Period
to 17 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 17 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
England > London
6 months to
17 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 123 154 144
Rank change year-on-year +31 -10 -21
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 520 357 847
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 2.19% 1.74% 2.08%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.44% 1.97% 2.33%
Number of daily rates quoted 363 273 613
10th Percentile £413 £386 £400
25th Percentile £475 £461 £419
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £535 £513
Median % change year-on-year +2.80% +4.39% +2.50%
75th Percentile £638 £606 £600
90th Percentile £750 £675 £675
England median daily rate £525 £500 £480
% change year-on-year +5.00% +4.17% +1.05%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 0 2
Median hourly rate £66.50 - £56.00
England median hourly rate £50.00 £45.00 £44.50
% change year-on-year +11.11% +1.12% +4.71%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 21,332 18,153 36,388
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 89.74% 88.40% 89.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 15,279 13,075 26,397
10th Percentile £350 £325 £334
25th Percentile £425 £414 £419
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £525 £520
Median % change year-on-year - +0.96% +4.00%
75th Percentile £625 £613 £600
90th Percentile £700 £700 £688
England median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 227 234 352
10th Percentile £15.46 £13.50 £12.28
25th Percentile £21.25 £18.50 £16.08
Median hourly rate £32.85 £26.50 £22.39
Median % change year-on-year +23.96% +18.34% -2.64%
75th Percentile £52.50 £47.25 £38.75
90th Percentile £66.50 £61.18 £51.42
England median hourly rate £25.00 £21.50 £22.50
% change year-on-year +16.28% -4.44% +5.81%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in London.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing in London over the 6 months to 17 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing in London.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in London

Unit Testing
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the London region over the 6 months to 17 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London +4 41 £550 +10.00% 47
West London +25 23 £575 +7.48% 17
East London +9 10 £480 -12.73% 22
South London +30 1 £500 +6.38% 3
Unit Testing
England

For the 6 months to 17 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 216 (41.54%) Agile Software Development
2 185 (35.58%) SQL
3 178 (34.23%) TDD
4 172 (33.08%) Java
5 169 (32.50%) JavaScript
6 143 (27.50%) Git (software)
7 131 (25.19%) DevOps
8 130 (25.00%) .NET
9 127 (24.42%) C#
10 119 (22.88%) React
11 118 (22.69%) Microservices
11 118 (22.69%) Continuous Integration
12 111 (21.35%) Banking
13 110 (21.15%) Azure
13 110 (21.15%) Social Skills
14 109 (20.96%) Finance
14 109 (20.96%) Scrum
15 107 (20.58%) CSS
16 106 (20.38%) HTML
17 105 (20.19%) Test Automation
18 99 (19.04%) Python
19 96 (18.46%) Spring
20 85 (16.35%) Node.js
21 80 (15.38%) Investment Banking
22 79 (15.19%) Docker
22 79 (15.19%) AngularJS
23 78 (15.00%) Jenkins
24 77 (14.81%) BDD
25 76 (14.62%) HTML5
26 74 (14.23%) REST

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 17 (3.27%) Elasticsearch
2 15 (2.88%) Apache Spark
2 15 (2.88%) Camunda
3 14 (2.69%) Apache
3 14 (2.69%) WebSphere
4 13 (2.50%) Tomcat
5 12 (2.31%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 11 (2.12%) Confluence
7 8 (1.54%) CMS
7 8 (1.54%) Jetty
7 8 (1.54%) Mule
8 7 (1.35%) GemFire
8 7 (1.35%) NServiceBus
9 6 (1.15%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 5 (0.96%) IIS
10 5 (0.96%) Mule ESB
10 5 (0.96%) SAS
11 4 (0.77%) Anypoint
11 4 (0.77%) JBoss
12 3 (0.58%) Ethereum
Applications
1 8 (1.54%) Microsoft Excel
2 4 (0.77%) Microsoft Office
