Period
to 26 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 26 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
England > London
6 months to
26 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 118 150 133
Rank change year-on-year +32 -17 -23
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 777 230 832
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 2.31% 1.73% 2.16%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.53% 1.94% 2.43%
Number of daily rates quoted 568 171 614
10th Percentile £424 £375 £400
25th Percentile £480 £425 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £533 £528
Median % change year-on-year +7.88% +1.04% +0.48%
75th Percentile £675 £613 £600
90th Percentile £750 £750 £688
England median daily rate £540 £485 £495
% change year-on-year +11.34% -2.02% +4.21%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2 2 0
Median hourly rate £96.75 £48.75 -
Median % change year-on-year +98.46% - -
England median hourly rate £46.36 £43.00 £43.00
% change year-on-year +7.81% - -15.69%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 30,686 11,884 34,256
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 91.11% 89.35% 89.03%
Number of daily rates quoted 22,071 8,476 24,950
10th Percentile £363 £325 £325
25th Percentile £450 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £513 £513
Median % change year-on-year +7.32% - +2.50%
75th Percentile £650 £623 £600
90th Percentile £738 £713 £688
England median daily rate £513 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +7.89% - +2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 290 113 390
10th Percentile £14.45 £14.60 £12.04
25th Percentile £20.68 £19.99 £15.09
Median hourly rate £34.69 £34.13 £22.00
Median % change year-on-year +1.66% +55.11% +7.32%
75th Percentile £52.50 £46.00 £43.47
90th Percentile £66.53 £53.95 £53.00
England median hourly rate £24.29 £26.50 £22.93
% change year-on-year -8.36% +15.57% +17.59%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in London.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing in London over the 6 months to 26 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in London.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unit Testing in London over the 6 months to 26 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the London region over the 6 months to 26 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -25 66 £538 -1.83% 86
West London +7 32 £648 +40.76% 33
East London -3 11 £480 -1.54% 9
South London +1 3 £575 - 4
Unit Testing
England

For the 6 months to 26 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 393 (50.58%) Agile Software Development
2 272 (35.01%) Java
3 263 (33.85%) Git (software)
4 255 (32.82%) JavaScript
5 246 (31.66%) TDD
6 219 (28.19%) DevOps
7 218 (28.06%) SQL
8 189 (24.32%) Social Skills
9 187 (24.07%) C#
10 180 (23.17%) Finance
11 178 (22.91%) .NET
12 175 (22.52%) Scrum
13 170 (21.88%) Test Automation
13 170 (21.88%) React
14 161 (20.72%) Banking
15 159 (20.46%) Jenkins
16 154 (19.82%) HTML
17 152 (19.56%) Python
