Period
to 11 July 2020

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 11 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
11 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 555 654 667
Rank change year-on-year +99 +13 +128
Permanent jobs citing PKI 301 486 621
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.39% 0.33% 0.35%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.00% 0.85% 0.90%
Number of salaries quoted 261 356 506
Median annual salary £62,500 £57,250 £60,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +9.17% -4.58% +7.14%
10th Percentile £41,000 £39,125 £40,000
90th Percentile £95,000 £80,000 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £57,500
% change year-on-year +5.00% -13.04% +9.52%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 30,172 57,294 69,371
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.10% 39.14% 39.12%
Number of salaries quoted 23,358 42,990 53,158
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +2.04%
10th Percentile £31,250 £29,500 £28,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £87,500 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Salary trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 11 July 2020.

Salary histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 11 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +113 263 £70,000 +21.74% 36
UK excluding London +117 186 £52,500 +5.00% 28
London +134 106 £80,000 +23.08% 8
South East +90 67 £52,500 -12.50% 8
Work from Home +84 42 £80,000 +6.67% 3
North of England +97 37 £51,750 +21.76% 10
North West +78 29 £53,500 +25.88% 4
Scotland +90 28 £52,500 +58.05%
South West +89 28 £90,000 +80.00% 4
Midlands +114 15 £50,000 +21.95% 1
West Midlands +89 11 £50,000 +11.11% 1
Wales +17 6 £40,250 -4.17%
North East - 6 £35,000 -
East of England +36 5 £50,000 +25.00% 5
East Midlands +69 3 - -
Yorkshire +91 2 £72,500 +72.62% 6

For the 6 months to 11 July 2020, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 129 (42.86%) Microsoft
2 113 (37.54%) Active Directory
3 98 (32.56%) Windows
4 93 (30.90%) Linux
5 84 (27.91%) Firewall
6 81 (26.91%) Cybersecurity
7 67 (22.26%) AWS
8 63 (20.93%) Azure
9 62 (20.60%) Java
10 61 (20.27%) Cryptography
11 58 (19.27%) DNS
12 52 (17.28%) Finance
12 52 (17.28%) Security Cleared
13 51 (16.94%) PowerShell
13 51 (16.94%) Agile Software Development
14 50 (16.61%) Degree
15 49 (16.28%) SQL
16 47 (15.61%) Windows Server
17 46 (15.28%) ITIL
17 46 (15.28%) Microsoft Certification
18 45 (14.95%) Information Security
19 43 (14.29%) C++
20 42 (13.95%) Algorithms
21 41 (13.62%) VMware
22 38 (12.62%) Validation
22 38 (12.62%) ISO/IEC 27001
22 38 (12.62%) Gemalto
22 38 (12.62%) Docker
22 38 (12.62%) Terraform
23 37 (12.29%) Unix

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 27 (8.97%) Tomcat
2 25 (8.31%) IIS
3 21 (6.98%) Elasticsearch
4 17 (5.65%) Apache
5 15 (4.98%) Confluence
6 13 (4.32%) JBoss
