Period
to 1 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 1 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
England > London
6 months to
1 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 4 5
Rank change year-on-year -3 +1 0
Contract jobs citing Java 4,521 2,866 5,891
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 15.01% 18.19% 14.65%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.08% 36.38% 30.93%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,361 2,183 4,301
10th Percentile £425 £413 £413
25th Percentile £500 £481 £488
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £570 £563
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +1.33% +2.27%
75th Percentile £700 £675 £650
90th Percentile £750 £750 £710
England median daily rate £550 £540 £525
% change year-on-year +1.85% +2.86% +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 20 12 18
10th Percentile £34.63 £49.58 £21.05
25th Percentile £46.01 £53.44 £43.75
Median hourly rate £62.00 £62.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year - +24.00% +56.25%
75th Percentile £68.09 £65.32 £53.75
90th Percentile £68.98 £69.10 £58.25
England median hourly rate £60.00 £44.00 £47.50
% change year-on-year +36.36% -7.37% +11.76%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 14,093 7,879 19,045
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 46.79% 50.01% 47.37%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,507 5,846 14,492
10th Percentile £388 £363 £363
25th Percentile £463 £450 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +2.44%
75th Percentile £650 £638 £613
90th Percentile £725 £725 £688
England median daily rate £520 £500 £480
% change year-on-year +4.00% +4.17% +1.05%
Number of hourly rates quoted 77 67 103
10th Percentile £20.79 £22.50 £16.70
25th Percentile £34.88 £32.29 £21.25
Median hourly rate £44.50 £46.42 £44.57
Median % change year-on-year -4.13% +4.15% +14.27%
75th Percentile £60.00 £58.75 £52.50
90th Percentile £68.56 £65.03 £56.50
England median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year - -5.56% +9.76%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for Java in London

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java in London.

Daily rate trend for Java in London

Java
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java in London over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in London

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java in London.

Hourly rate trend for Java in London

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java in London over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in London

Java
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the London region over the 6 months to 1 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London 0 587 £625 +11.61% 402
West London +9 58 £550 +4.76% 157
South London -2 49 £450 -10.00% 29
East London -2 27 £503 +1.06% 86
North London -1 1 £350 -6.67% 6
Java
England

For the 6 months to 1 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for Java.

1 1,974 (43.66%) Agile Software Development
2 1,360 (30.08%) Spring
3 1,281 (28.33%) Finance
4 1,188 (26.28%) Microservices
5 1,155 (25.55%) AWS
6 1,082 (23.93%) Python
7 1,074 (23.76%) Banking
8 1,046 (23.14%) SQL
9 979 (21.65%) DevOps
10 954 (21.10%) Kubernetes
11 925 (20.46%) JavaScript
12 881 (19.49%) Docker
13 872 (19.29%) TDD
14 843 (18.65%) Jenkins
15 823 (18.20%) Social Skills
16 817 (18.07%) Spring Boot
17 738 (16.32%) Azure
18 676 (14.95%) Software Engineering
19 668 (14.78%) Front Office
20 661 (14.62%) Git (software)
21 631 (13.96%) REST
21 631 (13.96%) Kafka
22 623 (13.78%) React
23 612 (13.54%) Scrum
24 583 (12.90%) Linux
25 578 (12.78%) Oracle
25 578 (12.78%) Test Automation
26 557 (12.32%) GCP
27 554 (12.25%) Java 8
28 524 (11.59%) Investment Banking