18 148 (19.05%) AngularJS
19 139 (17.89%) CSS
20 131 (16.86%) Azure
20 131 (16.86%) Microservices
21 127 (16.34%) Docker
21 127 (16.34%) Continuous Integration
22 122 (15.70%) RESTful
22 122 (15.70%) BDD
23 120 (15.44%) Software Engineering
24 117 (15.06%) Web Services
25 114 (14.67%) Oracle
26 112 (14.41%) Spring

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 32 (4.12%) Confluence
2 30 (3.86%) Adobe Experience Manager
3 27 (3.47%) Apache Spark
4 26 (3.35%) Elasticsearch
5 25 (3.22%) Apache
6 21 (2.70%) Oracle SOA Suite
7 20 (2.57%) CMS
8 18 (2.32%) Tomcat
9 12 (1.54%) Jetty
10 9 (1.16%) Mule
11 8 (1.03%) GemFire
12 7 (0.90%) IIS
13 6 (0.77%) Mule ESB
13 6 (0.77%) WebSphere
14 5 (0.64%) IBM Domino
14 5 (0.64%) SAS
15 4 (0.51%) Anypoint
15 4 (0.51%) Cloud Foundry
15 4 (0.51%) JBoss
16 3 (0.39%) nginx
Applications
1 9 (1.16%) Microsoft Office
2 8 (1.03%) Microsoft Excel
3 3 (0.39%) Chatbot
4 2 (0.26%) Photoshop
4 2 (0.26%) Sketch
5 1 (0.13%) Figma
5 1 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 35 (4.50%) SunGard Martini
2 9 (1.16%) Payment Gateway
3 6 (0.77%) Magento
4 5 (0.64%) Temenos T24
5 4 (0.51%) Oracle ERP
5 4 (0.51%) Oracle Payables
5 4 (0.51%) Oracle Receivables
5 4 (0.51%) Shopify
5 4 (0.51%) Workday HCM
6 3 (0.39%) iTrent
6 3 (0.39%) Unit4 Business World
7 2 (0.26%) Global One
7 2 (0.26%) SAP ERP
7 2 (0.26%) SAP Oil and Gas
7 2 (0.26%) SAP S/4HANA
7 2 (0.26%) SAP SD
8 1 (0.13%) Adobe Campaign
8 1 (0.13%) Aligne
8 1 (0.13%) ION MarketView
8 1 (0.13%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
Cloud Services
1 131 (16.86%) Azure
2 105 (13.51%) AWS
3 53 (6.82%) Serverless
4 48 (6.18%) GitHub
5 29 (3.73%) GCP
6 24 (3.09%) Power Platform
7 20 (2.57%) AWS CloudFormation
8 18 (2.32%) npm
8 18 (2.32%) SaaS
9 17 (2.19%) Azure Data Factory
10 16 (2.06%) Amazon CloudWatch
11 15 (1.93%) Amazon EC2
12 14 (1.80%) AWS Lambda
13 13 (1.67%) OpenShift
13 13 (1.67%) PaaS
14 12 (1.54%) Azure Functions
14 12 (1.54%) Cloud Computing
15 11 (1.42%) Azure Synapse Analytics
15 11 (1.42%) BlazeMeter
16 10 (1.29%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 28 (3.60%) TCP/IP
2 20 (2.57%) HTTP
3 9 (1.16%) Internet
4 5 (0.64%) Kerberos
4 5 (0.64%) SSL
5 4 (0.51%) DNS
5 4 (0.51%) Intranet
5 4 (0.51%) Wi-Fi
6 2 (0.26%) Bluetooth
6 2 (0.26%) DLNA
6 2 (0.26%) FTP
6 2 (0.26%) UPnP
7 1 (0.13%) DMARC
7 1 (0.13%) Firewall
7 1 (0.13%) SMS
7 1 (0.13%) SMTP
7 1 (0.13%) SSH
7 1 (0.13%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 77 (9.91%) SQL Server
2 53 (6.82%) Relational Database
3 51 (6.56%) NoSQL
4 49 (6.31%) Oracle Database
5 40 (5.15%) Oracle Database 12c
6 28 (3.60%) MongoDB
7 24 (3.09%) Power BI
8 19 (2.45%) Big Data
9 17 (2.19%) SQL Server 2016
10 16 (2.06%) Apache Cassandra
10 16 (2.06%) PostgreSQL
11 14 (1.80%) Data Warehouse
12 12 (1.54%) Redis
12 12 (1.54%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 10 (1.29%) MySQL
14 9 (1.16%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 8 (1.03%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 8 (1.03%) Azure SQL Database
15 8 (1.03%) Data Lake
