305 (21.74%) Developer
2 274 (19.53%) Data Scientist
3 228 (16.25%) Software Engineer
4 132 (9.41%) Graduate
5 113 (8.05%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 110 (7.84%) Developer/Software Engineer
6 110 (7.84%) Software Developer
7 92 (6.56%) Machine Learning Researcher
8 90 (6.41%) C++ Developer
9 84 (5.99%) Analyst
10 81 (5.77%) Senior Data Scientist
11 73 (5.20%) C++ Software Engineer
12 70 (4.99%) Java Developer
13 62 (4.42%) Computer Engineer
13 62 (4.42%) Computer Vision Engineer
14 60 (4.28%) C++ Software Developer
14 60 (4.28%) Python Engineer
15 57 (4.06%) Graduate Software Engineer
16 56 (3.99%) Graduate Developer
17 47 (3.35%) Research Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 315 (22.45%) Natural Language Processing
2 205 (14.61%) TensorFlow
3 56 (3.99%) HTML
4 52 (3.71%) NumPy
5 51 (3.64%) Pandas
6 47 (3.35%) Ajax
7 45 (3.21%) CSS
8 39 (2.78%) Keras
9 37 (2.64%) Web Services
10 35 (2.49%) scikit-learn
11 31 (2.21%) .NET
12 30 (2.14%) AngularJS
13 29 (2.07%) SciPy
14 28 (2.00%) XML
15 27 (1.92%) Caffe
15 27 (1.92%) GWT
15 27 (1.92%) REST
16 23 (1.64%) Node.js
17 22 (1.57%) Kafka
18 18 (1.28%) Theano
Miscellaneous
1 535 (38.13%) Computer Science
2 470 (33.50%) Algorithms
3 152 (10.83%) Analytical Skills
4 80 (5.70%) Fintech
5 61 (4.35%) Hedge funds
6 48 (3.42%) Robotics
7 46 (3.28%) Data Structures
8 40 (2.85%) Equities
9 34 (2.42%) Self-Motivation
10 31 (2.21%) Xbox
11 30 (2.14%) Bitcoin
12 29 (2.07%) Derivative
12 29 (2.07%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 29 (2.07%) Mobile App
13 28 (2.00%) Fixed Income
14 26 (1.85%) Credit Risk
14 26 (1.85%) Smart City
15 25 (1.78%) User Experience
16 24 (1.71%) Management Information System
17 23 (1.64%) CUDA
Operating Systems
1 132 (9.41%) Linux
2 47 (3.35%) Windows
3 18 (1.28%) Android
4 13 (0.93%) Apple iOS
5 12 (0.86%) Unix
6 9 (0.64%) Robot Operating System
7 2 (0.14%) Mac OS X
8 1 (0.071%) Solaris
Processes & Methodologies
1 731 (52.10%) Machine Learning
2 684 (48.75%) Mathematics
3 474 (33.78%) Artificial Intelligence
4 438 (31.22%) Data Science
5 425 (30.29%) Physics
6 419 (29.86%) Software Engineering
7 408 (29.08%) Deep Learning
8 310 (22.10%) Analytics
9 257 (18.32%) Statistics
10 236 (16.82%) Bayesian Methods
11 214 (15.25%) Neural Network
12 175 (12.47%) Probabilistic Modelling
12 175 (12.47%) Reinforcement Learning
13 174 (12.40%) Computer Vision
14 157 (11.19%) Agile Software Development
15 147 (10.48%) Multithreading
16 145 (10.33%) Data Analysis
17 122 (8.70%) Distributed Algorithms
18 117 (8.34%) Biology
18 117 (8.34%) Problem-Solving
Programming Languages
1 848 (60.44%) Python
2 667 (47.54%) C++
3 505 (35.99%) Java
4 283 (20.17%) R
5 269 (19.17%) C#
6 266 (18.96%) C
7 227 (16.18%) SQL
8 191 (13.61%) MATLAB
9 110 (7.84%) JavaScript
10 65 (4.63%) Scala
11 35 (2.49%) Java 8
12 31 (2.21%) Ruby
13 22 (1.57%) Julia
14 19 (1.35%) PL/SQL
15 18 (1.28%) VBA
16 17 (1.21%) Perl
17 16 (1.14%) T-SQL
18 12 (0.86%) Go
19 11 (0.78%) Shell Script
20 9 (0.64%) PHP
Qualifications
1 461 (32.86%) Degree
2 150 (10.69%) MPhil
3 76 (5.42%) Master's Degree
4 60 (4.28%) Numerate Degree
5 59 (4.21%) Computer Science Degree
6 19 (1.35%) Security Cleared
7 18 (1.28%) PMI Certification
8 14 (1.00%) DV Cleared
8 14 (1.00%) Postgraduate
9 10 (0.71%) PMP
10 7 (0.50%) SC Cleared
11 6 (0.43%) MBA
12 1 (0.071%) HND
12 1 (0.071%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 37 (2.64%) QA
2 11 (0.78%) MiFID
3 8 (0.57%) Dodd-Frank
3 8 (0.57%) EMIR
4 3 (0.21%) IFRS
4 3 (0.21%) IFRS 9
5 1 (0.071%) Data Quality
5 1 (0.071%) GDPR
System Software
1 12 (0.86%) Apache Flume
1 12 (0.86%) Docker
2 4 (0.29%) Firmware
3 3 (0.21%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 3 (0.21%) HDFS
4 1 (0.071%) KVM
4 1 (0.071%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 10 (0.71%) Kubernetes
2 5 (0.36%) EMC NetWorker
3 4 (0.29%) Oozie
3 4 (0.29%) Opscode Chef
4 2 (0.14%) Terraform
5 1 (0.071%) Ansible
5 1 (0.071%) Mesos
5 1 (0.071%) Puppet
Vendors
1 53 (3.78%) Google
2 26 (1.85%) Microsoft
3 15 (1.07%) Talend
4 14 (1.00%) Tableau
5 12 (0.86%) Oracle
5 12 (0.86%) SAP
6 10 (0.71%) Apple
7 7 (0.50%) Twitter
8 6 (0.43%) Facebook
9 5 (0.36%) RapidMiner
9 5 (0.36%) Xilinx
10 4 (0.29%) Hortonworks
11 3 (0.21%) IBM
12 2 (0.14%) Altera
12 2 (0.14%) Atmel
12 2 (0.14%) EMC
12 2 (0.14%) Huawei
12 2 (0.14%) Intel
12 2 (0.14%) Red Hat
12 2 (0.14%) Teradata