Period
to 16 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Continuous Integration skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 16 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Continuous Integration
UK
6 months to
16 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 77 58 41
Rank change year-on-year -19 -17 +1
Contract jobs citing Continuous Integration 1,220 2,743 5,377
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.00% 3.75% 5.40%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.48% 4.38% 6.18%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,117 1,906 3,661
Median daily rate £500 £525 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -4.76% +5.00% -
10th Percentile £363 £375 £363
90th Percentile £647 £688 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £463
% change year-on-year - +2.70% +2.78%
Number of hourly rates quoted 22 27 11
Median hourly rate £45.00 £72.50 £52.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -37.93% +38.10% +5.53%
10th Percentile £22.76 £16.00 £35.00
90th Percentile £66.70 £78.75 £64.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £46.25 £51.25
% change year-on-year -2.70% -9.76% +2.50%

Continuous Integration is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 35,062 62,573 86,999
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.24% 85.60% 87.44%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,637 41,829 58,444
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £300 £281 £300
90th Percentile £650 £650 £648
UK excluding London median daily rate £427 £433 £425
% change year-on-year -1.27% +1.76% +5.59%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,143 1,921 2,105
Median hourly rate £27.00 £21.00 £21.90
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +28.57% -4.11% +1.86%
10th Percentile £11.75 £11.88 £11.25
90th Percentile £60.00 £53.00 £50.00
Median hourly rate £24.00 £19.88 £21.00
% change year-on-year +20.74% -5.35% -2.33%

Continuous Integration
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Continuous Integration as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration.

Daily rate trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 16 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration.

Hourly rate trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 16 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Continuous Integration within the UK over the 6 months to 16 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -17 1,004 £500 -4.76% 506
London -19 573 £525 -4.55% 189
UK excluding London -17 467 £475 - 357
Work from Home -3 316 £500 +11.11% 87
South East +13 138 £490 -2.00% 64
North of England -19 105 £475 - 130
Scotland -3 74 £481 +6.94% 28
Midlands -10 69 £432 -9.05% 36
North West +6 50 £500 +5.26% 75
Yorkshire -23 44 £463 -2.63% 46
West Midlands -28 40 £432 -9.05% 26
South West +5 36 £513 +2.50% 52
East of England +3 35 £475 +5.56% 31
East Midlands +40 26 £378 +16.31% 10
North East +3 11 £463 +7.56% 9
Wales +2 9 £500 -0.99% 12
Northern Ireland -10 1 £424 -26.26% 4

For the 6 months to 16 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Continuous Integration also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Continuous Integration.

1 777 (63.69%) Agile Software Development
2 521 (42.70%) DevOps
3 503 (41.23%) Java
4 436 (35.74%) Jenkins
5 398 (32.62%) Test Automation
6 367 (30.08%) Git (software)
7 346 (28.36%) TDD
8 324 (26.56%) AWS
9 321 (26.31%) JavaScript
10 313 (25.66%) Python
11 305 (25.00%) Continuous Delivery
12 293 (24.02%) Linux
13 291 (23.85%) Microservices
14 290 (23.77%) Azure
15 283 (23.20%) Scrum
16 267 (21.89%) SQL
17 230 (18.85%) Kubernetes
18 228 (18.69%) Docker
19 222 (18.20%) JIRA
20 209 (17.13%) Spring
21 200 (16.39%) Finance
22 197 (16.15%) REST
23 189 (15.49%) Terraform
24 176 (14.43%) Security Cleared
24 176 (14.43%) HTML
25 171 (14.02%) C#
26 168 (13.77%) BDD
27 165 (13.52%) Ansible
28 160 (13.11%) .NET
28 160 (13.11%) Microsoft