3 1 (0.19%) Figma
3 1 (0.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 1 (0.19%) Photoshop
3 1 (0.19%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 12 (2.31%) SunGard Martini
2 5 (0.96%) Adobe Campaign
3 3 (0.58%) Aligne
3 3 (0.58%) Distributed Ledger
3 3 (0.58%) Magento
3 3 (0.58%) Oracle Assets
3 3 (0.58%) Oracle EBS
3 3 (0.58%) Oracle EBS R12
3 3 (0.58%) Oracle General Ledger
3 3 (0.58%) Oracle Payables
3 3 (0.58%) Shopify
4 1 (0.19%) Dynamics CRM
4 1 (0.19%) Dynamics NAV
4 1 (0.19%) Endur
4 1 (0.19%) Oracle ERP
4 1 (0.19%) SAP ERP
4 1 (0.19%) SAP Oil and Gas
4 1 (0.19%) SAP Payroll
4 1 (0.19%) SAP S/4HANA
4 1 (0.19%) SAP SD
Cloud Services
1 110 (21.15%) Azure
2 67 (12.88%) AWS
3 38 (7.31%) Serverless
4 24 (4.62%) Azure Service Bus
5 22 (4.23%) GitHub
6 21 (4.04%) PaaS
7 19 (3.65%) AWS Lambda
8 15 (2.88%) GCP
9 14 (2.69%) Azure Data Factory
10 12 (2.31%) Amazon S3
10 12 (2.31%) Azure Key Vault
11 11 (2.12%) Azure Cosmos DB
11 11 (2.12%) Azure Functions
11 11 (2.12%) Power Platform
12 10 (1.92%) Azure Synapse Analytics
12 10 (1.92%) Cloud Computing
13 9 (1.73%) Amazon SQS
13 9 (1.73%) AWS CloudFormation
13 9 (1.73%) SaaS
14 8 (1.54%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 10 (1.92%) HTTP
1 10 (1.92%) Internet
2 7 (1.35%) DNS
3 6 (1.15%) SMS
4 5 (0.96%) DMARC
4 5 (0.96%) SMTP
5 4 (0.77%) Kerberos
6 3 (0.58%) IPFS
6 3 (0.58%) SSL
7 2 (0.38%) FTP
7 2 (0.38%) TCP/IP
8 1 (0.19%) Bluetooth
8 1 (0.19%) Firewall
8 1 (0.19%) VPN
8 1 (0.19%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 58 (11.15%) SQL Server
2 42 (8.08%) NoSQL
3 32 (6.15%) PostgreSQL
4 29 (5.58%) Azure SQL Database
5 24 (4.62%) Relational Database
6 16 (3.08%) Big Data
6 16 (3.08%) MongoDB
6 16 (3.08%) MySQL
7 15 (2.88%) Data Warehouse
8 13 (2.50%) Oracle Database
8 13 (2.50%) Oracle Database 12c
9 12 (2.31%) Redis
10 11 (2.12%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 11 (2.12%) Apache Cassandra
10 11 (2.12%) Data Lake
10 11 (2.12%) Power BI
11 7 (1.35%) Amazon RDS
11 7 (1.35%) NonStop SQL
12 5 (0.96%) CockroachDB
12 5 (0.96%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 143 (27.50%) Git (software)
2 78 (15.00%) Jenkins
3 41 (7.88%) JUnit
4 39 (7.50%) Maven
5 38 (7.31%) Mockito
6 32 (6.15%) Cypress.io
7 31 (5.96%) JIRA
8 28 (5.38%) Visual Studio
9 27 (5.19%) Cucumber
10 24 (4.62%) Team Foundation Server
10 24 (4.62%) webpack
11 23 (4.42%) Subversion
12 20 (3.85%) Gatling
12 20 (3.85%) Jasmine
13 19 (3.65%) Selenium
14 18 (3.46%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 17 (3.27%) TeamCity
16 16 (3.08%) Karma Test Runner
16 16 (3.08%) Mocha
17 15 (2.88%) fastlane
General
1 111 (21.35%) Banking
2 110 (21.15%) Social Skills
3 109 (20.96%) Finance
4 80 (15.38%) Investment Banking
5 66 (12.69%) Analytical Skills
6 48 (9.23%) Front Office
7 19 (3.65%) Retail
8 17 (3.27%) Marketing
9 16 (3.08%) Public Sector
10 14 (2.69%) Financial Institution
11 13 (2.50%) Back Office
12 9 (1.73%) Presentation Skills
13 7 (1.35%) Games
13 7 (1.35%) Prime Brokerage
14 6 (1.15%) Publishing
15 4 (0.77%) Aerospace
16 3 (0.58%) Private Banking
16 3 (0.58%) Retail Banking
17 2 (0.38%) Corporate Banking
17 2 (0.38%) Legal
Job Titles
1 381 (73.27%) Developer
2 75 (14.42%) Java Developer
3 63 (12.12%) Senior Developer
4 42 (8.08%) React Developer
5 41 (7.88%) C++ Developer
6 38 (7.31%) .NET Developer
7 32 (6.15%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
8 30 (5.77%) C# Developer
9 29 (5.58%) Full Stack Developer
10 26 (5.00%) SQL Developer
11 24 (4.62%) Architect
12 23 (4.42%) Data Engineer
13 22 (4.23%) JavaScript Developer
14 21 (4.04%) Investment Banking C++ Developer
15 20 (3.85%) C# Developer - Investment Banking
16 19 (3.65%) Scala Developer
17 17 (3.27%) Electronic Trading Developer
17 17 (3.27%) Node.js Developer
17 17 (3.27%) Software Engineer
18 16 (3.08%) Oracle Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 130 (25.00%) .NET
