Period
to 20 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Continuous Integration skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 20 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Continuous Integration
UK
6 months to
20 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 71 58 47
Rank change year-on-year -13 -11 -5
Contract jobs citing Continuous Integration 1,638 2,171 4,567
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.06% 3.78% 4.77%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.52% 4.44% 5.45%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,095 1,527 3,008
10th Percentile £363 £363 £375
25th Percentile £425 £438 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £515 £525 £510
Median % change year-on-year -1.90% +2.94% +2.00%
75th Percentile £600 £606 £588
90th Percentile £675 £688 £661
UK excluding London median daily rate £468 £476 £475
% change year-on-year -1.84% +0.26% +3.22%
Number of hourly rates quoted 23 19 14
10th Percentile £34.45 £35.40 £12.38
25th Percentile £39.63 £45.25 £36.27
Median hourly rate £45.00 £65.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year -30.77% +30.00% -9.09%
75th Percentile £55.00 £78.75 £60.00
90th Percentile £68.00 " £64.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £45.25 £55.00
% change year-on-year -0.55% -17.73% -4.35%

Continuous Integration is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 46,528 48,924 83,745
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.88% 85.19% 87.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 31,905 32,513 56,467
10th Percentile £306 £281 £300
25th Percentile £400 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £488 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.63% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £576 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £656 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £436 £445 £435
% change year-on-year -2.02% +2.30% +3.57%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,436 1,553 2,004
10th Percentile £12.25 £12.37 £11.57
25th Percentile £15.81 £15.85 £14.50
Median hourly rate £26.50 £21.50 £22.75
Median % change year-on-year +23.24% -5.49% +8.33%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £43.88
90th Percentile £59.38 £55.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.00 £20.11 £22.40
% change year-on-year +14.37% -10.22% +12.00%

Continuous Integration
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Continuous Integration as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration.

Daily rate trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 20 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration.

Hourly rate trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 20 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Continuous Integration within the UK over the 6 months to 20 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -14 1,334 £525 - 706
London -11 811 £550 - 304
UK excluding London -16 558 £468 -1.84% 441
Work from Home -23 453 £513 +13.89% 103
South East +14 164 £490 -2.00% 98
North of England -35 106 £475 -5.00% 135
Scotland -9 100 £425 -5.56% 27
South West +2 70 £538 +2.38% 74
North West -9 67 £500 +11.11% 82
Midlands -25 59 £400 -13.04% 45
East of England -13 39 £475 +5.56% 48
Yorkshire -46 32 £433 -13.50% 45
East Midlands +21 27 £360 +10.77% 11
West Midlands -48 26 £400 -16.88% 34
Wales -12 19 £475 -2.06% 13
North East +7 7 £550 +4.76% 8