Continuous Integration
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 107 (8.77%) Confluence
2 48 (3.93%) Apache
3 42 (3.44%) Apache Spark
3 42 (3.44%) JBoss
4 41 (3.36%) WebSphere
5 38 (3.11%) Elasticsearch
5 38 (3.11%) Red Hat Fuse
6 30 (2.46%) Tomcat
7 28 (2.30%) WebLogic
8 21 (1.72%) Cloud Foundry
8 21 (1.72%) Mule
9 20 (1.64%) SharePoint
10 18 (1.48%) OpenStack
11 17 (1.39%) SAS
12 15 (1.23%) CMS
12 15 (1.23%) nginx
13 10 (0.82%) Apache ServiceMix
13 10 (0.82%) BizTalk Server
13 10 (0.82%) Camunda
14 8 (0.66%) IIS
Applications
1 24 (1.97%) Microsoft Excel
2 15 (1.23%) Microsoft Office
3 14 (1.15%) MS Visio
4 3 (0.25%) Sketch
4 3 (0.25%) Zeplin
5 2 (0.16%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.16%) Spreadsheet
6 1 (0.082%) InVision
6 1 (0.082%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 1 (0.082%) Photoshop
6 1 (0.082%) Simulink
6 1 (0.082%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 33 (2.70%) Dynamics CRM
2 10 (0.82%) SAP FI-CA
3 8 (0.66%) Magento
4 3 (0.25%) Infor M3
4 3 (0.25%) SAP PSCD
4 3 (0.25%) SAP S/4HANA
4 3 (0.25%) Shopify
5 2 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
5 2 (0.16%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 2 (0.16%) Teamcenter
6 1 (0.082%) Exstream
6 1 (0.082%) Markit EDM
6 1 (0.082%) Oracle BPM
6 1 (0.082%) SAP Hybris
6 1 (0.082%) Temenos T24
6 1 (0.082%) thinkFolio
Cloud Services
1 324 (26.56%) AWS
2 290 (23.77%) Azure
3 140 (11.48%) GitHub
4 96 (7.87%) PaaS
5 63 (5.16%) IaaS
6 56 (4.59%) Serverless
7 53 (4.34%) GCP
8 50 (4.10%) AWS CloudFormation
9 45 (3.69%) Amazon S3
10 41 (3.36%) Virtual Private Cloud
11 39 (3.20%) Amazon EC2
12 36 (2.95%) SaaS
13 34 (2.79%) AWS Lambda
14 31 (2.54%) Amazon ECS
14 31 (2.54%) Cloud Computing
15 28 (2.30%) OpenShift
15 28 (2.30%) Power Platform
16 22 (1.80%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 22 (1.80%) Slack
17 20 (1.64%) Dynamics 365
Communications & Networking
1 55 (4.51%) HTTP
2 42 (3.44%) Firewall
3 38 (3.11%) TCP/IP
4 31 (2.54%) SSL
5 30 (2.46%) VLAN
5 30 (2.46%) VPN
6 26 (2.13%) Reverse Proxy
6 26 (2.13%) SNMP
7 23 (1.89%) DNS
8 13 (1.07%) DHCP
9 11 (0.90%) IPsec
10 10 (0.82%) Internet
10 10 (0.82%) LAN
10 10 (0.82%) WAN
11 9 (0.74%) DSL
11 9 (0.74%) HTTPS
11 9 (0.74%) POP3
11 9 (0.74%) SMTP
12 5 (0.41%) DECT
12 5 (0.41%) FTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 121 (9.92%) Relational Database
2 90 (7.38%) SQL Server
3 55 (4.51%) MySQL
4 50 (4.10%) NoSQL
5 49 (4.02%) MongoDB
6 48 (3.93%) PostgreSQL
7 46 (3.77%) Hadoop
8 39 (3.20%) Big Data
8 39 (3.20%) RDBMS
9 38 (3.11%) Data Warehouse
10 35 (2.87%) Oracle Database
11 34 (2.79%) Azure SQL Database
12 31 (2.54%) Redis
13 27 (2.21%) Apache Hive
14 25 (2.05%) Data Lake
15 24 (1.97%) Amazon RDS
16 23 (1.89%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 20 (1.64%) Amazon Aurora
18 18 (1.48%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 17 (1.39%) Amazon DynamoDB
Development Applications
1 436 (35.74%) Jenkins
2 367 (30.08%) Git (software)
3 222 (18.20%) JIRA
4 147 (12.05%) Selenium
5 114 (9.34%) JUnit
6 108 (8.85%) GitLab
7 98 (8.03%) Maven
8 97 (7.95%) Cucumber
9 65 (5.33%) TeamCity
10 56 (4.59%) Gradle
11 55 (4.51%) JMeter
12 51 (4.18%) Atlassian Bamboo
13 47 (3.85%) Mockito
14 45 (3.69%) Sonatype Nexus
