Period
to 20 September 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term Data Structures in contract job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Data Structures over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Data Structures
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 273 295 347
Rank change year-on-year +22 +52 +7
Contract jobs citing Data Structures 798 228 633
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.01% 0.78% 0.71%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 3.39% 2.49% 2.47%
Number of daily rates quoted 497 150 407
10th Percentile £375 £323 £350
25th Percentile £463 £402 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £515
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% -2.82% +2.90%
75th Percentile £650 £630 £626
90th Percentile £788 £725 £692
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £452 £450
% change year-on-year +5.03% +0.50% +4.35%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 2 9
10th Percentile £18.59 £24.05 £19.35
25th Percentile £24.75 £29.00 £41.25
Median hourly rate £26.00 £39.50 £47.50
Median % change year-on-year -34.18% -16.84% +28.07%
75th Percentile £46.12 £51.50 £68.75
90th Percentile £53.38 £57.35 £72.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £27.73 £57.50 £60.00
% change year-on-year -51.77% -4.17% +34.08%

Data Structures is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 23,535 9,175 25,656
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.76% 31.46% 28.91%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,350 6,166 16,809
10th Percentile £306 £270 £275
25th Percentile £413 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £513 £491 £475
Median % change year-on-year +4.33% +3.42% -
75th Percentile £625 £613 £575
90th Percentile £713 £725 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +5.88% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 684 325 871
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.54 £11.63
25th Percentile £15.04 £17.25 £14.26
Median hourly rate £24.90 £27.00 £20.96
Median % change year-on-year -7.80% +28.85% -0.21%
75th Percentile £49.52 £46.00 £47.38
90th Percentile £65.00 £57.50 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £24.00 £19.64
% change year-on-year -12.50% +22.20% +1.32%

Data Structures
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Data Structures as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Data Structures in the UK

Data Structures
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Data Structures.

Daily rate trend for Data Structures in the UK

Data Structures
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Data Structures over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Data Structures in the UK

Data Structures
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Data Structures.

Hourly rate trend for Data Structures in the UK

Data Structures
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Data Structures over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Data Structures in the UK

Data Structures
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Data Structures within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +20 691 £575 +9.52% 239
London +57 521 £588 -2.08% 150
UK excluding London -71 184 £475 +5.03% 99
Work from Home -139 141 £517 +11.78% 82
South East -65 55 £465 +3.33% 20
Scotland -48 40 £425 +15.96% 6
South West -29 28 £492 +8.13% 16
Midlands -64 24 £475 +50.79% 26
West Midlands -50 19 £495 -7.91% 17
North of England -88 18 £433 -17.66% 17
North West -63 12 £450 -21.74% 8
East of England -49 10 £575 +17.95% 8
Northern Ireland -5 5 - - 2
East Midlands -35 4 £475 +50.79% 9
Yorkshire -49 4 £274 -36.95% 6
Wales - 4 £332 - 4
North East -16 2 - - 3

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Data Structures also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Data Structures.

1 327 (40.98%) SQL
2 326 (40.85%) Agile Software Development
3 275 (34.46%) Java
4 224 (28.07%) Algorithms
5 201 (25.19%) Finance
6 177 (22.18%) Python
7 171 (21.43%) Azure
7 171 (21.43%) Social Skills
8 150 (18.80%) AWS
9 144 (18.05%) Analytics
10 143 (17.92%) Analytical Skills
11 131 (16.42%) DevOps
12 130 (16.29%) Linux
12 130 (16.29%) Banking
13 128 (16.04%) Multithreading
14 121 (15.16%) JavaScript
15 119 (14.91%) Problem-Solving
16 117 (14.66%) Oracle
17 111 (13.91%) Git (software)
18 110 (13.78%) Scala
18 110 (13.78%) Performance Tuning
19 108 (13.53%) Software Engineering
20 102 (12.78%) OO
21 101 (12.66%) Data Modelling
22 98 (12.28%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
22 98 (12.28%) Computer Science
23 95 (11.90%) Scrum
24 94 (11.78%) ETL
24 94 (11.78%) C#
25 93 (11.65%) Business Intelligence