15 8 (1.03%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 263 (33.85%) Git (software)
2 159 (20.46%) Jenkins
3 94 (12.10%) JIRA
4 93 (11.97%) JUnit
5 71 (9.14%) Subversion
6 68 (8.75%) Mockito
7 62 (7.98%) TeamCity
8 61 (7.85%) Maven
9 55 (7.08%) Jasmine
9 55 (7.08%) Visual Studio
10 39 (5.02%) Gatling
11 38 (4.89%) Bitbucket
12 36 (4.63%) CppUnit
13 35 (4.50%) Karma Test Runner
13 35 (4.50%) Oracle APEX
14 34 (4.38%) Team Foundation Server
15 32 (4.12%) Mocha
16 29 (3.73%) Cucumber
16 29 (3.73%) Cypress.io
17 26 (3.35%) CircleCI
General
1 189 (24.32%) Social Skills
2 180 (23.17%) Finance
3 161 (20.72%) Banking
4 94 (12.10%) Investment Banking
5 74 (9.52%) Analytical Skills
6 67 (8.62%) Front Office
7 42 (5.41%) Presentation Skills
8 41 (5.28%) Marketing
9 27 (3.47%) Public Sector
9 27 (3.47%) Retail
10 15 (1.93%) Back Office
11 13 (1.67%) Financial Institution
12 9 (1.16%) Games
12 9 (1.16%) Publishing
13 7 (0.90%) Legal
13 7 (0.90%) Retail Banking
14 6 (0.77%) Documentation Skills
14 6 (0.77%) Law
15 5 (0.64%) Telecoms
16 4 (0.51%) General Ledger
Job Titles
1 524 (67.44%) Developer
2 94 (12.10%) Senior Developer
3 91 (11.71%) Java Developer
4 67 (8.62%) React Developer
5 66 (8.49%) C# Developer
6 55 (7.08%) Full Stack Developer
7 54 (6.95%) .NET Developer
8 46 (5.92%) C++ Developer
9 42 (5.41%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 38 (4.89%) Architect
10 38 (4.89%) JavaScript Developer
11 37 (4.76%) Scala Developer
12 36 (4.63%) Angular Developer
13 35 (4.50%) Front Office Developer
14 34 (4.38%) Investment Banking C++ Developer
15 30 (3.86%) Data Engineer
16 29 (3.73%) SQL Developer
17 26 (3.35%) Software Engineer
18 25 (3.22%) C# .NET Developer
19 24 (3.09%) Android Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 178 (22.91%) .NET
2 170 (21.88%) React
3 154 (19.82%) HTML
4 148 (19.05%) AngularJS
5 139 (17.89%) CSS
6 122 (15.70%) RESTful
7 117 (15.06%) Web Services
8 112 (14.41%) Spring
9 111 (14.29%) REST
10 90 (11.58%) Node.js
11 84 (10.81%) XML
12 82 (10.55%) Jest
13 75 (9.65%) .NET Core
14 71 (9.14%) HTML5
15 67 (8.62%) JSON
16 52 (6.69%) .NET Framework
16 52 (6.69%) SOAP
17 51 (6.56%) Redux
18 46 (5.92%) Kafka
19 42 (5.41%) Spring Boot
Miscellaneous
1 58 (7.46%) User Experience
2 44 (5.66%) Mobile App
3 39 (5.02%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 25 (3.22%) Fixed Income
5 22 (2.83%) Hedge funds
6 21 (2.70%) Enterprise Software
7 17 (2.19%) Management Information System
8 15 (1.93%) Data Protection Act
8 15 (1.93%) Market Risk
8 15 (1.93%) Social Media
9 13 (1.67%) Self-Motivation
10 12 (1.54%) CMDB
11 11 (1.42%) Greenfield Project
12 10 (1.29%) Cloud Native
12 10 (1.29%) Grid Computing
12 10 (1.29%) Legacy Systems
13 9 (1.16%) Data Structures
14 8 (1.03%) Derivative
14 8 (1.03%) Equities
14 8 (1.03%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 71 (9.14%) Windows
2 65 (8.37%) Linux
3 45 (5.79%) Android
4 41 (5.28%) Apple iOS
5 29 (3.73%) Unix
6 3 (0.39%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 3 (0.39%) Ubuntu
7 2 (0.26%) CentOS
7 2 (0.26%) Embedded Linux