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 20 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Continuous Integration also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Continuous Integration.

1 1,074 (65.57%) Agile Software Development
2 715 (43.65%) DevOps
3 642 (39.19%) Java
4 514 (31.38%) Jenkins
5 503 (30.71%) Test Automation
5 503 (30.71%) TDD
6 430 (26.25%) JavaScript
7 420 (25.64%) Git (software)
8 419 (25.58%) Scrum
9 409 (24.97%) Azure
10 399 (24.36%) AWS
11 396 (24.18%) Microservices
12 390 (23.81%) Python
13 367 (22.41%) SQL
14 330 (20.15%) Linux
15 322 (19.66%) Docker
16 302 (18.44%) Finance
17 297 (18.13%) Continuous Delivery
18 293 (17.89%) JIRA
19 282 (17.22%) Software Engineering
20 280 (17.09%) Kubernetes
21 262 (16.00%) C#
22 256 (15.63%) Spring
23 242 (14.77%) RESTful
24 241 (14.71%) .NET
25 235 (14.35%) HTML
25 235 (14.35%) BDD
26 229 (13.98%) AngularJS
27 227 (13.86%) REST
28 221 (13.49%) Microsoft

Continuous Integration
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 137 (8.36%) Confluence
2 67 (4.09%) Apache
3 47 (2.87%) SharePoint
4 46 (2.81%) WebSphere
5 44 (2.69%) Tomcat
6 40 (2.44%) Apache Spark
7 37 (2.26%) Elasticsearch
8 30 (1.83%) nginx
9 29 (1.77%) JBoss
10 26 (1.59%) CMS
11 23 (1.40%) Red Hat Fuse
11 23 (1.40%) WebLogic
12 19 (1.16%) Cloud Foundry
13 18 (1.10%) Jetty
14 12 (0.73%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 11 (0.67%) WebSphere Application Server
16 10 (0.61%) IIS
16 10 (0.61%) OpenStack
16 10 (0.61%) Oracle Coherence
17 9 (0.55%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 24 (1.47%) Microsoft Excel
2 21 (1.28%) Microsoft Office
3 17 (1.04%) MS Visio
4 8 (0.49%) Figma
4 8 (0.49%) Sketch
5 6 (0.37%) InVision
6 4 (0.24%) Photoshop
7 3 (0.18%) UserZoom
7 3 (0.18%) Zeplin
8 1 (0.061%) Adobe XD
8 1 (0.061%) Chatbot
8 1 (0.061%) GIMP
8 1 (0.061%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 1 (0.061%) Simulink
8 1 (0.061%) TargetLink
Business Applications
1 16 (0.98%) Magento
2 10 (0.61%) Dynamics CRM
3 7 (0.43%) Shopify
4 4 (0.24%) Oracle BPM
5 3 (0.18%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 3 (0.18%) SAP FI-CA
5 3 (0.18%) SAP PSCD
6 2 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
6 2 (0.12%) Sage CRM
6 2 (0.12%) SAP S/4HANA
6 2 (0.12%) Summit
6 2 (0.12%) Teamcenter
7 1 (0.061%) Infor M3
7 1 (0.061%) Maximo
7 1 (0.061%) SAP Hybris
7 1 (0.061%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 409 (24.97%) Azure
2 399 (24.36%) AWS
3 174 (10.62%) GitHub
4 112 (6.84%) PaaS
5 109 (6.65%) GCP
5 109 (6.65%) Serverless
6 83 (5.07%) SaaS
7 70 (4.27%) AWS CloudFormation
8 69 (4.21%) IaaS
9 62 (3.79%) AWS Lambda
10 61 (3.72%) Power Platform
11 51 (3.11%) Azure Active Directory
12 49 (2.99%) OpenShift
13 44 (2.69%) Amazon S3
14 34 (2.08%) Amazon ECS
15 29 (1.77%) Amazon EC2
15 29 (1.77%) Azure Service Bus
16 25 (1.53%) Amazon SQS
16 25 (1.53%) Azure Key Vault
17 24 (1.47%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 49 (2.99%) TCP/IP
2 48 (2.93%) HTTP
3 43 (2.63%) DNS
4 34 (2.08%) Firewall
5 31 (1.89%) DHCP
6 28 (1.71%) SSL
6 28 (1.71%) VPN
7 27 (1.65%) LAN
7 27 (1.65%) WAN
8 25 (1.53%) VLAN
9 21 (1.28%) IPsec
10 20 (1.22%) SNMP
11 16 (0.98%) POP3
11 16 (0.98%) SMTP
12 12 (0.73%) HTTPS
12 12 (0.73%) Multicast
13 10 (0.61%) DECT
13 10 (0.61%) IPv4
13 10 (0.61%) Wi-Fi
14 9 (0.55%) FTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 155 (9.46%) SQL Server
2 124 (7.57%) Relational Database
3 122 (7.45%) NoSQL
4 92 (5.62%) MongoDB
5 78 (4.76%) PostgreSQL
6 55 (3.36%) Big Data
7 52 (3.17%) Power BI
8 46 (2.81%) MySQL
9 44 (2.69%) Hadoop
10 43 (2.63%) RDBMS
