Period
to 5 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 5 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK > England
6 months to
5 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 84 93 97
Rank change year-on-year +9 +4 +30
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 2,825 3,088 4,551
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 3.62% 3.26% 3.34%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.90% 3.53% 3.62%
Number of salaries quoted 1,843 2,508 3,490
10th Percentile £40,000 £38,750 £37,500
25th Percentile £47,500 £47,500 £50,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £67,500 £66,000
Median % change year-on-year -3.70% +2.27% +5.60%
75th Percentile £82,500 £90,000 £86,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £115,000 £102,500
UK median annual salary £62,500 £65,000 £65,000
% change year-on-year -3.85% - +4.00%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 72,400 87,495 125,749
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 92.80% 92.33% 92.30%
Number of salaries quoted 55,696 70,810 100,444
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,000 £40,500 £37,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £73,750 £71,250
90th Percentile £92,025 £90,000 £86,250
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in England

Machine Learning
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning in England.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in England

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning in England over the 6 months to 5 May 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in England

Machine Learning
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the England region over the 6 months to 5 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +1 1,597 £70,000 -9.68% 252
South West +37 349 £52,500 +5.00% 39
South East +1 349 £55,000 - 69
North of England +38 252 £62,500 +19.05% 61
North West +36 184 £57,500 +15.00% 36
East of England +17 132 £55,000 - 37
Midlands -4 105 £57,500 +9.52% 17
West Midlands -6 68 £57,500 +9.52% 11
Yorkshire -14 53 £75,000 +36.36% 12
East Midlands 0 37 £60,000 +29.73% 6
North East +2 15 £65,000 +34.72% 13
Machine Learning
UK

For the 6 months to 5 May 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 1,491 (52.78%) Python
2 1,220 (43.19%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,081 (38.27%) Data Science
4 1,047 (37.06%) Agile Software Development
5 935 (33.10%) AWS
6 860 (30.44%) Analytics
7 781 (27.65%) Azure
8 704 (24.92%) SQL
9 689 (24.39%) Docker
10 660 (23.36%) DevOps
11 653 (23.12%) Software Engineering
12 568 (20.11%) Big Data
13 563 (19.93%) Finance
14 537 (19.01%) Kubernetes
15 533 (18.87%) Degree
16 531 (18.80%) Java
17 527 (18.65%) JavaScript
18 484 (17.13%) GCP
19 453 (16.04%) Microservices
20 450 (15.93%) Social Skills
21 421 (14.90%) Scrum
22 419 (14.83%) Algorithms
23 407 (14.41%) Computer Science
24 382 (13.52%) Mathematics
25 367 (12.99%) Problem-Solving
26 357 (12.64%) Linux
27 343 (12.14%) C#
28 326 (11.54%) Business Intelligence
29 317 (11.22%) React
30 289 (10.23%) Mentoring

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 260 (9.20%) Apache Spark