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 232 (5.13%) Apache Spark
2 218 (4.82%) Apache
3 177 (3.92%) Confluence
4 119 (2.63%) Tomcat
5 109 (2.41%) Mule
6 84 (1.86%) Elasticsearch
7 75 (1.66%) WebSphere
8 58 (1.28%) Apache Airflow
9 55 (1.22%) JBoss
10 54 (1.19%) CMS
11 53 (1.17%) Cloud Foundry
11 53 (1.17%) Oracle Coherence
12 50 (1.11%) Red Hat Fuse
13 45 (1.00%) nginx
14 39 (0.86%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 37 (0.82%) WebLogic
16 31 (0.69%) SharePoint
17 26 (0.58%) Jetty
18 22 (0.49%) OpenStack
18 22 (0.49%) Oracle Workflow
Applications
1 30 (0.66%) Microsoft Excel
2 15 (0.33%) Microsoft Office
3 12 (0.27%) Photoshop
4 7 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.066%) Spreadsheet
6 2 (0.044%) Chatbot
6 2 (0.044%) Sketch
7 1 (0.022%) 3ds Max
7 1 (0.022%) Figma
7 1 (0.022%) Maya
7 1 (0.022%) Microsoft Project
7 1 (0.022%) MS Visio
7 1 (0.022%) ZBrush
Business Applications
1 29 (0.64%) ION MarketView
2 14 (0.31%) SAP Hybris
3 11 (0.24%) Dynamics CRM
4 8 (0.18%) Adobe Campaign
4 8 (0.18%) Dynamics AX
4 8 (0.18%) Magento
4 8 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
5 6 (0.13%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 5 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
7 4 (0.088%) IBM Planning Analytics
7 4 (0.088%) Oracle Financials
7 4 (0.088%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 4 (0.088%) SAP S/4HANA
7 4 (0.088%) Temenos T24
8 3 (0.066%) Oracle BPM
8 3 (0.066%) Shopify
9 2 (0.044%) Endur
9 2 (0.044%) Loan IQ
9 2 (0.044%) Oracle Applications
9 2 (0.044%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 1,155 (25.55%) AWS
2 738 (16.32%) Azure
3 557 (12.32%) GCP
4 263 (5.82%) Serverless
5 254 (5.62%) GitHub
6 167 (3.69%) AWS Lambda
7 138 (3.05%) Amazon S3
8 118 (2.61%) PaaS
9 109 (2.41%) Amazon EC2
10 108 (2.39%) SaaS
11 105 (2.32%) OpenShift
12 85 (1.88%) IaaS
13 79 (1.75%) AWS CloudFormation
14 67 (1.48%) Amazon SQS
15 57 (1.26%) Amazon EKS
15 57 (1.26%) Cloud Computing
16 52 (1.15%) Amazon ECS
17 43 (0.95%) Apigee
18 41 (0.91%) Amazon CloudWatch
19 33 (0.73%) npm
Communications & Networking
1 103 (2.28%) HTTP
2 59 (1.31%) SSL
3 53 (1.17%) TCP/IP
4 38 (0.84%) Firewall
5 34 (0.75%) DNS
6 28 (0.62%) Internet
7 26 (0.58%) Kerberos
8 22 (0.49%) SAN
9 21 (0.46%) NAS
10 18 (0.40%) WAN
11 17 (0.38%) LAN
12 15 (0.33%) DHCP
13 14 (0.31%) Cisco Nexus
13 14 (0.31%) HTTPS
13 14 (0.31%) Multicast
13 14 (0.31%) RTMP
14 13 (0.29%) VPN
15 12 (0.27%) Fibre Channel
15 12 (0.27%) iSCSI
15 12 (0.27%) Network Security
Database & Business Intelligence
1 351 (7.76%) NoSQL
2 315 (6.97%) Relational Database
3 260 (5.75%) MongoDB
4 237 (5.24%) SQL Server
5 233 (5.15%) Big Data
6 214 (4.73%) PostgreSQL
7 181 (4.00%) Hadoop
8 135 (2.99%) MySQL
9 125 (2.76%) Redis
10 120 (2.65%) Apache Cassandra
11 116 (2.57%) Data Warehouse
12 104 (2.30%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 97 (2.15%) BigQuery
14 82 (1.81%) Hazelcast
15 77 (1.70%) Oracle Database
16 70 (1.55%) Apache Hive
17 66 (1.46%) RDBMS
18 60 (1.33%) Apache Ignite
19 49 (1.08%) Data Lake
20 48 (1.06%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 843 (18.65%) Jenkins
2 661 (14.62%) Git (software)
3 488 (10.79%) Maven
4 403 (8.91%) JIRA
5 267 (5.91%) JUnit
6 227 (5.02%) Cucumber
7 169 (3.74%) Gradle
8 153 (3.38%) Mockito
9 152 (3.36%) Selenium
10 126 (2.79%) TeamCity
11 118 (2.61%) Bitbucket
12 113 (2.50%) GitLab