7 10 (3.32%) MS Exchange
7 10 (3.32%) SharePoint
8 7 (2.33%) WebLogic
8 7 (2.33%) WebSphere
9 6 (1.99%) nginx
10 2 (0.66%) Apache Spark
10 2 (0.66%) OpenStack
10 2 (0.66%) Skype for Business
11 1 (0.33%) Cloud Foundry
11 1 (0.33%) Oracle HTTP Server
11 1 (0.33%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 22 (7.31%) Microsoft Office
2 6 (1.99%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.33%) InVision
3 1 (0.33%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.33%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 1 (0.33%) Oracle BPM
1 1 (0.33%) Oracle Cash Management
1 1 (0.33%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 67 (22.26%) AWS
2 63 (20.93%) Azure
3 30 (9.97%) IaaS
4 25 (8.31%) PaaS
5 21 (6.98%) SaaS
6 20 (6.64%) Office 365
7 9 (2.99%) AWS CloudFormation
8 8 (2.66%) GCP
9 7 (2.33%) Virtual Private Cloud
10 6 (1.99%) Azure ExpressRoute
11 5 (1.66%) OpenShift
12 4 (1.33%) OneDrive
13 3 (1.00%) AWS CodeDeploy
13 3 (1.00%) Cloud Computing
13 3 (1.00%) Slack
14 2 (0.66%) Azure Active Directory
14 2 (0.66%) Serverless
15 1 (0.33%) Apigee
15 1 (0.33%) Datadog
15 1 (0.33%) IBM Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 84 (27.91%) Firewall
2 58 (19.27%) DNS
3 31 (10.30%) SSL
3 31 (10.30%) VPN
4 30 (9.97%) DHCP
5 27 (8.97%) TCP/IP
5 27 (8.97%) WAN
6 24 (7.97%) IPsec
7 21 (6.98%) Network Security
8 19 (6.31%) LAN
9 15 (4.98%) Internet
9 15 (4.98%) MPLS
10 14 (4.65%) Wi-Fi
11 12 (3.99%) BGP
11 12 (3.99%) OSPF
11 12 (3.99%) SAN
11 12 (3.99%) VLAN
11 12 (3.99%) Wireless
12 10 (3.32%) Unified Communications
13 9 (2.99%) Ethernet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 27 (8.97%) SQL Server
2 24 (7.97%) Big Data
2 24 (7.97%) MongoDB
3 20 (6.64%) PostgreSQL
4 10 (3.32%) NoSQL
4 10 (3.32%) SQL Server 2012
5 6 (1.99%) Hadoop
5 6 (1.99%) MySQL
6 5 (1.66%) Oracle Database
7 4 (1.33%) DB2
8 3 (1.00%) Relational Database
9 2 (0.66%) Amazon RDS
9 2 (0.66%) Apache Accumulo
9 2 (0.66%) Apache Hive
9 2 (0.66%) Azure SQL Database
9 2 (0.66%) Cosmos DB
9 2 (0.66%) HBase
9 2 (0.66%) Oracle Database 11g
10 1 (0.33%) Neo4j
10 1 (0.33%) Redis
Development Applications
1 24 (7.97%) JIRA
2 14 (4.65%) Jenkins
3 8 (2.66%) Git (software)
3 8 (2.66%) Metasploit
4 6 (1.99%) Bitbucket
4 6 (1.99%) Burp Suite
5 5 (1.66%) GitLab
5 5 (1.66%) Gradle
5 5 (1.66%) Snyk
6 4 (1.33%) Selenium
6 4 (1.33%) Subversion
7 3 (1.00%) Atlassian Bamboo
7 3 (1.00%) GoCD
7 3 (1.00%) IntelliJ
7 3 (1.00%) JMeter
7 3 (1.00%) VSS/SourceSafe
8 2 (0.66%) Maven
8 2 (0.66%) Oracle APEX
8 2 (0.66%) SonarQube
8 2 (0.66%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 52 (17.28%) Finance
2 24 (7.97%) Legal
3 16 (5.32%) Banking
4 9 (2.99%) Public Sector
5 6 (1.99%) Advertising
5 6 (1.99%) Back Office
6 5 (1.66%) French Language
6 5 (1.66%) Investment Banking
6 5 (1.66%) Manufacturing
7 4 (1.33%) Telecoms
8 3 (1.00%) Automotive
8 3 (1.00%) German Language
9 2 (0.66%) Law
9 2 (0.66%) Retail
