Period
to 21 October 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 21 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
21 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 697 483 723
Rank change year-on-year -214 +240 -103
Permanent jobs citing PKI 368 213 399
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.29% 0.44% 0.29%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.72% 1.23% 0.83%
Number of salaries quoted 248 156 285
10th Percentile £40,000 £36,388 £36,450
25th Percentile £46,938 £45,563 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £56,500 £59,500
Median % change year-on-year -2.65% -5.04% +3.48%
75th Percentile £67,500 £81,250 £77,500
90th Percentile £85,000 £90,000 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% -13.04%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 51,105 17,276 48,274
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.50% 35.31% 35.22%
Number of salaries quoted 30,627 14,291 37,055
10th Percentile £32,500 £33,250 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £37,565
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £57,500 £54,486
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +5.53% +3.78%
75th Percentile £80,000 £77,500 £73,750
90th Percentile £97,500 £100,000 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Salary trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 21 October 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 21 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -221 300 £55,000 -4.76% 66
UK excluding London -188 208 £55,000 +4.76% 51
London -191 102 £60,000 -25.00% 19
South East -121 82 £62,500 +19.05% 19
Work from Home -257 65 £77,250 -3.44% 11
South West -65 45 £55,000 -21.43% 6
North of England -135 35 £53,350 -0.28% 10
North West -97 26 £53,350 -0.28% 8
Midlands -100 22 £47,500 -5.00% 9
West Midlands -101 15 £50,000 - 4
Wales -44 11 - - 4
Scotland -93 10 £55,000 +4.76% 1
East of England -104 8 £45,500 -9.00% 2
East Midlands -73 7 £37,500 -25.00% 5
Yorkshire -95 7 £92,500 +27.59% 1
North East - 2 - - 1

For the 6 months to 21 October 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 179 (48.64%) Microsoft
2 171 (46.47%) Active Directory
3 142 (38.59%) Windows
4 136 (36.96%) Linux
5 133 (36.14%) Azure
6 94 (25.54%) VMware
7 77 (20.92%) Firewall
7 77 (20.92%) Windows Server
8 75 (20.38%) DNS
9 71 (19.29%) Microsoft 365
10 70 (19.02%) SSL
11 68 (18.48%) AWS
11 68 (18.48%) Gemalto
12 67 (18.21%) Problem-Solving
13 66 (17.93%) PowerShell
14 65 (17.66%) VMware Infrastructure
15 63 (17.12%) Security Cleared
16 62 (16.85%) Agile Software Development
17 61 (16.58%) Infrastructure Engineering
18 55 (14.95%) Azure Active Directory
18 55 (14.95%) SCCM
19 54 (14.67%) Microsoft Certification
20 50 (13.59%) LDAP
20 50 (13.59%) SQL Server
21 49 (13.32%) Bash Shell
22 47 (12.77%) Git (software)
23 46 (12.50%) ITIL
23 46 (12.50%) TCP/IP
23 46 (12.50%) Social Skills
24 45 (12.23%) SQL