15 44 (3.61%) SonarQube
16 42 (3.44%) Visual Studio
17 39 (3.20%) Ant
18 37 (3.03%) Bitbucket
19 33 (2.70%) Subversion
20 31 (2.54%) Team Foundation Server
General
1 200 (16.39%) Finance
2 124 (10.16%) Banking
3 112 (9.18%) Public Sector
4 23 (1.89%) Retail
5 22 (1.80%) Front Office
6 21 (1.72%) Games
6 21 (1.72%) Investment Banking
7 14 (1.15%) Marketing
8 13 (1.07%) Legal
8 13 (1.07%) Retail Banking
9 12 (0.98%) Automotive
10 11 (0.90%) Billing
10 11 (0.90%) Pharmaceutical
11 10 (0.82%) Back Office
12 6 (0.49%) Advertising
12 6 (0.49%) Social Housing
12 6 (0.49%) Telecoms
13 5 (0.41%) Law
14 4 (0.33%) Local Government
14 4 (0.33%) Manufacturing
Job Titles
1 532 (43.61%) Developer
2 151 (12.38%) Java Developer
3 147 (12.05%) DevOps Engineer
4 82 (6.72%) Architect
5 75 (6.15%) Senior Developer
6 68 (5.57%) .NET Developer
7 61 (5.00%) Full Stack Developer
8 52 (4.26%) Azure Engineer
8 52 (4.26%) Tester
9 39 (3.20%) Software Engineer
10 36 (2.95%) Data Engineer
11 34 (2.79%) Cloud Engineer
11 34 (2.79%) Consultant
12 33 (2.70%) AWS Developer
12 33 (2.70%) Test Engineer
13 32 (2.62%) Android Developer
13 32 (2.62%) AWS Engineer
14 31 (2.54%) AWS DevOps
15 30 (2.46%) C# Developer
16 29 (2.38%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 209 (17.13%) Spring
2 197 (16.15%) REST
3 176 (14.43%) HTML
4 160 (13.11%) .NET
5 158 (12.95%) RESTful
6 149 (12.21%) CSS
7 133 (10.90%) JSON
8 128 (10.49%) Web Services
9 126 (10.33%) Node.js
10 121 (9.92%) React
11 120 (9.84%) Spring Boot
12 119 (9.75%) XML
13 106 (8.69%) AngularJS
14 92 (7.54%) HTML5
15 69 (5.66%) Kafka
16 68 (5.57%) SOAP
17 64 (5.25%) jQuery
18 52 (4.26%) Elastic Stack
19 48 (3.93%) .NET Core
19 48 (3.93%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 73 (5.98%) Analytical Skills
1 73 (5.98%) Enterprise Software
2 61 (5.00%) Mobile App
3 41 (3.36%) User Experience
4 37 (3.03%) Self-Motivation
5 33 (2.70%) Clustering
6 32 (2.62%) Greenfield Project
7 27 (2.21%) Cloud Native
7 27 (2.21%) Public Cloud
8 25 (2.05%) Algorithms
8 25 (2.05%) Data Structures
9 22 (1.80%) Credit Risk
10 21 (1.72%) Linux Command Line
11 20 (1.64%) N-Tier
12 19 (1.56%) Private Cloud
13 15 (1.23%) Management Information System
14 13 (1.07%) Embedded Systems
14 13 (1.07%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 12 (0.98%) Animation
15 12 (0.98%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 293 (24.02%) Linux
2 145 (11.89%) Windows
3 86 (7.05%) Android
4 74 (6.07%) Unix
5 66 (5.41%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 54 (4.43%) Windows Server
7 44 (3.61%) CentOS
8 37 (3.03%) Apple iOS
9 27 (2.21%) Windows Server 2016
10 21 (1.72%) Ubuntu
11 20 (1.64%) Windows 10
12 8 (0.66%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
13 7 (0.57%) OpenWrt
13 7 (0.57%) Windows Server 2012
14 6 (0.49%) Mac OS
14 6 (0.49%) Mac OS X
15 4 (0.33%) Solaris
15 4 (0.33%) Windows Server 2008
16 3 (0.25%) Fedora
16 3 (0.25%) OpenVMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 777 (63.69%) Agile Software Development
2 521 (42.70%) DevOps
3 398 (32.62%) Test Automation
4 346 (28.36%) TDD
5 305 (25.00%) Continuous Delivery
6 291 (23.85%) Microservices
7 283 (23.20%) Scrum
8 168 (13.77%) BDD
9 155 (12.70%) Continuous Deployment
10 137 (11.23%) Open Source
11 132 (10.82%) Software Engineering