10 1 (0.33%) Electronics
10 1 (0.33%) Korean Language
10 1 (0.33%) Military
Job Titles
1 41 (13.62%) Architect
2 34 (11.30%) Cryptography Engineer
3 31 (10.30%) Analyst
4 28 (9.30%) Solutions Architect
5 27 (8.97%) Network Engineer
6 26 (8.64%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 24 (7.97%) Security Engineer
8 21 (6.98%) Developer
9 18 (5.98%) Cloud Architect
10 15 (4.98%) Security Analyst
10 15 (4.98%) Tester
11 14 (4.65%) Cloud Solutions Architect
11 14 (4.65%) Platform Engineer
12 13 (4.32%) Penetration Tester
13 12 (3.99%) Applications Support
13 12 (3.99%) Support Analyst
13 12 (3.99%) Windows Engineer
14 10 (3.32%) Consultant
14 10 (3.32%) Security Architect
15 9 (2.99%) Applications Support Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 22 (7.31%) REST
2 20 (6.64%) RabbitMQ
3 13 (4.32%) Middleware
4 9 (2.99%) .NET
4 9 (2.99%) SAML
5 8 (2.66%) Web Services
6 7 (2.33%) JSON
6 7 (2.33%) LDAP
7 6 (1.99%) Kafka
7 6 (1.99%) OAuth
8 5 (1.66%) .NET Framework
9 4 (1.33%) Java EE
9 4 (1.33%) RESTful
9 4 (1.33%) XML
10 3 (1.00%) OpenID
10 3 (1.00%) Spring
11 2 (0.66%) AngularJS
11 2 (0.66%) Node.js
11 2 (0.66%) Spring Boot
11 2 (0.66%) Swagger
Miscellaneous
1 42 (13.95%) Algorithms
2 27 (8.97%) Data Centre
3 26 (8.64%) Public Cloud
4 25 (8.31%) Management Information System
5 20 (6.64%) Analytical Skills
6 19 (6.31%) Cloud Native
7 15 (4.98%) Cyberattack
8 13 (4.32%) Mobile App
9 9 (2.99%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
9 9 (2.99%) Hybrid Cloud
10 8 (2.66%) Fat Client
10 8 (2.66%) Thin Client
11 7 (2.33%) Clustering
11 7 (2.33%) Cyberthreat
12 6 (1.99%) Device Driver
12 6 (1.99%) Replication
12 6 (1.99%) Self-Motivation
13 5 (1.66%) Client/Server
13 5 (1.66%) Greenfield Project
14 3 (1.00%) Enterprise Cloud
Operating Systems
1 98 (32.56%) Windows
2 93 (30.90%) Linux
3 47 (15.61%) Windows Server
4 37 (12.29%) Unix
5 24 (7.97%) Windows Server 2016
6 23 (7.64%) Windows Server 2012
7 10 (3.32%) Kali Linux
7 10 (3.32%) Mac OS
7 10 (3.32%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 9 (2.99%) Apple iOS
8 9 (2.99%) Windows Server 2008
9 8 (2.66%) Windows 10
10 7 (2.33%) CentOS
11 6 (1.99%) Solaris
12 4 (1.33%) Android
13 3 (1.00%) VMS
13 3 (1.00%) Windows 7
14 2 (0.66%) Windows Server 2019
15 1 (0.33%) AIX
15 1 (0.33%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 81 (26.91%) Cybersecurity
2 61 (20.27%) Cryptography
3 51 (16.94%) Agile Software Development
4 46 (15.28%) ITIL
5 45 (14.95%) Information Security
6 38 (12.62%) Validation
7 35 (11.63%) Infrastructure Engineering
8 34 (11.30%) DevSecOps
9 32 (10.63%) Computer Science
9 32 (10.63%) SIEM
10 30 (9.97%) Security Operations
11 28 (9.30%) Multithreading
12 27 (8.97%) Penetration Testing
13 26 (8.64%) Data Security
13 26 (8.64%) Microservices
13 26 (8.64%) Vulnerability Management
14 25 (8.31%) Analytics
14 25 (8.31%) Open Source
14 25 (8.31%) Problem-Solving