Data Structures
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 66 (8.27%) Apache Spark
2 25 (3.13%) Elasticsearch
3 21 (2.63%) Apache Airflow
3 21 (2.63%) SAS
4 20 (2.51%) Luigi
5 19 (2.38%) Apache
6 17 (2.13%) Tomcat
7 16 (2.01%) CMS
8 10 (1.25%) Confluence
8 10 (1.25%) GemFire
9 8 (1.00%) SharePoint
10 7 (0.88%) EPiServer
10 7 (0.88%) IIS
11 6 (0.75%) Apache Qpid
11 6 (0.75%) JBoss
12 5 (0.63%) BizTalk Server
12 5 (0.63%) Headless CMS
12 5 (0.63%) OpenStack
12 5 (0.63%) Oracle Workflow
13 4 (0.50%) nginx
Applications
1 18 (2.26%) Microsoft Excel
2 8 (1.00%) Photoshop
3 2 (0.25%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 1 (0.13%) Chatbot
4 1 (0.13%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 10 (1.25%) Dynamics CRM
2 8 (1.00%) Adobe Campaign
3 5 (0.63%) SAP S/4HANA
4 3 (0.38%) NetSuite
4 3 (0.38%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
5 2 (0.25%) Dynamics NAV
5 2 (0.25%) Oracle EBS
5 2 (0.25%) SAP ECC
5 2 (0.25%) SAP Hybris
5 2 (0.25%) SAP R/3
6 1 (0.13%) Elite 3E
6 1 (0.13%) Magento
6 1 (0.13%) Maximo
6 1 (0.13%) OpenText VIM for SAP
6 1 (0.13%) Oracle EBS R12
6 1 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
6 1 (0.13%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 1 (0.13%) SAP HCM
6 1 (0.13%) SAP MDG
6 1 (0.13%) Siebel CRM
Cloud Services
1 171 (21.43%) Azure
2 150 (18.80%) AWS
3 61 (7.64%) GCP
4 47 (5.89%) Serverless
5 45 (5.64%) Power Platform
6 29 (3.63%) IaaS
7 27 (3.38%) Azure Data Factory
8 23 (2.88%) PaaS
9 21 (2.63%) AWS Lambda
10 19 (2.38%) Azure Cosmos DB
11 18 (2.26%) Azure Functions
12 16 (2.01%) Amazon S3
13 15 (1.88%) Azure Synapse Analytics
13 15 (1.88%) GitHub
14 14 (1.75%) SaaS
15 13 (1.63%) AWS CloudFormation
16 11 (1.38%) npm
17 10 (1.25%) Snowflake
18 9 (1.13%) Azure Active Directory
18 9 (1.13%) Azure Key Vault
Communications & Networking
1 31 (3.88%) TCP/IP
2 28 (3.51%) SSL
3 9 (1.13%) Firewall
4 5 (0.63%) DNS
5 4 (0.50%) HTTP
6 3 (0.38%) Internet
7 2 (0.25%) SMTP
7 2 (0.25%) SSH
7 2 (0.25%) VPN
8 1 (0.13%) Cisco ASA
8 1 (0.13%) DHCP
8 1 (0.13%) Ethernet
8 1 (0.13%) FTP
8 1 (0.13%) HTTPS
8 1 (0.13%) IMAP
8 1 (0.13%) IPv4
8 1 (0.13%) IPv6
8 1 (0.13%) SNMP
8 1 (0.13%) WAN
8 1 (0.13%) WLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 88 (11.03%) Relational Database
2 87 (10.90%) Big Data
3 86 (10.78%) SQL Server
4 85 (10.65%) NoSQL
5 79 (9.90%) Hadoop
6 73 (9.15%) Data Warehouse
7 65 (8.15%) Metadata
8 55 (6.89%) PostgreSQL
9 48 (6.02%) Data Lake
10 47 (5.89%) Redis
11 44 (5.51%) Power BI
12 43 (5.39%) Apache Hive
13 34 (4.26%) RDBMS
14 33 (4.14%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 30 (3.76%) Apache Cassandra
15 30 (3.76%) Hazelcast
16 29 (3.63%) Azure SQL Database
16 29 (3.63%) MySQL
17 25 (3.13%) MongoDB
18 24 (3.01%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 111 (13.91%) Git (software)
2 50 (6.27%) Jenkins
3 46 (5.76%) JIRA
4 35 (4.39%) Maven
5 26 (3.26%) JUnit
6 24 (3.01%) webpack
7 22 (2.76%) Visual Studio
8 18 (2.26%) Selenium