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 40 (10.87%) MS Exchange
2 31 (8.42%) IIS
3 17 (4.62%) SharePoint
4 15 (4.08%) Apache
5 13 (3.53%) Elasticsearch
6 6 (1.63%) Confluence
7 5 (1.36%) Exchange Server 2013
7 5 (1.36%) Skype for Business
8 4 (1.09%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
8 4 (1.09%) WebSphere
8 4 (1.09%) WebSphere Application Server
9 1 (0.27%) Apache Spark
9 1 (0.27%) Exchange Server 2010
9 1 (0.27%) SharePoint 2013
9 1 (0.27%) Tomcat
Applications
1 20 (5.43%) Microsoft Office
2 1 (0.27%) Microsoft Excel
2 1 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 19 (5.16%) Payment Gateway
2 1 (0.27%) Oracle Receivables
Cloud Services
1 133 (36.14%) Azure
2 71 (19.29%) Microsoft 365
3 68 (18.48%) AWS
4 55 (14.95%) Azure Active Directory
5 36 (9.78%) PaaS
6 29 (7.88%) SaaS
7 28 (7.61%) IaaS
8 23 (6.25%) GCP
9 18 (4.89%) Azure Stack
10 9 (2.45%) Cloud Computing
10 9 (2.45%) GitHub
11 8 (2.17%) OneDrive
12 7 (1.90%) Mimecast
13 6 (1.63%) Amazon EC2
14 5 (1.36%) Amazon EKS
14 5 (1.36%) Virtual Private Cloud
15 4 (1.09%) Slack
16 2 (0.54%) AWS CloudFormation
16 2 (0.54%) Azure Sentinel
16 2 (0.54%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 77 (20.92%) Firewall
2 75 (20.38%) DNS
3 70 (19.02%) SSL
4 46 (12.50%) TCP/IP
5 42 (11.41%) DHCP
6 40 (10.87%) VPN
7 38 (10.33%) LAN
8 36 (9.78%) WAN
9 31 (8.42%) Network Security
10 25 (6.79%) HTTP
11 19 (5.16%) Wi-Fi
12 14 (3.80%) Internet
12 14 (3.80%) SAN
13 13 (3.53%) Remote Desktop
14 12 (3.26%) Wireless
15 11 (2.99%) Cisco ASA
15 11 (2.99%) MPLS
16 10 (2.72%) Cisco ISE
16 10 (2.72%) IPsec
17 9 (2.45%) Kerberos
Database & Business Intelligence
1 50 (13.59%) SQL Server
2 42 (11.41%) MySQL
3 26 (7.07%) MariaDB
4 12 (3.26%) Apache Cassandra
5 10 (2.72%) Hadoop
6 9 (2.45%) Big Data
6 9 (2.45%) PostgreSQL
7 8 (2.17%) MongoDB
8 5 (1.36%) Amazon RDS
8 5 (1.36%) NoSQL
9 4 (1.09%) Couchbase
10 3 (0.82%) Data Warehouse
10 3 (0.82%) DB2
11 1 (0.27%) Azure SQL Database
11 1 (0.27%) Blockchain
11 1 (0.27%) Data Lake
11 1 (0.27%) Power BI
11 1 (0.27%) SQL Server 2016
11 1 (0.27%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 47 (12.77%) Git (software)
2 22 (5.98%) Jenkins
3 13 (3.53%) JIRA
4 10 (2.72%) Artifactory
5 9 (2.45%) GitLab
6 8 (2.17%) Robot Framework
7 7 (1.90%) PHPUnit
8 5 (1.36%) CMake
8 5 (1.36%) JMeter
9 4 (1.09%) Maven
9 4 (1.09%) Team Foundation Server
10 3 (0.82%) Sonatype Nexus
10 3 (0.82%) Subversion
10 3 (0.82%) VSS/SourceSafe
11 2 (0.54%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 2 (0.54%) Bitbucket
12 1 (0.27%) Gradle
12 1 (0.27%) Metasploit
12 1 (0.27%) Oracle Forms
12 1 (0.27%) Visual Studio Team System
General
1 46 (12.50%) Social Skills
2 34 (9.24%) Analytical Skills
2 34 (9.24%) Finance
3 20 (5.43%) Public Sector
4 18 (4.89%) Manufacturing
5 13 (3.53%) Legal
5 13 (3.53%) Telecoms
6 9 (2.45%) Banking
7 8 (2.17%) French Language
7 8 (2.17%) German Language
7 8 (2.17%) Multimedia
8 7 (1.90%) Back Office
8 7 (1.90%) Organisational Skills
