Period
to 25 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Continuous Integration skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 25 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Continuous Integration
UK
6 months to
25 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 75 69 57
Rank change year-on-year -6 -12 -17
Contract jobs citing Continuous Integration 2,473 1,020 3,632
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.09% 3.43% 4.11%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.48% 3.94% 4.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,704 725 2,366
10th Percentile £413 £363 £388
25th Percentile £463 £420 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £515
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% -2.91% +3.00%
75th Percentile £637 £569 £600
90th Percentile £712 £648 £688
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 27 5 12
10th Percentile £25.20 £35.63 £15.10
25th Percentile £38.49 £41.25 £25.94
Median hourly rate £48.27 £46.50 £48.25
Median % change year-on-year +3.80% -3.63% +13.53%
75th Percentile £57.50 £48.17 £50.00
90th Percentile £69.00 £51.52 "
UK excluding London median hourly rate £48.51 £46.50 £50.00
% change year-on-year +4.32% -7.00% +14.94%

Continuous Integration is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 71,134 25,904 77,221
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 88.98% 87.13% 87.43%
Number of daily rates quoted 49,156 17,426 51,624
10th Percentile £319 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £388 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £600 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,709 738 2,194
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.93 £11.63
25th Percentile £14.61 £15.75 £14.50
Median hourly rate £24.50 £25.00 £22.86
Median % change year-on-year -2.00% +9.37% +18.33%
75th Percentile £48.75 £45.25 £46.00
90th Percentile £63.00 £55.19 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.51 £22.50 £22.50
% change year-on-year -8.84% - +21.49%

Continuous Integration
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Continuous Integration as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration.

Daily rate trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 25 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Continuous Integration.

Hourly rate trend for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Continuous Integration over the 6 months to 25 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Continuous Integration in the UK

Continuous Integration
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Continuous Integration within the UK over the 6 months to 25 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 1,996 £550 +10.00% 769
London +4 1,138 £600 +14.29% 324
UK excluding London -8 927 £500 +5.26% 491
Work from Home -39 588 £540 +8.00% 151
North of England -10 225 £525 +13.51% 144
South East -21 215 £500 +1.01% 104
Scotland -32 157 £500 - 44
North West -4 107 £500 +11.11% 78
Midlands -34 107 £507 +17.36% 81
East of England +7 99 £525 +7.69% 51
Yorkshire -12 94 £525 +13.51% 50
South West -10 81 £500 -0.25% 50
West Midlands -25 79 £510 +13.33% 60
Wales -5 34 £485 +3.19% 14
North East -6 26 £563 +15.98% 16
East Midlands -29 26 £463 +27.09% 21
Northern Ireland +4 11 £475 +11.11% 3

For the 6 months to 25 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Continuous Integration also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Continuous Integration.

1 1,553 (62.80%) Agile Software Development
2 1,048 (42.38%) DevOps
3 858 (34.69%) Java
4 820 (33.16%) TDD
5 783 (31.66%) Test Automation
6 701 (28.35%) Git (software)
7 698 (28.22%) Jenkins
8 650 (26.28%) Scrum
9 630 (25.48%) JavaScript
10 609 (24.63%) AWS
11 603 (24.38%) Python
12 597 (24.14%) Azure
13 575 (23.25%) Continuous Delivery
14 548 (22.16%) SQL
15 493 (19.94%) Social Skills
16 479 (19.37%) JIRA
17 464 (18.76%) Microservices
18 458 (18.52%) C#
19 446 (18.03%) Docker
20 441 (17.83%) Software Engineering
21 420 (16.98%) Linux
22 405 (16.38%) Kubernetes
23 388 (15.69%) Finance
24 375 (15.16%) Terraform
25 361 (14.60%) HTML
25 361 (14.60%) .NET
26 338 (13.67%) BDD
27 330 (13.34%) React
28 309 (12.49%) CSS
29 307 (12.41%) Problem-Solving