9 17 (2.13%) Gradle
10 16 (2.01%) Cucumber
10 16 (2.01%) Subversion
11 14 (1.75%) JMeter
12 13 (1.63%) Artifactory
12 13 (1.63%) Mockito
12 13 (1.63%) TeamCity
13 10 (1.25%) Mocha
14 9 (1.13%) Bitbucket
15 8 (1.00%) EasyMock
15 8 (1.00%) git-flow
15 8 (1.00%) gulp
General
1 201 (25.19%) Finance
2 171 (21.43%) Social Skills
3 143 (17.92%) Analytical Skills
4 130 (16.29%) Banking
5 86 (10.78%) Investment Banking
6 80 (10.03%) Front Office
7 43 (5.39%) Public Sector
8 21 (2.63%) Marketing
8 21 (2.63%) Presentation Skills
9 20 (2.51%) Organisational Skills
10 19 (2.38%) Retail
11 14 (1.75%) Documentation Skills
12 9 (1.13%) French Language
12 9 (1.13%) German Language
12 9 (1.13%) Italian Language
13 8 (1.00%) Influencing Skills
14 6 (0.75%) Local Government
14 6 (0.75%) Retail Banking
15 5 (0.63%) Corporate Banking
15 5 (0.63%) Telecoms
Job Titles
1 377 (47.24%) Developer
2 166 (20.80%) Java Developer
3 105 (13.16%) Analyst
4 96 (12.03%) Senior Developer
5 76 (9.52%) Data Engineer
6 74 (9.27%) Senior Java Developer
7 59 (7.39%) Architect
8 48 (6.02%) Business Analyst
9 45 (5.64%) Full Stack Developer
10 37 (4.64%) Consultant
11 34 (4.26%) Data Analyst
12 30 (3.76%) Python Developer
13 28 (3.51%) Software Engineer
14 27 (3.38%) Investment Banking Java Developer
15 25 (3.13%) C# Developer
16 22 (2.76%) Azure Engineer
16 22 (2.76%) Data Architect
17 19 (2.38%) React Developer
18 18 (2.26%) .NET Developer
18 18 (2.26%) Technical Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 90 (11.28%) HTML
2 85 (10.65%) Kafka
3 81 (10.15%) RESTful
3 81 (10.15%) Spring
4 79 (9.90%) .NET
5 78 (9.77%) REST
6 69 (8.65%) CSS
7 64 (8.02%) React
8 54 (6.77%) JSON
9 49 (6.14%) AngularJS
10 48 (6.02%) Web Services
11 47 (5.89%) Spring Boot
12 44 (5.51%) Node.js
13 39 (4.89%) HTML5
14 36 (4.51%) .NET Core
14 36 (4.51%) GraphQL
15 31 (3.88%) PySpark
16 30 (3.76%) Memcached
17 25 (3.13%) FIX Protocol
17 25 (3.13%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 224 (28.07%) Algorithms
2 98 (12.28%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
3 65 (8.15%) Derivative
4 50 (6.27%) User Experience
5 48 (6.02%) Greenfield Project
6 47 (5.89%) Management Information System
7 37 (4.64%) Fixed Income
8 26 (3.26%) Cloud Native
9 19 (2.38%) CMDB
9 19 (2.38%) Enterprise Software
10 18 (2.26%) Legacy Systems
11 16 (2.01%) Equities
11 16 (2.01%) Virtual Team
12 14 (1.75%) Self-Motivation
13 12 (1.50%) Data Centre
13 12 (1.50%) Hedge funds
14 11 (1.38%) Linux Command Line
15 9 (1.13%) N-Tier
16 8 (1.00%) Data Protection Act
16 8 (1.00%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 130 (16.29%) Linux
2 58 (7.27%) Unix
3 31 (3.88%) Windows
4 6 (0.75%) Apple iOS
5 4 (0.50%) Android
5 4 (0.50%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 3 (0.38%) Ubuntu
7 2 (0.25%) CentOS
8 1 (0.13%) AIX
8 1 (0.13%) Debian
8 1 (0.13%) HPUX
8 1 (0.13%) Mac OS X
8 1 (0.13%) MVS
8 1 (0.13%) Oracle Linux
8 1 (0.13%) Slackware
8 1 (0.13%) Solaris