2 197 (6.97%) Confluence
3 147 (5.20%) Elasticsearch
4 100 (3.54%) Apache Airflow
5 72 (2.55%) Apache
6 54 (1.91%) SAS
7 36 (1.27%) CMS
8 28 (0.99%) Jupyter
9 25 (0.88%) SharePoint
10 17 (0.60%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 11 (0.39%) Oracle Workflow
12 10 (0.35%) Apache Pig
13 8 (0.28%) WordPress
14 6 (0.21%) Tornado
15 5 (0.18%) Headless CMS
16 4 (0.14%) Luigi
16 4 (0.14%) MS Exchange
16 4 (0.14%) nginx
16 4 (0.14%) OpenStack
17 3 (0.11%) IIS
Applications
1 37 (1.31%) Chatbot
2 34 (1.20%) Simulink
3 33 (1.17%) Stateflow
4 22 (0.78%) Microsoft Excel
5 12 (0.42%) SPSS
6 11 (0.39%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 10 (0.35%) Photoshop
8 7 (0.25%) Adobe Illustrator
8 7 (0.25%) InVision
8 7 (0.25%) Sketch
9 6 (0.21%) Gephi
10 5 (0.18%) Figma
10 5 (0.18%) Microsoft Office
11 4 (0.14%) Adobe XD
11 4 (0.14%) GIMP
11 4 (0.14%) Inkscape
12 3 (0.11%) MS Visio
13 2 (0.071%) Adobe Creative Suite
13 2 (0.071%) Zeplin
14 1 (0.035%) GNU Octave
Business Applications
1 14 (0.50%) Payment Gateway
2 13 (0.46%) Shopify
3 10 (0.35%) Loan IQ
4 9 (0.32%) FINCAD Analytics
5 5 (0.18%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 2 (0.071%) Sentinel
7 1 (0.035%) Eikon
7 1 (0.035%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
7 1 (0.035%) Remedy ITSM
7 1 (0.035%) SAP R/3
Cloud Services
1 935 (33.10%) AWS
2 781 (27.65%) Azure
3 484 (17.13%) GCP
4 167 (5.91%) SaaS
5 162 (5.73%) Serverless
6 137 (4.85%) Power Platform
7 105 (3.72%) GitHub
8 89 (3.15%) Amazon S3
9 65 (2.30%) PaaS
10 61 (2.16%) Cloud Computing
11 60 (2.12%) AWS CloudFormation
12 55 (1.95%) AWS Lambda
13 53 (1.88%) Amazon SageMaker
14 49 (1.73%) Azure Machine Learning
15 45 (1.59%) Azure Functions
16 44 (1.56%) Azure Data Factory
17 38 (1.35%) Amazon EC2
18 36 (1.27%) Amazon EKS
19 35 (1.24%) Azure Cosmos DB
20 26 (0.92%) Azure Service Bus
Communications & Networking
1 125 (4.42%) Firewall
2 77 (2.73%) IPv4
3 74 (2.62%) VPN
4 63 (2.23%) VLAN
5 62 (2.19%) OSPF
6 57 (2.02%) Internet
7 40 (1.42%) HTTP
8 20 (0.71%) TCP/IP
9 14 (0.50%) DNS
10 12 (0.42%) Network Security
11 6 (0.21%) Ethernet
11 6 (0.21%) Intrusion Detection
11 6 (0.21%) MPLS
11 6 (0.21%) SSL
12 4 (0.14%) NAS
13 3 (0.11%) Broadband
13 3 (0.11%) FTP
13 3 (0.11%) MQTT
14 2 (0.071%) Bluetooth
14 2 (0.071%) DHCP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 568 (20.11%) Big Data
2 181 (6.41%) NoSQL
3 175 (6.19%) SQL Server
4 173 (6.12%) Data Warehouse
5 171 (6.05%) PostgreSQL
6 139 (4.92%) Hadoop
7 137 (4.85%) Data Mining
8 131 (4.64%) Power BI
8 131 (4.64%) Tableau
9 108 (3.82%) Relational Database
10 107 (3.79%) Data Lake
11 98 (3.47%) MongoDB
12 76 (2.69%) Redis
13 71 (2.51%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 61 (2.16%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 58 (2.05%) MySQL
16 53 (1.88%) Amazon Redshift
17 49 (1.73%) BigQuery
18 48 (1.70%) SQL Server Analysis Services
19 47 (1.66%) Apache Cassandra
Development Applications
1 280 (9.91%) Git (software)
2 238 (8.42%) JIRA
3 171 (6.05%) Jenkins
4 68 (2.41%) Subversion
5 58 (2.05%) Bitbucket
6 49 (1.73%) Selenium
7 40 (1.42%) Cypress.io
8 37 (1.31%) Cucumber
9 21 (0.74%) GitLab
9 21 (0.74%) webpack
10 20 (0.71%) CircleCI