13 101 (2.23%) Subversion
14 85 (1.88%) IntelliJ
15 66 (1.46%) Postman
16 65 (1.44%) Atlassian Bamboo
17 63 (1.39%) Sonatype Nexus
18 61 (1.35%) Eclipse
19 53 (1.17%) SonarQube
20 52 (1.15%) Jasmine
General
1 1,281 (28.33%) Finance
2 1,074 (23.76%) Banking
3 823 (18.20%) Social Skills
4 668 (14.78%) Front Office
5 524 (11.59%) Investment Banking
6 295 (6.53%) Analytical Skills
7 127 (2.81%) Public Sector
8 115 (2.54%) Retail
9 85 (1.88%) Marketing
10 78 (1.73%) Presentation Skills
11 58 (1.28%) Manufacturing
12 56 (1.24%) Telecoms
13 55 (1.22%) Financial Institution
14 37 (0.82%) Documentation Skills
15 34 (0.75%) Influencing Skills
16 33 (0.73%) Back Office
16 33 (0.73%) Retail Banking
17 28 (0.62%) Automotive
17 28 (0.62%) Electronics
18 20 (0.44%) Law
Job Titles
1 2,671 (59.08%) Developer
2 1,774 (39.24%) Java Developer
3 441 (9.75%) Senior Developer
4 361 (7.98%) Architect
5 347 (7.68%) Senior Java Developer
6 234 (5.18%) Full Stack Developer
7 229 (5.07%) Java Engineer
8 209 (4.62%) Front Office Developer
8 209 (4.62%) Software Engineer
9 195 (4.31%) Data Engineer
9 195 (4.31%) DevOps Engineer
10 160 (3.54%) React Developer
11 147 (3.25%) Consultant
12 131 (2.90%) Solutions Architect
13 123 (2.72%) AWS Developer
14 121 (2.68%) Investment Banking Java Developer
15 105 (2.32%) Python Developer
16 104 (2.30%) Electronic Trading Developer
17 97 (2.15%) JavaScript Developer
18 95 (2.10%) Cloud Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,360 (30.08%) Spring
2 817 (18.07%) Spring Boot
3 631 (13.96%) Kafka
3 631 (13.96%) REST
4 623 (13.78%) React
5 490 (10.84%) Web Services
6 473 (10.46%) AngularJS
7 428 (9.47%) Node.js
8 427 (9.44%) RESTful
9 396 (8.76%) HTML
10 307 (6.79%) CSS
11 256 (5.66%) Hibernate
12 255 (5.64%) .NET
13 229 (5.07%) Middleware
14 201 (4.45%) JSON
15 198 (4.38%) J2EE
16 194 (4.29%) XML
17 155 (3.43%) SOAP
18 143 (3.16%) HTML5
19 141 (3.12%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 432 (9.56%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 332 (7.34%) Fixed Income
3 239 (5.29%) Derivative
4 211 (4.67%) Data Structures
5 199 (4.40%) Equities
6 193 (4.27%) User Experience
7 188 (4.16%) Greenfield Project
8 168 (3.72%) Algorithms
9 126 (2.79%) Enterprise Software
10 117 (2.59%) Cloud Native
11 116 (2.57%) Mobile App
12 84 (1.86%) Hedge funds
13 78 (1.73%) Data Protection Act
14 68 (1.50%) Management Information System
15 61 (1.35%) Public Cloud
16 55 (1.22%) Legacy Systems
16 55 (1.22%) Self-Motivation
16 55 (1.22%) Virtual Team
17 54 (1.19%) Credit Risk
18 45 (1.00%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 583 (12.90%) Linux
2 355 (7.85%) Unix
3 175 (3.87%) Windows
4 151 (3.34%) Android
5 56 (1.24%) Apple iOS
6 32 (0.71%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 24 (0.53%) Windows Server
8 21 (0.46%) Solaris
9 20 (0.44%) Ubuntu
10 14 (0.31%) CentOS
10 14 (0.31%) Debian
11 13 (0.29%) VMS
12 12 (0.27%) Mac OS X
13 10 (0.22%) Windows Server 2016
14 7 (0.15%) Mac OS
15 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
16 4 (0.088%) CoreOS
17 3 (0.066%) Android TV
17 3 (0.066%) Windows 10
18 2 (0.044%) Embedded Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,974 (43.66%) Agile Software Development
2 1,188 (26.28%) Microservices
3 979 (21.65%) DevOps
4 872 (19.29%) TDD
5 676 (14.95%) Software Engineering
6 612 (13.54%) Scrum
7 578 (12.78%) Test Automation
8 516 (11.41%) Full Stack Development
9 492 (10.88%) Multithreading
