Period
to 2 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 2 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK > England
6 months to
2 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 83 97 101
Rank change year-on-year +14 +4 +18
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 3,878 2,011 4,245
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 3.87% 3.22% 3.18%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 4.12% 3.46% 3.44%
Number of salaries quoted 1,970 1,611 3,298
10th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £37,500
25th Percentile £47,500 £46,250 £48,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £65,000 £65,000
75th Percentile £82,500 £85,000 £85,000
90th Percentile £97,500 £102,500 £100,000
UK median annual salary £65,000 £65,000 £65,000

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 94,129 58,049 123,569
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 93.97% 92.87% 92.68%
Number of salaries quoted 64,872 47,537 99,438
10th Percentile £32,626 £32,500 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £41,250 £38,691
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £76,250 £75,000 £71,250
90th Percentile £93,750 £91,250 £87,500
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in England

Machine Learning
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning in England.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in England

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning in England over the 6 months to 2 August 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in England

Machine Learning
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the England region over the 6 months to 2 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +10 2,400 £70,000 -6.67% 254
South East -14 477 £55,000 -8.33% 52
South West +42 367 £54,250 +8.50% 23
North of England -7 275 £60,000 +14.29% 82
North West 0 187 £56,250 +12.50% 60
East of England +4 183 £45,000 -18.18% 60
Midlands -34 127 £57,500 +9.52% 29
West Midlands -60 90 £57,500 +9.52% 21
Yorkshire -27 64 £75,000 +39.53% 14
East Midlands -29 35 £45,000 +1.42% 8
North East -24 24 £65,000 +33.33% 8
Machine Learning
UK

For the 6 months to 2 August 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 2,066 (53.27%) Python
2 1,732 (44.66%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,548 (39.92%) Data Science
4 1,484 (38.27%) AWS
5 1,394 (35.95%) Agile Software Development
6 1,182 (30.48%) Analytics
7 1,180 (30.43%) Software Engineering
8 1,044 (26.92%) SQL
9 1,019 (26.28%) Azure
10 986 (25.43%) Docker
11 915 (23.59%) JavaScript
12 872 (22.49%) Finance
13 794 (20.47%) React
14 791 (20.40%) GCP
15 762 (19.65%) DevOps
16 740 (19.08%) Kubernetes
17 730 (18.82%) Microservices
18 718 (18.51%) Algorithms
19 707 (18.23%) Big Data
20 704 (18.15%) Java
21 691 (17.82%) Degree
22 678 (17.48%) Social Skills
23 584 (15.06%) Computer Science
24 551 (14.21%) Full Stack Development
25 544 (14.03%) Scrum
26 494 (12.74%) Mathematics
27 479 (12.35%) Problem-Solving
28 455 (11.73%) Git (software)
29 450 (11.60%) Node.js
30 446 (11.50%) C#

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 342 (8.82%) Apache Spark
2 245 (6.32%) Confluence