12 131 (10.74%) Problem-Solving
13 127 (10.41%) Infrastructure as Code
14 118 (9.67%) SDLC
15 115 (9.43%) Configuration Management
16 111 (9.10%) Kanban
16 111 (9.10%) Unit Testing
17 100 (8.20%) OO
18 95 (7.79%) Mentoring
19 91 (7.46%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 503 (41.23%) Java
2 321 (26.31%) JavaScript
3 313 (25.66%) Python
4 267 (21.89%) SQL
5 171 (14.02%) C#
6 99 (8.11%) Java 8
7 95 (7.79%) PowerShell
8 93 (7.62%) Scala
9 85 (6.97%) Ruby
10 79 (6.48%) Bash Shell
11 73 (5.98%) Kotlin
12 53 (4.34%) C++
13 47 (3.85%) C
14 46 (3.77%) Go
15 45 (3.69%) PL/SQL
16 42 (3.44%) Shell Script
17 40 (3.28%) TypeScript
18 34 (2.79%) Perl
19 30 (2.46%) Groovy
20 22 (1.80%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 176 (14.43%) Security Cleared
2 139 (11.39%) SC Cleared
3 71 (5.82%) Degree
4 36 (2.95%) Computer Science Degree
5 22 (1.80%) DV Cleared
6 21 (1.72%) ISTQB
7 20 (1.64%) ISEB
7 20 (1.64%) Master's Degree
8 19 (1.56%) Microsoft Certification
9 17 (1.39%) BPSS Clearance
10 16 (1.31%) AWS Certification
11 13 (1.07%) CCNA
11 13 (1.07%) Cisco Certification
12 11 (0.90%) CCNP
13 10 (0.82%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 6 (0.49%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
15 5 (0.41%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
16 4 (0.33%) RHCE
16 4 (0.33%) RHCSA
16 4 (0.33%) RHCVA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 110 (9.02%) QA
2 21 (1.72%) Data Quality
3 13 (1.07%) WCAG
4 6 (0.49%) MiFID
4 6 (0.49%) SLA
5 5 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 12207
5 5 (0.41%) JTAG
6 4 (0.33%) GDPR
7 2 (0.16%) HL7
7 2 (0.16%) ISO 9000
7 2 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 2 (0.16%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 1 (0.082%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.082%) PMO
System Software
1 228 (18.69%) Docker
2 56 (4.59%) VMware Infrastructure
3 23 (1.89%) Active Directory
3 23 (1.89%) HDFS
3 23 (1.89%) vSphere
4 19 (1.56%) Virtual Machines
5 12 (0.98%) VMware ESXi
6 6 (0.49%) Postfix
7 4 (0.33%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 4 (0.33%) Virtual Desktop
8 3 (0.25%) Firmware
8 3 (0.25%) Varnish
8 3 (0.25%) VirtualBox
8 3 (0.25%) VMware NSX
9 2 (0.16%) Ceph
9 2 (0.16%) etcd
9 2 (0.16%) Hyper-V
9 2 (0.16%) LXC
9 2 (0.16%) Virtual Servers
9 2 (0.16%) Xen
Systems Management
1 230 (18.85%) Kubernetes
2 189 (15.49%) Terraform
3 165 (13.52%) Ansible
4 88 (7.21%) Puppet
5 77 (6.31%) Opscode Chef
6 66 (5.41%) Prometheus
7 53 (4.34%) Grafana
8 45 (3.69%) Kibana
9 27 (2.21%) ZABBIX
10 25 (2.05%) Packer
11 17 (1.39%) Istio
12 12 (0.98%) HP Quality Center
13 11 (0.90%) logstash
14 9 (0.74%) Hadoop YARN
15 7 (0.57%) Consul
15 7 (0.57%) Rancher
15 7 (0.57%) Salt
16 6 (0.49%) Nagios
16 6 (0.49%) Rundeck
16 6 (0.49%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 160 (13.11%) Microsoft
2 122 (10.00%) Oracle
3 67 (5.49%) Red Hat
4 62 (5.08%) Atlassian
4 62 (5.08%) Splunk
5 58 (4.75%) VMware
6 42 (3.44%) Google
7 36 (2.95%) AppDynamics
7 36 (2.95%) Dell
8 29 (2.38%) SAP
9 28 (2.30%) Salesforce.com
10 27 (2.21%) Talend
11 25 (2.05%) HP
12 21 (1.72%) Databricks
13 20 (1.64%) CheckPoint
13 20 (1.64%) Cisco
14 16 (1.31%) MuleSoft
14 16 (1.31%) New Relic
14 16 (1.31%) webMethods
15 14 (1.15%) EMC