11 41 (2.50%) Redis
12 40 (2.44%) Azure SQL Database
13 35 (2.14%) Oracle Database
14 34 (2.08%) Data Lake
15 33 (2.01%) Data Warehouse
16 31 (1.89%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 28 (1.71%) Apache Hive
18 25 (1.53%) HBase
18 25 (1.53%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 24 (1.47%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 514 (31.38%) Jenkins
2 420 (25.64%) Git (software)
3 293 (17.89%) JIRA
4 149 (9.10%) Maven
5 133 (8.12%) GitLab
6 130 (7.94%) Selenium
7 99 (6.04%) Cucumber
8 94 (5.74%) JUnit
9 75 (4.58%) Bitbucket
10 71 (4.33%) Gradle
10 71 (4.33%) TeamCity
11 57 (3.48%) Sonatype Nexus
12 55 (3.36%) SonarQube
13 54 (3.30%) Visual Studio
14 51 (3.11%) Octopus Deploy
15 44 (2.69%) Mockito
16 43 (2.63%) Ant
17 42 (2.56%) JMeter
18 40 (2.44%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 40 (2.44%) Subversion
General
1 302 (18.44%) Finance
2 165 (10.07%) Banking
3 99 (6.04%) Public Sector
4 57 (3.48%) Front Office
5 50 (3.05%) Retail
6 38 (2.32%) Marketing
7 32 (1.95%) Investment Banking
8 26 (1.59%) Retail Banking
8 26 (1.59%) Telecoms
9 24 (1.47%) Games
10 16 (0.98%) Automotive
10 16 (0.98%) Publishing
11 15 (0.92%) Pharmaceutical
12 14 (0.85%) Manufacturing
13 11 (0.67%) Electronics
14 9 (0.55%) Billing
15 8 (0.49%) Back Office
16 6 (0.37%) Advertising
16 6 (0.37%) Legal
17 5 (0.31%) Law
Job Titles
1 777 (47.44%) Developer
2 194 (11.84%) Java Developer
3 178 (10.87%) DevOps Engineer
4 131 (8.00%) Senior Developer
5 129 (7.88%) Architect
6 101 (6.17%) Full Stack Developer
7 76 (4.64%) .NET Developer
8 64 (3.91%) Software Engineer
9 56 (3.42%) AWS Engineer
9 56 (3.42%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 56 (3.42%) Tester
10 49 (2.99%) C# Developer
10 49 (2.99%) JavaScript Developer
10 49 (2.99%) React Developer
11 48 (2.93%) AWS Developer
11 48 (2.93%) Python Developer
11 48 (2.93%) Senior Java Developer
12 46 (2.81%) Azure Engineer
13 44 (2.69%) Cloud Engineer
14 43 (2.63%) Solutions Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 256 (15.63%) Spring
2 242 (14.77%) RESTful
3 241 (14.71%) .NET
4 235 (14.35%) HTML
5 229 (13.98%) AngularJS
6 227 (13.86%) REST
7 219 (13.37%) React
8 214 (13.06%) Web Services
9 192 (11.72%) Node.js
10 187 (11.42%) CSS
11 132 (8.06%) JSON
12 124 (7.57%) Spring Boot
13 122 (7.45%) HTML5
14 111 (6.78%) XML
15 81 (4.95%) Kafka
16 79 (4.82%) .NET Core
17 74 (4.52%) jQuery
18 73 (4.46%) Hibernate
19 72 (4.40%) ASP.NET
20 61 (3.72%) J2EE
Miscellaneous
1 102 (6.23%) Analytical Skills
2 81 (4.95%) Enterprise Software
3 75 (4.58%) Greenfield Project
4 69 (4.21%) Mobile App
5 67 (4.09%) User Experience
6 49 (2.99%) Self-Motivation
7 48 (2.93%) Public Cloud
8 39 (2.38%) Linux Command Line
9 38 (2.32%) Clustering
10 35 (2.14%) Cloud Native
10 35 (2.14%) Virtual Team
11 34 (2.08%) Algorithms
12 29 (1.77%) Data Structures
13 26 (1.59%) Management Information System
14 23 (1.40%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 22 (1.34%) N-Tier
16 21 (1.28%) Private Cloud
17 18 (1.10%) Animation
17 18 (1.10%) Embedded Systems
18 17 (1.04%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 330 (20.15%) Linux
2 169 (10.32%) Windows
3 100 (6.11%) Android
4 97 (5.92%) Unix
5 53 (3.24%) Apple iOS
6 48 (2.93%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 40 (2.44%) Windows Server
8 30 (1.83%) CentOS
9 17 (1.04%) Ubuntu
10 15 (0.92%) OpenWrt
11 11 (0.67%) Windows Server 2016
12 10 (0.61%) Windows 10
13 9 (0.55%) Solaris
14 6 (0.37%) Mac OS
15 4 (0.24%) VMS
16 3 (0.18%) Embedded Linux
16 3 (0.18%) Mac OS X