3 208 (5.36%) Elasticsearch
4 137 (3.53%) Apache Airflow
5 104 (2.68%) Apache
6 54 (1.39%) CMS
7 46 (1.19%) SAS
8 45 (1.16%) Jupyter
9 27 (0.70%) SharePoint
10 20 (0.52%) Cloud Foundry
11 13 (0.34%) Oracle Workflow
12 12 (0.31%) Luigi
12 12 (0.31%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 7 (0.18%) IIS
14 6 (0.15%) WordPress
15 5 (0.13%) Drupal
16 4 (0.10%) Apache Synapse
16 4 (0.10%) Tornado
17 3 (0.077%) Apache Pig
17 3 (0.077%) Mule
Applications
1 50 (1.29%) Chatbot
2 49 (1.26%) Microsoft Excel
3 43 (1.11%) Simulink
4 33 (0.85%) Stateflow
5 19 (0.49%) MS Visio
6 15 (0.39%) Microsoft Office
6 15 (0.39%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 12 (0.31%) Photoshop
8 9 (0.23%) Adobe Illustrator
9 7 (0.18%) Figma
9 7 (0.18%) Sketch
9 7 (0.18%) Spreadsheet
10 6 (0.15%) InVision
11 5 (0.13%) Fireworks
12 4 (0.10%) GIMP
12 4 (0.10%) Inkscape
13 3 (0.077%) Gephi
13 3 (0.077%) GNU Octave
13 3 (0.077%) SPSS
14 2 (0.052%) Adobe XD
Business Applications
1 27 (0.70%) Payment Gateway
1 27 (0.70%) Shopify
2 4 (0.10%) Dynamics CRM
2 4 (0.10%) FINCAD Analytics
2 4 (0.10%) Summit
3 3 (0.077%) Sentinel
4 2 (0.052%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
4 2 (0.052%) SAP R/3
5 1 (0.026%) Eikon
5 1 (0.026%) Maximo
5 1 (0.026%) Oracle BRM
5 1 (0.026%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 1,484 (38.27%) AWS
2 1,019 (26.28%) Azure
3 791 (20.40%) GCP
4 348 (8.97%) Serverless
5 226 (5.83%) Power Platform
6 179 (4.62%) SaaS
7 178 (4.59%) GitHub
8 128 (3.30%) Amazon S3
9 116 (2.99%) Cloud Computing
10 105 (2.71%) AWS Lambda
11 95 (2.45%) PaaS
12 78 (2.01%) Amazon SageMaker
13 69 (1.78%) AWS CloudFormation
14 68 (1.75%) Cloud Functions
15 58 (1.50%) Amazon EC2
16 57 (1.47%) Azure Machine Learning
17 55 (1.42%) Azure Functions
18 48 (1.24%) Snowflake
19 47 (1.21%) Azure Data Factory
19 47 (1.21%) Azure Service Bus
Communications & Networking
1 113 (2.91%) Firewall
2 91 (2.35%) VPN
3 82 (2.11%) IPv4
4 61 (1.57%) VLAN
5 60 (1.55%) OSPF
6 55 (1.42%) HTTP
7 42 (1.08%) Internet
8 28 (0.72%) DNS
9 23 (0.59%) Broadband
10 18 (0.46%) Network Security
11 12 (0.31%) TCP/IP
12 11 (0.28%) FTP
12 11 (0.28%) SSH
13 8 (0.21%) IPsec
14 4 (0.10%) DHCP
14 4 (0.10%) HTTPS
14 4 (0.10%) IPv6
14 4 (0.10%) SMTP
14 4 (0.10%) SNMP
15 3 (0.077%) Ethernet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 707 (18.23%) Big Data
2 335 (8.64%) PostgreSQL
3 274 (7.07%) NoSQL
4 215 (5.54%) Data Warehouse
5 214 (5.52%) Relational Database
6 212 (5.47%) Power BI
7 205 (5.29%) SQL Server
8 183 (4.72%) MySQL
9 180 (4.64%) Hadoop
10 154 (3.97%) MongoDB
10 154 (3.97%) Tableau
11 149 (3.84%) Data Mining
12 120 (3.09%) BigQuery
12 120 (3.09%) Data Lake
13 119 (3.07%) Redis
14 71 (1.83%) GIS
15 64 (1.65%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 62 (1.60%) Metadata
17 60 (1.55%) Looker
18 57 (1.47%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 455 (11.73%) Git (software)
2 338 (8.72%) JIRA
3 255 (6.58%) Jenkins
4 81 (2.09%) Subversion
5 75 (1.93%) Bitbucket
6 71 (1.83%) webpack
7 69 (1.78%) Cypress.io
8 63 (1.62%) GitLab
9 48 (1.24%) Selenium
10 40 (1.03%) Team Foundation Server
10 40 (1.03%) TeamCity
11 37 (0.95%) Jasmine
12 33 (0.85%) Octopus Deploy
13 30 (0.77%) gulp