8 1 (0.13%) VMS
8 1 (0.13%) Windows Server
8 1 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
8 1 (0.13%) Windows Server 2016
8 1 (0.13%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 393 (50.58%) Agile Software Development
2 246 (31.66%) TDD
3 219 (28.19%) DevOps
4 175 (22.52%) Scrum
5 170 (21.88%) Test Automation
6 131 (16.86%) Microservices
7 127 (16.34%) Continuous Integration
8 122 (15.70%) BDD
9 120 (15.44%) Software Engineering
10 102 (13.13%) Full Stack Development
11 75 (9.65%) Problem-Solving
12 74 (9.52%) Pair Programming
13 73 (9.40%) MVC
14 70 (9.01%) Front End Development
14 70 (9.01%) Multithreading
15 62 (7.98%) Kanban
16 56 (7.21%) Software Delivery
17 55 (7.08%) Analytics
18 53 (6.82%) Integration Testing
19 51 (6.56%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 272 (35.01%) Java
2 255 (32.82%) JavaScript
3 218 (28.06%) SQL
4 187 (24.07%) C#
5 152 (19.56%) Python
6 112 (14.41%) TypeScript
7 74 (9.52%) C++
8 60 (7.72%) Scala
9 56 (7.21%) Java 8
10 43 (5.53%) PL/SQL
11 36 (4.63%) Kotlin
12 34 (4.38%) Apple Swift
13 30 (3.86%) ES6
14 27 (3.47%) T-SQL
15 25 (3.22%) Java 11
16 23 (2.96%) Objective-C
17 21 (2.70%) C
18 18 (2.32%) Go
19 17 (2.19%) PowerShell
20 15 (1.93%) Ruby
Qualifications
1 48 (6.18%) Degree
2 31 (3.99%) Security Cleared
3 28 (3.60%) SC Cleared
4 4 (0.51%) DV Cleared
5 3 (0.39%) AWS Certification
5 3 (0.39%) BPSS Clearance
5 3 (0.39%) CTC Cleared
5 3 (0.39%) Microsoft Certification
6 2 (0.26%) ISTQB
6 2 (0.26%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 2 (0.26%) Postgraduate
6 2 (0.26%) SAP Certification
7 1 (0.13%) Computer Science Degree
7 1 (0.13%) DBS Check
7 1 (0.13%) Novell Certification
7 1 (0.13%) Numerate Degree
7 1 (0.13%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 45 (5.79%) Accessibility
2 39 (5.02%) QA
3 4 (0.51%) GDPR
3 4 (0.51%) WCAG
4 2 (0.26%) Data Quality
4 2 (0.26%) HIPAA
4 2 (0.26%) NCSC
5 1 (0.13%) MiFID
System Software
1 127 (16.34%) Docker
2 8 (1.03%) Active Directory
3 3 (0.39%) Varnish
4 2 (0.26%) VMware Infrastructure
5 1 (0.13%) Firmware
5 1 (0.13%) LXC
5 1 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 61 (7.85%) Kubernetes
2 40 (5.15%) Prometheus
3 37 (4.76%) Ansible
3 37 (4.76%) Grafana
4 23 (2.96%) BladeLogic
5 21 (2.70%) Terraform
6 11 (1.42%) Kibana
7 10 (1.29%) Puppet
8 6 (0.77%) Opscode Chef
9 5 (0.64%) Graphite
10 4 (0.51%) CloudHub
11 3 (0.39%) logstash
12 2 (0.26%) Consul
12 2 (0.26%) Docker Swarm
12 2 (0.26%) Galera Cluster
12 2 (0.26%) HAProxy
12 2 (0.26%) Istio
12 2 (0.26%) linkerd
12 2 (0.26%) Packer
12 2 (0.26%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 114 (14.67%) Oracle
2 43 (5.53%) Microsoft
3 35 (4.50%) FIS
3 35 (4.50%) SunGard
4 31 (3.99%) Adobe
5 30 (3.86%) Splunk
6 18 (2.32%) Pega
7 15 (1.93%) CA Agile Central
7 15 (1.93%) MuleSoft
7 15 (1.93%) SAP
8 14 (1.80%) Google
9 12 (1.54%) Salesforce.com
10 9 (1.16%) Atlassian
10 9 (1.16%) DevExpress
10 9 (1.16%) New Relic
10 9 (1.16%) RedGate
11 8 (1.03%) hybris
11 8 (1.03%) Xamarin
12 7 (0.90%) Databricks
13 6 (0.77%) Refinitiv