16 3 (0.18%) Windows Server 2008
17 2 (0.12%) SUSE
17 2 (0.12%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,074 (65.57%) Agile Software Development
2 715 (43.65%) DevOps
3 503 (30.71%) TDD
3 503 (30.71%) Test Automation
4 419 (25.58%) Scrum
5 396 (24.18%) Microservices
6 297 (18.13%) Continuous Delivery
7 282 (17.22%) Software Engineering
8 235 (14.35%) BDD
9 199 (12.15%) SDLC
10 194 (11.84%) Problem-Solving
11 191 (11.66%) Continuous Deployment
12 167 (10.20%) Unit Testing
13 152 (9.28%) OO
14 151 (9.22%) Open Source
15 143 (8.73%) Configuration Management
15 143 (8.73%) Continuous Improvement
16 142 (8.67%) Mentoring
17 138 (8.42%) Infrastructure as Code
18 132 (8.06%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 642 (39.19%) Java
2 430 (26.25%) JavaScript
3 390 (23.81%) Python
4 367 (22.41%) SQL
5 262 (16.00%) C#
6 155 (9.46%) TypeScript
7 140 (8.55%) PowerShell
8 117 (7.14%) Bash Shell
9 101 (6.17%) Ruby
10 98 (5.98%) Scala
11 96 (5.86%) C++
12 85 (5.19%) Java 8
13 68 (4.15%) Kotlin
14 67 (4.09%) Shell Script
15 66 (4.03%) C
16 52 (3.17%) Go
17 42 (2.56%) PL/SQL
18 40 (2.44%) Perl
19 39 (2.38%) ES6
20 21 (1.28%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 206 (12.58%) Security Cleared
2 143 (8.73%) SC Cleared
3 129 (7.88%) Degree
4 48 (2.93%) Computer Science Degree
5 47 (2.87%) DV Cleared
6 27 (1.65%) AWS Certification
7 25 (1.53%) Master's Degree
8 23 (1.40%) Microsoft Certification
9 20 (1.22%) CCNA
9 20 (1.22%) Cisco Certification
10 18 (1.10%) BPSS Clearance
10 18 (1.10%) CCNP
10 18 (1.10%) ISTQB
11 17 (1.04%) ISEB
12 14 (0.85%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 4 (0.24%) RHCE
13 4 (0.24%) RHCSA
13 4 (0.24%) RHCVA
13 4 (0.24%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
14 3 (0.18%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 163 (9.95%) QA
2 16 (0.98%) WCAG
3 10 (0.61%) JTAG
4 8 (0.49%) GDPR
5 6 (0.37%) Data Quality
6 5 (0.31%) ISO/IEC 12207
7 4 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 3 (0.18%) Actionable Recommendations
8 3 (0.18%) MiFID
8 3 (0.18%) PCI DSS
8 3 (0.18%) SLA
9 2 (0.12%) PMO
10 1 (0.061%) Disclosure Scotland
10 1 (0.061%) HL7
System Software
1 322 (19.66%) Docker
2 62 (3.79%) Active Directory
3 52 (3.17%) VMware Infrastructure
4 24 (1.47%) HDFS
5 21 (1.28%) Virtual Machines
6 9 (0.55%) Xen
7 7 (0.43%) Hyper-V
7 7 (0.43%) vSphere
8 5 (0.31%) VMware NSX
9 4 (0.24%) Firmware
9 4 (0.24%) KVM
9 4 (0.24%) NFS
9 4 (0.24%) Oracle RAC
9 4 (0.24%) SRDF
9 4 (0.24%) VirtualBox
10 2 (0.12%) Postfix
10 2 (0.12%) VMware ESXi
11 1 (0.061%) OpenAM
11 1 (0.061%) Platform Symphony
11 1 (0.061%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 280 (17.09%) Kubernetes
2 202 (12.33%) Ansible
3 199 (12.15%) Terraform
4 82 (5.01%) Puppet
5 63 (3.85%) Opscode Chef
6 54 (3.30%) Prometheus
7 46 (2.81%) Grafana
8 33 (2.01%) Kibana
9 18 (1.10%) Istio
10 16 (0.98%) Packer
11 11 (0.67%) Docker Swarm
11 11 (0.67%) Oozie
12 10 (0.61%) Hadoop YARN
12 10 (0.61%) HP Quality Center
12 10 (0.61%) Salt
13 9 (0.55%) Rancher
13 9 (0.55%) ZABBIX
14 7 (0.43%) HAProxy
14 7 (0.43%) logstash
14 7 (0.43%) Zipkin
Vendors
1 221 (13.49%) Microsoft
2 171 (10.44%) Oracle
3 86 (5.25%) Google
4 56 (3.42%) VMware
5 52 (3.17%) Atlassian
6 49 (2.99%) Red Hat
7 38 (2.32%) Splunk
8 33 (2.01%) Dell
9 29 (1.77%) Salesforce.com
10 28 (1.71%) SAP
11 26 (1.59%) IBM
12 25 (1.53%) Cisco
13 24 (1.47%) CheckPoint
14 22 (1.34%) HP
15 19 (1.16%) MuleSoft
16 17 (1.04%) AppDynamics
17 16 (0.98%) Adobe
18 15 (0.92%) New Relic
19 13 (0.79%) hybris
20 12 (0.73%) webMethods