14 26 (0.67%) CircleCI
15 25 (0.64%) Cucumber
16 23 (0.59%) Visual Studio Team System
17 22 (0.57%) Babel
18 19 (0.49%) Atlassian Bamboo
19 17 (0.44%) Maven
General
1 872 (22.49%) Finance
2 678 (17.48%) Social Skills
3 397 (10.24%) Analytical Skills
4 291 (7.50%) Banking
5 279 (7.19%) Retail
6 234 (6.03%) Marketing
7 188 (4.85%) Games
8 152 (3.92%) Legal
9 150 (3.87%) Law
10 115 (2.97%) Presentation Skills
11 111 (2.86%) Telecoms
12 95 (2.45%) Pharmaceutical
13 85 (2.19%) Public Sector
14 80 (2.06%) Inclusion and Diversity
15 76 (1.96%) Advertising
16 75 (1.93%) Financial Institution
17 73 (1.88%) Front Office
18 67 (1.73%) Investment Banking
19 65 (1.68%) Manufacturing
20 63 (1.62%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 912 (23.52%) Developer
2 466 (12.02%) Software Engineer
3 381 (9.82%) Data Scientist
4 252 (6.50%) Data Engineer
5 227 (5.85%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 198 (5.11%) Senior Developer
7 196 (5.05%) Senior Software Engineer
8 193 (4.98%) Architect
9 168 (4.33%) Full Stack Developer
10 162 (4.18%) Python Engineer
11 111 (2.86%) Analyst
12 108 (2.78%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
12 108 (2.78%) Lead Developer
13 104 (2.68%) Python Developer
14 99 (2.55%) Senior Data Scientist
15 91 (2.35%) C# Developer
16 88 (2.27%) Data Architect
17 87 (2.24%) Graduate
18 83 (2.14%) .NET Developer
19 81 (2.09%) JavaScript Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 794 (20.47%) React
2 450 (11.60%) Node.js
3 409 (10.55%) .NET
4 350 (9.03%) AngularJS
5 345 (8.90%) REST
6 311 (8.02%) CSS
7 310 (7.99%) TensorFlow
8 297 (7.66%) HTML
9 262 (6.76%) Web Services
10 246 (6.34%) GraphQL
11 245 (6.32%) Kafka
12 236 (6.09%) RESTful
13 219 (5.65%) Vue.js
14 218 (5.62%) PyTorch
15 199 (5.13%) .NET Core
16 191 (4.93%) scikit-learn
17 186 (4.80%) Pandas
18 177 (4.56%) NumPy
19 171 (4.41%) Django
20 166 (4.28%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 718 (18.51%) Algorithms
2 444 (11.45%) User Experience
3 134 (3.46%) Data Structures
4 122 (3.15%) Greenfield Project
4 122 (3.15%) Hedge funds
5 110 (2.84%) Hybrid Cloud
6 105 (2.71%) Cloud Native
7 97 (2.50%) Cyberattack
8 93 (2.40%) Public Cloud
9 85 (2.19%) Robotics
10 80 (2.06%) Mobile App
11 75 (1.93%) Equities
12 65 (1.68%) Fixed Income
13 64 (1.65%) Self-Motivation
14 63 (1.62%) Blog
14 63 (1.62%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 60 (1.55%) Social Media
16 52 (1.34%) NHS
17 51 (1.32%) Derivative
18 49 (1.26%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 407 (10.50%) Linux
2 108 (2.78%) Apple iOS
2 108 (2.78%) Windows
3 107 (2.76%) Unix
4 105 (2.71%) Android
5 88 (2.27%) CentOS
6 56 (1.44%) Ubuntu
7 49 (1.26%) Windows Server
8 46 (1.19%) Windows Server 2016
9 41 (1.06%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 20 (0.52%) VMS
11 8 (0.21%) Solaris
12 6 (0.15%) Mesosphere
13 2 (0.052%) Embedded Linux
13 2 (0.052%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,732 (44.66%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,548 (39.92%) Data Science
3 1,394 (35.95%) Agile Software Development
4 1,182 (30.48%) Analytics
5 1,180 (30.43%) Software Engineering
6 762 (19.65%) DevOps
7 730 (18.82%) Microservices
8 584 (15.06%) Computer Science