9 6 (1.63%) Games
10 5 (1.36%) Electronics
10 5 (1.36%) Financial Institution
10 5 (1.36%) Marketing
11 4 (1.09%) Automotive
11 4 (1.09%) Inclusion and Diversity
11 4 (1.09%) Military
Job Titles
1 52 (14.13%) Consultant
2 47 (12.77%) Infrastructure Engineer
3 36 (9.78%) Developer
4 29 (7.88%) Architect
4 29 (7.88%) Security Consultant
5 26 (7.07%) Cryptography Engineer
5 26 (7.07%) PHP Developer
6 23 (6.25%) Senior Developer
7 21 (5.71%) 3rd Line Engineer
8 19 (5.16%) 3rd Line Infrastructure Engineer
8 19 (5.16%) Cloud Engineer
8 19 (5.16%) Senior PHP Developer
9 18 (4.89%) Network Engineer
9 18 (4.89%) Security Engineer
10 17 (4.62%) Analyst
11 13 (3.53%) Cloud Infrastructure Engineer
11 13 (3.53%) Software Engineer
11 13 (3.53%) Systems Engineer
12 12 (3.26%) Infrastructure Architect
13 11 (2.99%) Security Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 50 (13.59%) LDAP
2 41 (11.14%) HTML
3 34 (9.24%) LAMP
4 32 (8.70%) REST
5 29 (7.88%) CSS
6 27 (7.34%) SOAP
7 26 (7.07%) jQuery
8 24 (6.52%) SAML
9 19 (5.16%) Kafka
10 15 (4.08%) OpenID
11 12 (3.26%) OAuth
12 10 (2.72%) Web Services
12 10 (2.72%) XML
13 9 (2.45%) OAuth2
14 8 (2.17%) LAPP Stack
15 6 (1.63%) Node.js
15 6 (1.63%) RESTful
16 5 (1.36%) Elastic Stack
16 5 (1.36%) Spring
16 5 (1.36%) STL
Miscellaneous
1 41 (11.14%) Data Centre
2 37 (10.05%) Clustering
3 26 (7.07%) Algorithms
3 26 (7.07%) Mobile App
4 20 (5.43%) Management Information System
5 19 (5.16%) Enterprise Storage
6 17 (4.62%) Public Cloud
7 12 (3.26%) Self-Motivation
8 9 (2.45%) Hybrid Cloud
9 8 (2.17%) Replication
10 7 (1.90%) Private Cloud
11 6 (1.63%) Analytical Mindset
11 6 (1.63%) Cloud Native
11 6 (1.63%) Cyberthreat
12 5 (1.36%) Device Driver
12 5 (1.36%) Enterprise Software
12 5 (1.36%) Linux Command Line
12 5 (1.36%) Video Conferencing
13 4 (1.09%) Hedge funds
13 4 (1.09%) SCADA
Operating Systems
1 142 (38.59%) Windows
2 136 (36.96%) Linux
3 77 (20.92%) Windows Server
4 36 (9.78%) Windows Server 2012
5 29 (7.88%) Windows Server 2019
6 22 (5.98%) Windows Server 2016
7 21 (5.71%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 21 (5.71%) Unix
8 18 (4.89%) Windows 10
9 16 (4.35%) Mac OS
10 13 (3.53%) Windows Server 2008
11 12 (3.26%) Android
12 8 (2.17%) CentOS
13 7 (1.90%) Apple iOS
14 6 (1.63%) Solaris
15 5 (1.36%) Mac OS X
15 5 (1.36%) Ubuntu
16 4 (1.09%) Embedded Linux
17 3 (0.82%) Windows Server 2003
18 2 (0.54%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 67 (18.21%) Problem-Solving
2 62 (16.85%) Agile Software Development
3 61 (16.58%) Infrastructure Engineering
4 46 (12.50%) ITIL
5 43 (11.68%) Cybersecurity
6 40 (10.87%) DevOps
7 38 (10.33%) Cryptography
8 34 (9.24%) Change Control
8 34 (9.24%) Server Management
9 31 (8.42%) Mentoring
9 31 (8.42%) Software Engineering
10 30 (8.15%) Validation
11 28 (7.61%) Migration
12 27 (7.34%) Service Management
12 27 (7.34%) Unit Testing
13 26 (7.07%) Information Security
14 25 (6.79%) Configuration Management