10 458 (10.13%) BDD
11 447 (9.89%) Continuous Integration
12 342 (7.56%) Low Latency
13 323 (7.14%) SDLC
14 314 (6.95%) Analytics
15 308 (6.81%) Problem-Solving
16 299 (6.61%) Electronic Trading
17 269 (5.95%) OO
18 258 (5.71%) Computer Science
19 247 (5.46%) Unit Testing
20 237 (5.24%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 1,082 (23.93%) Python
2 1,046 (23.14%) SQL
3 925 (20.46%) JavaScript
4 554 (12.25%) Java 8
5 408 (9.02%) C#
6 389 (8.60%) Kotlin
7 383 (8.47%) C++
7 383 (8.47%) Scala
8 292 (6.46%) TypeScript
9 196 (4.34%) Java 11
10 167 (3.69%) Go
11 130 (2.88%) Bash Shell
12 129 (2.85%) PowerShell
13 124 (2.74%) PL/SQL
14 123 (2.72%) C
15 101 (2.23%) Ruby
16 94 (2.08%) Shell Script
17 83 (1.84%) Perl
18 79 (1.75%) Groovy
19 55 (1.22%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 303 (6.70%) Security Cleared
2 297 (6.57%) Degree
3 231 (5.11%) SC Cleared
4 100 (2.21%) Computer Science Degree
5 57 (1.26%) DV Cleared
6 51 (1.13%) AWS Certification
7 25 (0.55%) Master's Degree
8 22 (0.49%) Numerate Degree
9 13 (0.29%) ISTQB
10 8 (0.18%) Sun Certification
11 7 (0.15%) CCNA
11 7 (0.15%) Cisco Certification
12 6 (0.13%) BPSS Clearance
12 6 (0.13%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 5 (0.11%) DBS Check
13 5 (0.11%) ISEB
13 5 (0.11%) ITIL Certification
14 4 (0.088%) PhD
14 4 (0.088%) RHCE
15 3 (0.066%) CTC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 198 (4.38%) QA
2 63 (1.39%) Accessibility
2 63 (1.39%) Data Quality
3 23 (0.51%) GDPR
4 17 (0.38%) PMO
5 16 (0.35%) SLA
6 9 (0.20%) ISO 20022
7 7 (0.15%) MiFID
8 5 (0.11%) WCAG
9 4 (0.088%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 4 (0.088%) ISO/IEC 27005
10 3 (0.066%) NIST
10 3 (0.066%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 2 (0.044%) COBIT
11 2 (0.044%) HIPAA
11 2 (0.044%) ISO 15022
11 2 (0.044%) PCI DSS
11 2 (0.044%) PSD2
12 1 (0.022%) Dublin Core
12 1 (0.022%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 881 (19.49%) Docker
2 41 (0.91%) VMware Infrastructure
3 37 (0.82%) Active Directory
4 31 (0.69%) GridGain
5 25 (0.55%) HDFS
6 19 (0.42%) Platform Symphony
7 18 (0.40%) Xen
8 17 (0.38%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 15 (0.33%) Hyper-V
10 14 (0.31%) Virtual Machines
11 13 (0.29%) KVM
11 13 (0.29%) Oracle RAC
11 13 (0.29%) VMware ESXi
12 12 (0.27%) NFS
12 12 (0.27%) vSphere
13 11 (0.24%) SRDF
14 10 (0.22%) OpenAM
15 7 (0.15%) OpenDJ
16 6 (0.13%) OpenIDM
17 4 (0.088%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 954 (21.10%) Kubernetes
2 402 (8.89%) Terraform
3 330 (7.30%) Ansible
4 124 (2.74%) Puppet
5 84 (1.86%) Grafana
6 80 (1.77%) Prometheus
7 78 (1.73%) Opscode Chef
8 38 (0.84%) Kibana
9 33 (0.73%) Istio
10 31 (0.69%) Single Sign-On
11 25 (0.55%) Oozie
12 23 (0.51%) vRealize Orchestrator
13 21 (0.46%) ITRS Geneos
14 17 (0.38%) Hadoop YARN
14 17 (0.38%) Rancher
15 16 (0.35%) HP Quality Center
16 13 (0.29%) logstash
17 12 (0.27%) Nagios
18 11 (0.24%) HP Fortify
18 11 (0.24%) Packer
Vendors
1 578 (12.78%) Oracle
2 277 (6.13%) Google
3 177 (3.92%) Microsoft
4 107 (2.37%) IBM
5 99 (2.19%) Splunk
6 85 (1.88%) ION Trading
7 82 (1.81%) MuleSoft
8 69 (1.53%) SAP
9 68 (1.50%) Salesforce.com
10 61 (1.35%) VMware
11 60 (1.33%) Sybase
12 56 (1.24%) Atlassian
13 53 (1.17%) Adobe
14 45 (1.00%) CA
15 44 (0.97%) Red Hat
16 43 (0.95%) TIBCO
17 40 (0.88%) hybris
18 38 (0.84%) Databricks
19 36 (0.80%) HP
20 33 (0.73%) Dynatrace