Continuous Integration
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 226 (9.14%) Confluence
2 102 (4.12%) Apache
3 70 (2.83%) Elasticsearch
4 66 (2.67%) Apache Spark
5 61 (2.47%) Tomcat
6 59 (2.39%) Apache Airflow
7 52 (2.10%) CMS
8 44 (1.78%) SharePoint
9 37 (1.50%) nginx
10 36 (1.46%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 36 (1.46%) WebSphere
11 30 (1.21%) SAS
12 22 (0.89%) Oracle Coherence
13 21 (0.85%) Cloud Foundry
14 18 (0.73%) OpenStack
14 18 (0.73%) WebLogic
15 16 (0.65%) Jetty
16 14 (0.57%) IBM Domino
17 13 (0.53%) Jupyter
18 11 (0.44%) JBoss
Applications
1 35 (1.42%) Microsoft Excel
2 16 (0.65%) Microsoft Office
3 10 (0.40%) Microsoft Project
4 9 (0.36%) Photoshop
5 6 (0.24%) FrameMaker
6 4 (0.16%) Figma
6 4 (0.16%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 4 (0.16%) MS Visio
7 3 (0.12%) Zeplin
8 2 (0.081%) Chatbot
8 2 (0.081%) Sketch
9 1 (0.040%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.040%) Mingle
9 1 (0.040%) S-PLUS
9 1 (0.040%) Spreadsheet
9 1 (0.040%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 15 (0.61%) Magento
1 15 (0.61%) Salesforce.com CRM
2 11 (0.44%) Dynamics CRM
3 10 (0.40%) Shopify
4 6 (0.24%) SAP Hybris
5 5 (0.20%) ION MarketView
6 3 (0.12%) Aligne
6 3 (0.12%) Distributed Ledger
6 3 (0.12%) Sage CRM
7 2 (0.081%) Adobe Campaign
7 2 (0.081%) NetSuite
7 2 (0.081%) Oracle BPM
7 2 (0.081%) SAP APO
7 2 (0.081%) SAP FI-CA
7 2 (0.081%) SAP PSCD
8 1 (0.040%) BusinessWorks
8 1 (0.040%) Endur
8 1 (0.040%) SAP FI
8 1 (0.040%) SAP PP
8 1 (0.040%) SAP WM
Cloud Services
1 609 (24.63%) AWS
2 597 (24.14%) Azure
3 261 (10.55%) GitHub
4 168 (6.79%) GCP
5 167 (6.75%) Serverless
6 120 (4.85%) PaaS
7 104 (4.21%) SaaS
8 101 (4.08%) AWS Lambda
9 95 (3.84%) IaaS
10 92 (3.72%) AWS CloudFormation
11 87 (3.52%) Amazon S3
12 56 (2.26%) Amazon EC2
13 51 (2.06%) OpenShift
14 47 (1.90%) Azure Active Directory
14 47 (1.90%) Slack
15 42 (1.70%) Amazon ECS
15 42 (1.70%) Power Platform
16 38 (1.54%) npm
17 36 (1.46%) Virtual Private Cloud
18 33 (1.33%) Azure Key Vault
Communications & Networking
1 64 (2.59%) HTTP
2 56 (2.26%) TCP/IP
3 52 (2.10%) DNS
4 45 (1.82%) SSL
5 39 (1.58%) Firewall
6 35 (1.42%) VPN
7 26 (1.05%) Network Security
8 22 (0.89%) Internet
9 21 (0.85%) RTMP
10 17 (0.69%) WAN
11 15 (0.61%) Kerberos
12 14 (0.57%) FTP
12 14 (0.57%) IPsec
13 13 (0.53%) Multicast
14 10 (0.40%) HTTPS
14 10 (0.40%) NAS
14 10 (0.40%) SAN
15 9 (0.36%) DHCP
15 9 (0.36%) IPv4
16 8 (0.32%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 244 (9.87%) SQL Server
2 174 (7.04%) Relational Database
3 169 (6.83%) NoSQL
4 124 (5.01%) MongoDB
5 119 (4.81%) Oracle Database
6 98 (3.96%) MySQL
7 85 (3.44%) Big Data
8 70 (2.83%) Hadoop
9 54 (2.18%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 51 (2.06%) PostgreSQL
11 50 (2.02%) Data Warehouse
12 47 (1.90%) Apache Hive
13 42 (1.70%) Redis
14 37 (1.50%) Data Lake
15 35 (1.42%) Amazon RDS
15 35 (1.42%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 33 (1.33%) Power BI
17 32 (1.29%) RDBMS
18 29 (1.17%) HBase
19 28 (1.13%) Oracle Database 12c
Development Applications
1 701 (28.35%) Git (software)
2 698 (28.22%) Jenkins
3 479 (19.37%) JIRA
4 191 (7.72%) Selenium
5 168 (6.79%) Maven
6 159 (6.43%) Cucumber
7 153 (6.19%) TeamCity
8 150 (6.07%) GitLab
9 139 (5.62%) Bitbucket
10 112 (4.53%) Visual Studio
11 95 (3.84%) JUnit