11 19 (0.67%) Rational DOORS
12 17 (0.60%) Atlassian Bamboo
13 16 (0.57%) IntelliJ
13 16 (0.57%) Pylint
13 16 (0.57%) Sourcetree
14 13 (0.46%) Rational Rhapsody
15 11 (0.39%) Appium
16 10 (0.35%) Mocha
17 9 (0.32%) Maven
General
1 563 (19.93%) Finance
2 450 (15.93%) Social Skills
3 268 (9.49%) Analytical Skills
4 218 (7.72%) Banking
5 147 (5.20%) Marketing
6 146 (5.17%) Retail
7 145 (5.13%) Law
8 137 (4.85%) Legal
9 115 (4.07%) Games
10 99 (3.50%) Telecoms
11 70 (2.48%) Investment Banking
12 65 (2.30%) Presentation Skills
13 55 (1.95%) Public Sector
14 52 (1.84%) Electronics
15 49 (1.73%) Front Office
15 49 (1.73%) Influencing Skills
15 49 (1.73%) Manufacturing
16 36 (1.27%) Advertising
17 35 (1.24%) Organisational Skills
18 28 (0.99%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 704 (24.92%) Developer
2 339 (12.00%) Data Scientist
3 267 (9.45%) Software Engineer
4 223 (7.89%) Data Engineer
5 195 (6.90%) Architect
6 157 (5.56%) Machine Learning Engineer
7 149 (5.27%) Python Engineer
8 148 (5.24%) Senior Developer
9 128 (4.53%) DevOps Engineer
10 105 (3.72%) Python Developer
11 103 (3.65%) Senior Software Engineer
12 102 (3.61%) Analyst
13 96 (3.40%) Graduate
14 92 (3.26%) Solutions Architect
15 82 (2.90%) C# Developer
15 82 (2.90%) Senior Data Scientist
16 81 (2.87%) Full Stack Developer
17 79 (2.80%) Java Developer
18 73 (2.58%) JavaScript Developer
19 70 (2.48%) Data Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 317 (11.22%) React
2 278 (9.84%) .NET
3 232 (8.21%) Node.js
4 207 (7.33%) Web Services
5 204 (7.22%) AngularJS
6 195 (6.90%) Kafka
7 176 (6.23%) TensorFlow
8 170 (6.02%) CSS
9 166 (5.88%) HTML
10 156 (5.52%) REST
11 130 (4.60%) NumPy
12 124 (4.39%) RESTful
13 116 (4.11%) Vue.js
14 115 (4.07%) .NET Core
15 105 (3.72%) Pandas
16 102 (3.61%) PyTorch
17 98 (3.47%) scikit-learn
18 83 (2.94%) Django
19 82 (2.90%) GraphQL
19 82 (2.90%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 419 (14.83%) Algorithms
2 173 (6.12%) User Experience
3 106 (3.75%) Greenfield Project
3 106 (3.75%) Hedge funds
4 99 (3.50%) Cloud Native
5 94 (3.33%) Data Structures
6 89 (3.15%) Cyberattack
7 82 (2.90%) Public Cloud
8 80 (2.83%) Equities
9 76 (2.69%) Mobile App
10 70 (2.48%) Hybrid Cloud
11 59 (2.09%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 58 (2.05%) Robotics
13 51 (1.81%) Linux Command Line
14 45 (1.59%) Social Network
15 40 (1.42%) Derivative
16 37 (1.31%) Fixed Income
17 28 (0.99%) NHS
18 26 (0.92%) Internet of Things
19 24 (0.85%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 357 (12.64%) Linux
2 90 (3.19%) Windows
3 88 (3.12%) CentOS
4 64 (2.27%) Android
5 58 (2.05%) Ubuntu
6 55 (1.95%) Windows Server
7 49 (1.73%) Unix
7 49 (1.73%) Windows Server 2016
8 43 (1.52%) Apple iOS
9 39 (1.38%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 6 (0.21%) Mac OS
11 3 (0.11%) VMS
12 2 (0.071%) Alpine Linux
13 1 (0.035%) Debian
13 1 (0.035%) VxWorks
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,220 (43.19%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,081 (38.27%) Data Science
3 1,047 (37.06%) Agile Software Development
4 860 (30.44%) Analytics
5 660 (23.36%) DevOps
6 653 (23.12%) Software Engineering