9 551 (14.21%) Full Stack Development
10 544 (14.03%) Scrum
11 494 (12.74%) Mathematics
12 479 (12.35%) Problem-Solving
13 439 (11.32%) Visualisation
14 437 (11.27%) Mentoring
15 401 (10.34%) Business Intelligence
16 398 (10.26%) Natural Language Processing
17 363 (9.36%) Test Automation
18 343 (8.84%) Open Source
19 321 (8.28%) Fintech
20 319 (8.23%) Continuous Integration
Programming Languages
1 2,066 (53.27%) Python
2 1,044 (26.92%) SQL
3 915 (23.59%) JavaScript
4 704 (18.15%) Java
5 446 (11.50%) C#
6 414 (10.68%) TypeScript
7 330 (8.51%) C++
8 256 (6.60%) R
9 207 (5.34%) Scala
10 182 (4.69%) Go
11 162 (4.18%) C
12 140 (3.61%) Bash Shell
13 131 (3.38%) PowerShell
14 116 (2.99%) MATLAB
15 99 (2.55%) Ruby
16 65 (1.68%) ES6
16 65 (1.68%) PHP
16 65 (1.68%) Shell Script
17 56 (1.44%) Java 8
18 39 (1.01%) Cython
Qualifications
1 691 (17.82%) Degree
2 293 (7.56%) PhD
3 183 (4.72%) Computer Science Degree
4 84 (2.17%) Security Cleared
5 83 (2.14%) Master's Degree
6 36 (0.93%) DV Cleared
7 31 (0.80%) Numerate Degree
8 29 (0.75%) GIAC
9 27 (0.70%) SC Cleared
10 26 (0.67%) RHCE
11 21 (0.54%) AWS Certification
12 15 (0.39%) Microsoft Certification
13 9 (0.23%) BPSS Clearance
13 9 (0.23%) Postgraduate
14 8 (0.21%) DBS Check
14 8 (0.21%) MCSA
15 5 (0.13%) RHCSA
16 4 (0.10%) CFA
16 4 (0.10%) MCSE
17 3 (0.077%) CCNA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 144 (3.71%) QA
2 90 (2.32%) Data Quality
3 64 (1.65%) GDPR
4 48 (1.24%) Accessibility
5 21 (0.54%) PSD2
6 13 (0.34%) GxP
7 10 (0.26%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 9 (0.23%) Good Clinical Practice
9 7 (0.18%) WAI
10 6 (0.15%) CDISC
11 5 (0.13%) Dodd-Frank
11 5 (0.13%) EMIR
11 5 (0.13%) MiFID
11 5 (0.13%) PMO
12 4 (0.10%) NIST
12 4 (0.10%) WCAG
13 3 (0.077%) DICOM
13 3 (0.077%) GLP
13 3 (0.077%) GMP
14 2 (0.052%) HL7
System Software
1 986 (25.43%) Docker
2 78 (2.01%) VMware Infrastructure
3 64 (1.65%) VMware ESXi
4 41 (1.06%) Active Directory
5 19 (0.49%) Firmware
6 12 (0.31%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 11 (0.28%) etcd
8 7 (0.18%) Ceph
8 7 (0.18%) Virtual Machines
9 6 (0.15%) VirtualBox
10 4 (0.10%) Snort
11 3 (0.077%) Apache Flume
12 2 (0.052%) HDFS
12 2 (0.052%) Hyper-V
13 1 (0.026%) NFS
13 1 (0.026%) Slurm Workload Manager
13 1 (0.026%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 740 (19.08%) Kubernetes
2 364 (9.39%) Terraform
3 249 (6.42%) Ansible
4 124 (3.20%) Puppet
5 96 (2.48%) Prometheus
6 71 (1.83%) Grafana
7 31 (0.80%) Opscode Chef
8 26 (0.67%) Kubeflow
9 24 (0.62%) Istio
10 16 (0.41%) Consul
11 11 (0.28%) Kibana
12 7 (0.18%) Fortio
12 7 (0.18%) Galera Cluster
12 7 (0.18%) Kiali
12 7 (0.18%) Oozie
13 6 (0.15%) Automic
13 6 (0.15%) Docker Swarm
13 6 (0.15%) logstash
14 5 (0.13%) Packer
14 5 (0.13%) systemd
Vendors
1 411 (10.60%) Google
2 345 (8.90%) Microsoft
3 136 (3.51%) Databricks
4 100 (2.58%) Oracle
5 79 (2.04%) VMware
6 73 (1.88%) Red Hat
7 59 (1.52%) Facebook
8 55 (1.42%) SAP
9 48 (1.24%) Samsung
10 40 (1.03%) Yahoo!
11 38 (0.98%) Instagram
12 36 (0.93%) Atlassian
13 35 (0.90%) Splunk
14 34 (0.88%) Dell
15 32 (0.83%) IBM
16 27 (0.70%) Elastic Path
16 27 (0.70%) Salesforce.com
17 22 (0.57%) Cloudera
17 22 (0.57%) OpenAI
17 22 (0.57%) Snapchat