12 71 (2.87%) SonarQube
13 66 (2.67%) Gatling
13 66 (2.67%) Sonatype Nexus
14 62 (2.51%) Postman
15 54 (2.18%) Gradle
16 52 (2.10%) JMeter
17 51 (2.06%) Mockito
18 48 (1.94%) Subversion
19 46 (1.86%) Artifactory
General
1 493 (19.94%) Social Skills
2 388 (15.69%) Finance
3 278 (11.24%) Banking
4 202 (8.17%) Public Sector
5 110 (4.45%) Analytical Skills
6 109 (4.41%) Investment Banking
7 90 (3.64%) Front Office
8 75 (3.03%) Retail
9 53 (2.14%) Games
10 50 (2.02%) Marketing
11 42 (1.70%) Presentation Skills
12 26 (1.05%) Law
12 26 (1.05%) Telecoms
13 25 (1.01%) Retail Banking
14 21 (0.85%) Legal
15 20 (0.81%) Electronics
16 19 (0.77%) Manufacturing
17 18 (0.73%) Publishing
18 12 (0.49%) Documentation Skills
19 11 (0.44%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 1,186 (47.96%) Developer
2 284 (11.48%) DevOps Engineer
3 228 (9.22%) Java Developer
4 201 (8.13%) Senior Developer
5 144 (5.82%) Architect
6 140 (5.66%) C# Developer
7 130 (5.26%) Full Stack Developer
8 129 (5.22%) .NET Developer
8 129 (5.22%) Software Engineer
9 103 (4.16%) React Developer
10 93 (3.76%) JavaScript Developer
10 93 (3.76%) Python Developer
11 87 (3.52%) AWS Engineer
12 80 (3.23%) Java Engineer
13 79 (3.19%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 76 (3.07%) Scala Developer
15 71 (2.87%) Azure Engineer
16 63 (2.55%) Senior Java Developer
17 62 (2.51%) C# .NET Developer
17 62 (2.51%) Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 361 (14.60%) .NET
1 361 (14.60%) HTML
2 330 (13.34%) React
3 309 (12.49%) CSS
4 305 (12.33%) Web Services
5 301 (12.17%) AngularJS
6 280 (11.32%) RESTful
7 269 (10.88%) Spring
8 265 (10.72%) Node.js
9 264 (10.68%) REST
10 175 (7.08%) Spring Boot
11 157 (6.35%) JSON
12 153 (6.19%) Kafka
13 149 (6.03%) HTML5
14 116 (4.69%) Redux
15 114 (4.61%) ASP.NET
16 110 (4.45%) .NET Framework
17 106 (4.29%) .NET Core
18 101 (4.08%) XML
19 97 (3.92%) Play Framework
Miscellaneous
1 138 (5.58%) User Experience
2 87 (3.52%) Mobile App
3 81 (3.28%) Data Protection Act
4 68 (2.75%) Cloud Native
5 62 (2.51%) Public Cloud
6 60 (2.43%) Greenfield Project
7 55 (2.22%) Self-Motivation
8 50 (2.02%) Management Information System
9 49 (1.98%) Data Structures
10 47 (1.90%) Derivative
11 42 (1.70%) Enterprise Software
12 36 (1.46%) Legacy Systems
12 36 (1.46%) Linux Command Line
13 35 (1.42%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 33 (1.33%) Algorithms
15 31 (1.25%) Fixed Income
16 29 (1.17%) iPhone
17 27 (1.09%) Interest Rate Derivative
18 26 (1.05%) iPad
18 26 (1.05%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 420 (16.98%) Linux
2 181 (7.32%) Windows
3 150 (6.07%) Unix
4 102 (4.12%) Apple iOS
5 100 (4.04%) Android
6 58 (2.35%) Windows Server
7 41 (1.66%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 26 (1.05%) CentOS
9 22 (0.89%) Ubuntu
10 20 (0.81%) Windows Server 2016
11 13 (0.53%) Solaris
12 8 (0.32%) OpenWrt
13 7 (0.28%) Windows Server 2012
14 6 (0.24%) Alpine Linux
15 5 (0.20%) SUSE
16 4 (0.16%) Amazon Linux
16 4 (0.16%) tvOS
16 4 (0.16%) VMS
16 4 (0.16%) Windows Server 2019
17 3 (0.12%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,553 (62.80%) Agile Software Development
2 1,048 (42.38%) DevOps
3 820 (33.16%) TDD
4 783 (31.66%) Test Automation
5 650 (26.28%) Scrum
6 575 (23.25%) Continuous Delivery
7 464 (18.76%) Microservices
8 441 (17.83%) Software Engineering
9 338 (13.67%) BDD