14 25 (8.31%) Security Testing
Programming Languages
1 62 (20.60%) Java
2 51 (16.94%) PowerShell
3 49 (16.28%) SQL
4 43 (14.29%) C++
5 37 (12.29%) Python
6 30 (9.97%) Bash Shell
7 28 (9.30%) C
8 25 (8.31%) Go
9 16 (5.32%) Perl
10 12 (3.99%) T-SQL
11 9 (2.99%) Shell Script
12 8 (2.66%) C#
13 7 (2.33%) JavaScript
14 3 (1.00%) Apex Code
14 3 (1.00%) Ruby
15 2 (0.66%) AWK
15 2 (0.66%) Java 8
15 2 (0.66%) Korn
15 2 (0.66%) PL/SQL
15 2 (0.66%) sed
Qualifications
1 52 (17.28%) Security Cleared
2 50 (16.61%) Degree
3 46 (15.28%) Microsoft Certification
4 32 (10.63%) DV Cleared
5 26 (8.64%) CISSP
6 21 (6.98%) Cisco Certification
6 21 (6.98%) SC Cleared
7 13 (4.32%) CREST Certified
8 10 (3.32%) CEH
8 10 (3.32%) Computer Science Degree
9 9 (2.99%) MCP
9 9 (2.99%) SANS
10 8 (2.66%) (ISC)2 CCSP
11 7 (2.33%) CEPT
11 7 (2.33%) EC-Council LPT
11 7 (2.33%) GXPN
11 7 (2.33%) Master's Degree
11 7 (2.33%) OSCE
12 6 (1.99%) DBS Check
13 5 (1.66%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 38 (12.62%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 32 (10.63%) GDPR
3 23 (7.64%) NIST
4 16 (5.32%) NCSC
5 14 (4.65%) NIST 800
6 11 (3.65%) PCI DSS
7 10 (3.32%) QA
8 8 (2.66%) SLA
9 7 (2.33%) HMG Security Policy Framework
10 5 (1.66%) COBIT
11 4 (1.33%) RMADS
12 3 (1.00%) Cyber Essentials
12 3 (1.00%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
13 2 (0.66%) ISO 20022
13 2 (0.66%) ISO 8583
13 2 (0.66%) Sarbanes-Oxley
14 1 (0.33%) HIPAA
14 1 (0.33%) JSP 440
14 1 (0.33%) PSD2
System Software
1 113 (37.54%) Active Directory
2 38 (12.62%) Docker
3 28 (9.30%) Hyper-V
4 22 (7.31%) VMware Infrastructure
5 7 (2.33%) VMware ESXi
6 6 (1.99%) vSphere
7 5 (1.66%) Firmware
8 3 (1.00%) VMware NSX
9 2 (0.66%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
9 2 (0.66%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 2 (0.66%) Virtual Desktop
9 2 (0.66%) Virtual Servers
9 2 (0.66%) XenApp
10 1 (0.33%) Forefront TMG
10 1 (0.33%) Terminal Services
10 1 (0.33%) Virtual Machines
10 1 (0.33%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 38 (12.62%) Terraform
2 25 (8.31%) SCCM
3 24 (7.97%) SCOM
4 15 (4.98%) Kubernetes
5 14 (4.65%) Nessus
6 11 (3.65%) Ansible
7 7 (2.33%) McAfee ePO
7 7 (2.33%) SCOrch
8 5 (1.66%) Cisco Prime
8 5 (1.66%) Puppet
8 5 (1.66%) SolarWinds Orion
8 5 (1.66%) vRealize
9 4 (1.33%) Nagios
9 4 (1.33%) WSUS
10 3 (1.00%) HP Fortify
10 3 (1.00%) HP SiteScope
10 3 (1.00%) Packer
10 3 (1.00%) ZABBIX
11 2 (0.66%) Failover Clustering
11 2 (0.66%) Symantec Endpoint Protection
Vendors
1 129 (42.86%) Microsoft
2 41 (13.62%) VMware
3 38 (12.62%) Gemalto
4 31 (10.30%) Cisco
5 26 (8.64%) Google
6 18 (5.98%) Juniper
7 15 (4.98%) SolarWinds
8 12 (3.99%) Oracle
8 12 (3.99%) Palo Alto
8 12 (3.99%) Veeam
9 11 (3.65%) McAfee
10 10 (3.32%) IBM
10 10 (3.32%) Red Hat
10 10 (3.32%) Splunk
11 8 (2.66%) F5
12 7 (2.33%) Forcepoint
13 6 (1.99%) Bloomberg
13 6 (1.99%) CA
13 6 (1.99%) Citrix
13 6 (1.99%) Dell