2 119 (22.88%) React
3 107 (20.58%) CSS
4 106 (20.38%) HTML
5 96 (18.46%) Spring
6 85 (16.35%) Node.js
7 79 (15.19%) AngularJS
8 76 (14.62%) HTML5
9 74 (14.23%) REST
10 68 (13.08%) RESTful
11 57 (10.96%) Redux
12 54 (10.38%) Web Services
13 49 (9.42%) .NET Core
14 45 (8.65%) Jest
14 45 (8.65%) XML
15 41 (7.88%) CSS3
16 37 (7.12%) jQuery
16 37 (7.12%) JSON
17 36 (6.92%) Spring Boot
18 35 (6.73%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 58 (11.15%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 54 (10.38%) User Experience
3 26 (5.00%) Mobile App
4 21 (4.04%) Enterprise Software
4 21 (4.04%) Fixed Income
5 20 (3.85%) Greenfield Project
5 20 (3.85%) Hedge funds
6 17 (3.27%) N-Tier
7 16 (3.08%) Derivative
8 15 (2.88%) Data Structures
9 14 (2.69%) Grid Computing
10 12 (2.31%) Management Information System
11 11 (2.12%) Algorithms
11 11 (2.12%) Market Risk
12 10 (1.92%) Self-Motivation
13 8 (1.54%) CMDB
14 6 (1.15%) Reference Data
15 5 (0.96%) Client/Server
15 5 (0.96%) Equities
15 5 (0.96%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 54 (10.38%) Linux
2 34 (6.54%) Unix
3 29 (5.58%) Apple iOS
4 25 (4.81%) Windows
5 23 (4.42%) Android
6 1 (0.19%) CentOS
6 1 (0.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 1 (0.19%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 216 (41.54%) Agile Software Development
2 178 (34.23%) TDD
3 131 (25.19%) DevOps
4 118 (22.69%) Continuous Integration
4 118 (22.69%) Microservices
5 109 (20.96%) Scrum
6 105 (20.19%) Test Automation
7 77 (14.81%) BDD
8 71 (13.65%) Software Engineering
9 61 (11.73%) MVC
10 50 (9.62%) Test Strategy
11 49 (9.42%) Front End Development
12 48 (9.23%) Analytics
13 46 (8.85%) Refactoring
14 45 (8.65%) Problem-Solving
15 42 (8.08%) OO
16 41 (7.88%) Pair Programming
17 39 (7.50%) Multithreading
17 39 (7.50%) SOA
18 37 (7.12%) Web Development
Programming Languages
1 185 (35.58%) SQL
2 172 (33.08%) Java
3 169 (32.50%) JavaScript
4 127 (24.42%) C#
5 99 (19.04%) Python
6 74 (14.23%) TypeScript
7 60 (11.54%) C++
8 46 (8.85%) Java 8
9 44 (8.46%) ES6
10 34 (6.54%) PL/SQL
11 27 (5.19%) PowerShell
12 24 (4.62%) C
13 23 (4.42%) Scala
14 19 (3.65%) Apple Swift
15 18 (3.46%) Kotlin
16 16 (3.08%) T-SQL
17 13 (2.50%) Objective-C
17 13 (2.50%) Ruby
18 12 (2.31%) Go
18 12 (2.31%) PHP
Qualifications
1 41 (7.88%) Degree
2 32 (6.15%) Security Cleared
3 29 (5.58%) SC Cleared
4 7 (1.35%) AWS Certification
4 7 (1.35%) Computer Science Degree
5 5 (0.96%) CTC Cleared
6 3 (0.58%) Microsoft Certification
7 2 (0.38%) Master's Degree
7 2 (0.38%) Postgraduate
8 1 (0.19%) CFA
8 1 (0.19%) PMI Certification
8 1 (0.19%) SAP Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 28 (5.38%) QA
2 6 (1.15%) GDPR
2 6 (1.15%) MiFID
3 5 (0.96%) Data Quality
3 5 (0.96%) WCAG
4 2 (0.38%) Dodd-Frank
5 1 (0.19%) HIPAA
5 1 (0.19%) WAI
System Software
1 79 (15.19%) Docker
2 6 (1.15%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.38%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.19%) OpenAM
4 1 (0.19%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 43 (8.27%) Kubernetes
2 27 (5.19%) Terraform
3 21 (4.04%) Ansible
4 14 (2.69%) Grafana
5 13 (2.50%) Prometheus
6 8 (1.54%) Puppet
7 6 (1.15%) Opscode Chef
8 5 (0.96%) CloudHub
9 3 (0.58%) Docker Swarm
9 3 (0.58%) Marathon
9 3 (0.58%) Mesos
10 2 (0.38%) Galera Cluster
10 2 (0.38%) ITRS Geneos
11 1 (0.19%) BladeLogic
11 1 (0.19%) Graphite
11 1 (0.19%) Hadoop YARN
11 1 (0.19%) HP ALM
11 1 (0.19%) Kibana
11 1 (0.19%) logstash
11 1 (0.19%) Nessus
Vendors
1 69 (13.27%) Oracle
2 48 (9.23%) Microsoft
3 15 (2.88%) Google
4 12 (2.31%) Apple
4 12 (2.31%) FIS
4 12 (2.31%) SunGard
5 11 (2.12%) Adobe
5 11 (2.12%) MuleSoft
5 11 (2.12%) Salesforce.com
6 10 (1.92%) Databricks
6 10 (1.92%) IBM
6 10 (1.92%) Splunk
7 8 (1.54%) DevExpress
8 7 (1.35%) HP
8 7 (1.35%) RedGate
9 6 (1.15%) Atlassian
9 6 (1.15%) Informatica
9 6 (1.15%) QAD
9 6 (1.15%) Refinitiv
10 5 (0.96%) Roku