8 1 (0.13%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 326 (40.85%) Agile Software Development
2 144 (18.05%) Analytics
3 131 (16.42%) DevOps
4 128 (16.04%) Multithreading
5 119 (14.91%) Problem-Solving
6 110 (13.78%) Performance Tuning
7 108 (13.53%) Software Engineering
8 102 (12.78%) OO
9 101 (12.66%) Data Modelling
10 98 (12.28%) Computer Science
11 95 (11.90%) Scrum
12 94 (11.78%) ETL
13 93 (11.65%) Business Intelligence
14 91 (11.40%) Microservices
15 79 (9.90%) API Design
16 78 (9.77%) Full Stack Development
17 71 (8.90%) Data Pipeline
18 67 (8.40%) Low Latency
19 64 (8.02%) Test Automation
20 60 (7.52%) API Development
Programming Languages
1 327 (40.98%) SQL
2 275 (34.46%) Java
3 177 (22.18%) Python
4 121 (15.16%) JavaScript
5 110 (13.78%) Scala
6 94 (11.78%) C#
7 64 (8.02%) C++
7 64 (8.02%) Java 8
8 52 (6.52%) PL/SQL
9 50 (6.27%) TypeScript
10 29 (3.63%) Haskell
11 26 (3.26%) T-SQL
12 22 (2.76%) ES6
13 19 (2.38%) R
14 15 (1.88%) Go
15 13 (1.63%) PHP
16 12 (1.50%) Apex Code
17 10 (1.25%) Java 11
18 9 (1.13%) PowerShell
19 8 (1.00%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 78 (9.77%) Degree
2 57 (7.14%) Security Cleared
3 45 (5.64%) SC Cleared
4 36 (4.51%) Computer Science Degree
5 9 (1.13%) DV Cleared
6 7 (0.88%) Master's Degree
6 7 (0.88%) SAS Certification
7 6 (0.75%) ISEB
7 6 (0.75%) PhD
8 4 (0.50%) AWS Certification
9 3 (0.38%) BPSS Clearance
9 3 (0.38%) DBS Check
10 2 (0.25%) ACCA
10 2 (0.25%) CIMA
11 1 (0.13%) CTC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 47 (5.89%) QA
2 42 (5.26%) Data Quality
3 21 (2.63%) Accessibility
4 7 (0.88%) GDPR
5 4 (0.50%) PMO
6 3 (0.38%) SLA
7 2 (0.25%) COBIT
7 2 (0.25%) Disclosure Scotland
7 2 (0.25%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 2 (0.25%) MiFID
7 2 (0.25%) NIST
7 2 (0.25%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 1 (0.13%) PCI DSS
8 1 (0.13%) WCAG
System Software
1 85 (10.65%) Docker
2 9 (1.13%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.75%) HDFS
4 2 (0.25%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 75 (9.40%) Kubernetes
2 31 (3.88%) Terraform
3 18 (2.26%) Ansible
4 17 (2.13%) Prometheus
5 13 (1.63%) MIIS
6 12 (1.50%) BladeLogic
6 12 (1.50%) ITRS Geneos
7 10 (1.25%) Kibana
7 10 (1.25%) logstash
8 9 (1.13%) Graphite
9 8 (1.00%) Opscode Chef
10 5 (0.63%) Control-M
10 5 (0.63%) HP ALM
11 4 (0.50%) Core Impact
11 4 (0.50%) Istio
11 4 (0.50%) Puppet
12 3 (0.38%) Data Guard
12 3 (0.38%) Kubeflow
12 3 (0.38%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
13 2 (0.25%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 117 (14.66%) Oracle
2 56 (7.02%) Microsoft
3 39 (4.89%) Databricks
4 38 (4.76%) Google
5 34 (4.26%) Salesforce.com
6 25 (3.13%) SAP
7 16 (2.01%) Teradata
8 12 (1.50%) Adobe
8 12 (1.50%) Altiris
8 12 (1.50%) Cloudera
9 9 (1.13%) hybris
10 8 (1.00%) Marketo
10 8 (1.00%) Talend
11 7 (0.88%) Blackboard
11 7 (0.88%) Telerik
12 6 (0.75%) Dynatrace
12 6 (0.75%) HP
12 6 (0.75%) New Relic
12 6 (0.75%) Splunk
13 5 (0.63%) PagerDuty