14 25 (6.79%) SIEM
15 24 (6.52%) High Availability
15 24 (6.52%) Systems Engineering
Programming Languages
1 66 (17.93%) PowerShell
2 49 (13.32%) Bash Shell
3 45 (12.23%) SQL
4 42 (11.41%) Python
5 40 (10.87%) JavaScript
6 31 (8.42%) Java
7 26 (7.07%) PHP
8 23 (6.25%) C#
9 16 (4.35%) C
9 16 (4.35%) Go
10 15 (4.08%) Perl
11 14 (3.80%) Shell Script
12 12 (3.26%) C++
12 12 (3.26%) Ruby
13 4 (1.09%) VB
14 3 (0.82%) Kotlin
14 3 (0.82%) VBScript
15 2 (0.54%) Java 11
15 2 (0.54%) Java 8
16 1 (0.27%) Rust
Qualifications
1 63 (17.12%) Security Cleared
2 54 (14.67%) Microsoft Certification
3 42 (11.41%) SC Cleared
4 33 (8.97%) Degree
5 21 (5.71%) CISSP
6 19 (5.16%) DV Cleared
7 18 (4.89%) Cisco Certification
8 12 (3.26%) CCNA
9 11 (2.99%) MCSA
9 11 (2.99%) MCSE
10 9 (2.45%) AWS Certification
10 9 (2.45%) Computer Science Degree
11 8 (2.17%) SSCP
12 7 (1.90%) CISM
12 7 (1.90%) ITIL Certification
12 7 (1.90%) MCTS
13 6 (1.63%) (ISC)2 CCSP
14 5 (1.36%) CISA
14 5 (1.36%) ISTQB
14 5 (1.36%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 26 (7.07%) PCI DSS
2 22 (5.98%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 15 (4.08%) NIST
4 12 (3.26%) GDPR
5 11 (2.99%) SLA
6 7 (1.90%) QA
7 2 (0.54%) Cyber Essentials
7 2 (0.54%) HIPAA
7 2 (0.54%) ISO 9001
7 2 (0.54%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
7 2 (0.54%) JSP 440
7 2 (0.54%) NCSC
8 1 (0.27%) Data Quality
8 1 (0.27%) HMG Security Policy Framework
8 1 (0.27%) ISO 22301
8 1 (0.27%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.27%) NIST 800
System Software
1 171 (46.47%) Active Directory
2 65 (17.66%) VMware Infrastructure
3 30 (8.15%) Docker
4 27 (7.34%) VMware ESXi
5 23 (6.25%) vSphere
6 19 (5.16%) Hyper-V
7 11 (2.99%) Virtual Machines
8 8 (2.17%) Terminal Services
9 5 (1.36%) BitLocker
9 5 (1.36%) NFS
10 4 (1.09%) ProxySG
10 4 (1.09%) Veritas Cluster Server
11 3 (0.82%) vCloud
12 2 (0.54%) OpenAM
12 2 (0.54%) OpenIDM
12 2 (0.54%) RACF
13 1 (0.27%) Firmware
13 1 (0.27%) Forefront TMG
13 1 (0.27%) Microsoft App-V
13 1 (0.27%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 55 (14.95%) SCCM
2 32 (8.70%) Kubernetes
3 30 (8.15%) Active Directory Federation Services
4 29 (7.88%) Terraform
5 26 (7.07%) SCOM
5 26 (7.07%) Single Sign-On
6 23 (6.25%) Ansible
7 12 (3.26%) FortiGate
8 11 (2.99%) WSUS
9 10 (2.72%) Jamf Pro
9 10 (2.72%) Microsoft Intune
10 9 (2.45%) Opscode Chef
10 9 (2.45%) Puppet
10 9 (2.45%) SCOrch
11 6 (1.63%) McAfee ePO
11 6 (1.63%) Nessus
12 5 (1.36%) Grafana
12 5 (1.36%) Prometheus
13 4 (1.09%) OfficeScan
13 4 (1.09%) Trend Micro Deep Security
Vendors
1 179 (48.64%) Microsoft
2 94 (25.54%) VMware
3 68 (18.48%) Gemalto
4 41 (11.14%) Cisco
5 25 (6.79%) Apple
6 24 (6.52%) Red Hat
7 23 (6.25%) F5
8 20 (5.43%) Citrix
9 18 (4.89%) 3PAR
9 18 (4.89%) Scality
10 16 (4.35%) CheckPoint
11 15 (4.08%) Remedy
12 14 (3.80%) HP
12 14 (3.80%) Veeam
13 11 (2.99%) CyberArk
13 11 (2.99%) IBM
14 10 (2.72%) CA
14 10 (2.72%) Juniper
14 10 (2.72%) Meraki
15 9 (2.45%) Oracle