7 453 (16.04%) Microservices
8 421 (14.90%) Scrum
9 407 (14.41%) Computer Science
10 382 (13.52%) Mathematics
11 367 (12.99%) Problem-Solving
12 326 (11.54%) Business Intelligence
13 289 (10.23%) Mentoring
14 268 (9.49%) Visualisation
15 264 (9.35%) Data Analytics
16 239 (8.46%) Natural Language Processing
17 233 (8.25%) Test Automation
18 225 (7.96%) Infrastructure as Code
19 222 (7.86%) SDLC
20 220 (7.79%) Site Reliability Engineering
Programming Languages
1 1,491 (52.78%) Python
2 704 (24.92%) SQL
3 531 (18.80%) Java
4 527 (18.65%) JavaScript
5 343 (12.14%) C#
6 221 (7.82%) R
7 206 (7.29%) C++
8 168 (5.95%) Bash Shell
8 168 (5.95%) TypeScript
9 141 (4.99%) Go
10 134 (4.74%) Scala
11 122 (4.32%) C
12 112 (3.96%) PowerShell
13 81 (2.87%) MATLAB
14 41 (1.45%) Ruby
15 36 (1.27%) Java 8
15 36 (1.27%) PHP
16 30 (1.06%) Perl
17 29 (1.03%) T-SQL
18 27 (0.96%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 533 (18.87%) Degree
2 222 (7.86%) PhD
3 108 (3.82%) Computer Science Degree
4 96 (3.40%) Security Cleared
5 60 (2.12%) Master's Degree
6 45 (1.59%) DV Cleared
7 39 (1.38%) SC Cleared
8 33 (1.17%) GIAC
8 33 (1.17%) Numerate Degree
9 27 (0.96%) RHCE
10 20 (0.71%) AWS Certification
11 9 (0.32%) Microsoft Certification
12 8 (0.28%) CCNA
12 8 (0.28%) Cisco Certification
13 6 (0.21%) CISSP
13 6 (0.21%) CompTIA Security+
13 6 (0.21%) MCSE
13 6 (0.21%) PMI Certification
13 6 (0.21%) SANS
13 6 (0.21%) SSCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 80 (2.83%) QA
2 36 (1.27%) GDPR
3 30 (1.06%) Data Quality
4 25 (0.88%) NIST
5 21 (0.74%) MiFID
6 19 (0.67%) Dodd-Frank
6 19 (0.67%) EMIR
7 8 (0.28%) PSD2
8 5 (0.18%) CDISC
8 5 (0.18%) Good Clinical Practice
8 5 (0.18%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 5 (0.18%) NCSC
9 4 (0.14%) NIST 800
9 4 (0.14%) WCAG
10 3 (0.11%) DICOM
10 3 (0.11%) WAI
11 1 (0.035%) HL7
11 1 (0.035%) HMG Security Policy Framework
11 1 (0.035%) ITGC
11 1 (0.035%) SLA
System Software
1 689 (24.39%) Docker
2 77 (2.73%) VMware Infrastructure
3 65 (2.30%) VMware ESXi
4 43 (1.52%) Active Directory
5 7 (0.25%) Virtual Machines
6 6 (0.21%) Apache Flume
6 6 (0.21%) Firmware
7 4 (0.14%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 3 (0.11%) Ceph
8 3 (0.11%) VirtualBox
9 1 (0.035%) HDFS
9 1 (0.035%) Snort
9 1 (0.035%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 537 (19.01%) Kubernetes
2 271 (9.59%) Terraform
3 227 (8.04%) Ansible
4 132 (4.67%) Puppet
5 55 (1.95%) Prometheus
6 54 (1.91%) Grafana
7 33 (1.17%) Opscode Chef
8 26 (0.92%) Istio
9 18 (0.64%) Fortio
9 18 (0.64%) Kiali
10 10 (0.35%) Kibana
11 7 (0.25%) Kubeflow
11 7 (0.25%) Oozie
12 5 (0.18%) Consul
12 5 (0.18%) Packer
12 5 (0.18%) systemd
13 4 (0.14%) Marathon
13 4 (0.14%) Mesos
14 3 (0.11%) Docker Swarm
14 3 (0.11%) Galera Cluster
Vendors
1 283 (10.02%) Microsoft
2 237 (8.39%) Google
3 102 (3.61%) Databricks
4 82 (2.90%) VMware
5 80 (2.83%) Oracle
6 68 (2.41%) Red Hat
7 55 (1.95%) SAP
8 47 (1.66%) Twitter
9 31 (1.10%) Salesforce.com
10 27 (0.96%) Yahoo!
11 26 (0.92%) Cloudera
11 26 (0.92%) Splunk
12 22 (0.78%) Sun
13 20 (0.71%) Apple
14 18 (0.64%) Facebook
15 17 (0.60%) IBM
16 16 (0.57%) Atlassian
17 14 (0.50%) Xamarin
18 13 (0.46%) Alteryx
18 13 (0.46%) Elastic Path