10 307 (12.41%) Problem-Solving
11 288 (11.65%) Unit Testing
12 281 (11.36%) Continuous Deployment
13 236 (9.54%) Continuous Improvement
14 217 (8.77%) Full Stack Development
15 215 (8.69%) Infrastructure as Code
16 199 (8.05%) Pair Programming
17 196 (7.93%) Configuration Management
18 191 (7.72%) Kanban
19 181 (7.32%) SDLC
20 164 (6.63%) OO
Programming Languages
1 858 (34.69%) Java
2 630 (25.48%) JavaScript
3 603 (24.38%) Python
4 548 (22.16%) SQL
5 458 (18.52%) C#
6 237 (9.58%) TypeScript
7 202 (8.17%) Scala
8 180 (7.28%) Bash Shell
9 142 (5.74%) C++
10 141 (5.70%) PowerShell
11 112 (4.53%) Ruby
12 84 (3.40%) Java 8
13 77 (3.11%) PL/SQL
14 74 (2.99%) Shell Script
15 72 (2.91%) Go
16 69 (2.79%) C
17 63 (2.55%) ES6
18 55 (2.22%) Apple Swift
19 50 (2.02%) Kotlin
20 42 (1.70%) Perl
Qualifications
1 273 (11.04%) Security Cleared
2 214 (8.65%) SC Cleared
3 147 (5.94%) Degree
4 39 (1.58%) BPSS Clearance
5 32 (1.29%) AWS Certification
6 30 (1.21%) Computer Science Degree
7 26 (1.05%) DV Cleared
8 21 (0.85%) Numerate Degree
9 19 (0.77%) ISTQB
10 15 (0.61%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 13 (0.53%) ISEB
12 12 (0.49%) OCPJP
12 12 (0.49%) Sun Certification
13 10 (0.40%) Master's Degree
14 9 (0.36%) TOGAF Certification
15 5 (0.20%) PMI Certification
15 5 (0.20%) SAFe Agilist
16 4 (0.16%) Microsoft Certification
17 2 (0.081%) PMP
17 2 (0.081%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 195 (7.89%) QA
2 93 (3.76%) Accessibility
3 28 (1.13%) WCAG
4 19 (0.77%) Data Quality
5 15 (0.61%) GDPR
6 11 (0.44%) SLA
7 8 (0.32%) PCI DSS
7 8 (0.32%) PMO
7 8 (0.32%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 6 (0.24%) JTAG
9 5 (0.20%) NCSC
10 4 (0.16%) Disclosure Scotland
10 4 (0.16%) MISRA
11 2 (0.081%) GxP
12 1 (0.040%) COBIT
12 1 (0.040%) Dodd-Frank
12 1 (0.040%) EMIR
12 1 (0.040%) ISO/IEC 27001
12 1 (0.040%) MiFID
12 1 (0.040%) MISRA C
System Software
1 446 (18.03%) Docker
2 86 (3.48%) Active Directory
3 38 (1.54%) VMware Infrastructure
4 26 (1.05%) Virtual Machines
5 24 (0.97%) HDFS
6 18 (0.73%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 14 (0.57%) Xen
8 10 (0.40%) NFS
9 8 (0.32%) Hyper-V
10 7 (0.28%) Firmware
10 7 (0.28%) KVM
10 7 (0.28%) RACF
10 7 (0.28%) SRDF
11 6 (0.24%) Virtual Desktop
11 6 (0.24%) vSphere
12 5 (0.20%) Virtual Servers
13 4 (0.16%) VirtualBox
14 3 (0.12%) Postfix
14 3 (0.12%) VMware ESXi
15 2 (0.081%) Oracle RAC
Systems Management
1 405 (16.38%) Kubernetes
2 375 (15.16%) Terraform
3 296 (11.97%) Ansible
4 130 (5.26%) Puppet
5 105 (4.25%) Grafana
6 77 (3.11%) Opscode Chef
7 65 (2.63%) Prometheus
8 43 (1.74%) Packer
9 39 (1.58%) Bosun
10 36 (1.46%) Kibana
11 33 (1.33%) VictorOps
12 26 (1.05%) Rancher
13 24 (0.97%) Istio
13 24 (0.97%) Nagios
14 15 (0.61%) ZABBIX
15 13 (0.53%) logstash
16 12 (0.49%) Docker Swarm
17 11 (0.44%) ITRS Geneos
18 10 (0.40%) Hadoop YARN
18 10 (0.40%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 301 (12.17%) Microsoft
2 290 (11.73%) Oracle
3 136 (5.50%) Google
4 49 (1.98%) IBM
5 48 (1.94%) Salesforce.com
6 42 (1.70%) Splunk
7 41 (1.66%) Red Hat
8 39 (1.58%) VMware
9 38 (1.54%) Atlassian
9 38 (1.54%) SAP
10 29 (1.17%) Databricks
11 25 (1.01%) hybris
12 19 (0.77%) Talend
13 18 (0.73%) Apple
13 18 (0.73%) Informatica
14 16 (0.65%) MuleSoft
14 16 (0.65%) SaltStack
14 16 (0.65%) ServiceNow
15 15 (0.61%) AppDynamics
16 14 (0.57%) Xerox