Period
to 18 January 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 18 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
18 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 561 698 621
Rank change year-on-year +137 -77 +163
Permanent jobs citing PKI 196 350 575
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.31% 0.28% 0.38%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.81% 0.73% 0.96%
Number of salaries quoted 172 258 527
Median annual salary £55,000 £65,000 £57,500
Median salary % change year-on-year -15.38% +13.04% -
10th Percentile £38,750 £36,250 £40,000
90th Percentile £92,500 £96,250 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £55,000 £55,000
% change year-on-year -9.09% - +12.24%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 24,061 48,263 59,932
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 38.41% 38.49% 39.57%
Number of salaries quoted 18,789 37,483 46,262
Median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
10th Percentile £32,500 £30,000 £29,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £93,750 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,500 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +7.78% - +4.65%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Salary trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 18 January 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 18 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +104 169 £58,000 -10.77% 34
UK excluding London +136 122 £50,000 -9.09% 25
London +151 61 £80,000 - 15
Work from Home -25 43 £60,000 -25.00% 5
South East +102 38 £50,000 -28.57% 6
South West +66 28 £52,500 +23.53% 2
North of England +86 24 £60,000 +33.33% 2
North West +101 21 £60,000 -17.03% 1
Midlands +92 12 £50,000 -13.04% 7
Scotland +51 12 £33,250 - 2
West Midlands +59 9 £50,000 -13.04% 3
Wales - 8 £42,500 - 3
East Midlands +66 3 £45,000 -16.28% 4
East of England +93 2 - - 1
Yorkshire +48 2 £77,500 +106.67%
North East - 1 £50,000 - 1

For the 6 months to 18 January 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 99 (50.51%) Windows
2 85 (43.37%) Microsoft
3 73 (37.24%) Active Directory
4 68 (34.69%) Linux
5 61 (31.12%) Azure
6 53 (27.04%) PowerShell
6 53 (27.04%) VMware
7 49 (25.00%) Firewall
8 48 (24.49%) Cybersecurity
9 43 (21.94%) Security Cleared
10 41 (20.92%) AWS
10 41 (20.92%) Problem-Solving
11 40 (20.41%) DNS
12 37 (18.88%) VMware Infrastructure
13 36 (18.37%) Docker
14 33 (16.84%) DevOps
14 33 (16.84%) Windows Server
15 32 (16.33%) Information Security
15 32 (16.33%) Agile Software Development
16 31 (15.82%) SIEM
17 30 (15.31%) DevSecOps
18 29 (14.80%) VPN
18 29 (14.80%) SC Cleared
18 29 (14.80%) SCCM
18 29 (14.80%) Office 365
19 28 (14.29%) Windows Server 2012
20 27 (13.78%) DHCP
21 26 (13.27%) Azure Active Directory
21 26 (13.27%) Network Security
22 25 (12.76%) Python

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 12 (6.12%) IIS
2 8 (4.08%) SharePoint
3 7 (3.57%) Confluence
4 6 (3.06%) Tomcat
5 5 (2.55%) Elasticsearch
6 4 (2.04%) JBoss
6 4 (2.04%) MS Exchange
7 3 (1.53%) Skype for Business
8 2 (1.02%) Apache
8 2 (1.02%) nginx
8 2 (1.02%) WebLogic
8 2 (1.02%) WebSphere
8 2 (1.02%) WebSphere Application Server
9 1 (0.51%) Apache Solr
9 1 (0.51%) Apache Spark
9 1 (0.51%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 11 (5.61%) Microsoft Office
2 2 (1.02%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 2 (1.02%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 3 (1.53%) Q-Pulse
2 2 (1.02%) R3 Corda
3 1 (0.51%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 61 (31.12%) Azure
2 41 (20.92%) AWS
3 29 (14.80%) Office 365
4 26 (13.27%) Azure Active Directory
5 15 (7.65%) PaaS
5 15 (7.65%) SaaS
6 12 (6.12%) IaaS
7 10 (5.10%) GCP
8 6 (3.06%) Cloud Computing
9 5 (2.55%) Virtual Private Cloud
10 4 (2.04%) Amazon EC2
11 3 (1.53%) Akamai
11 3 (1.53%) Amazon ELB
11 3 (1.53%) Serverless
12 2 (1.02%) Apigee
12 2 (1.02%) G Suite
12 2 (1.02%) IBM Cloud
13 1 (0.51%) AWS CloudFormation
13 1 (0.51%) Mimecast
13 1 (0.51%) OneDrive
Communications & Networking
1 49 (25.00%) Firewall
2 40 (20.41%) DNS
3 29 (14.80%) VPN
4 27 (13.78%) DHCP
5 26 (13.27%) Network Security
6 23 (11.73%) SSL
7 19 (9.69%) WAN
8 18 (9.18%) TCP/IP
9 17 (8.67%) LAN
10 13 (6.63%) Intrusion Detection
11 11 (5.61%) IPsec
12 5 (2.55%) NetScaler
12 5 (2.55%) VLAN
13 4 (2.04%) SAN
13 4 (2.04%) Skype
13 4 (2.04%) Unified Communications
13 4 (2.04%) Wireless
14 3 (1.53%) NAS
14 3 (1.53%) Wireshark
15 2 (1.02%) Cisco IOS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 18 (9.18%) Big Data
2 10 (5.10%) SQL Server
3 9 (4.59%) Hadoop
4 6 (3.06%) Apache Accumulo
5 5 (2.55%) Amazon RDS
5 5 (2.55%) MongoDB
6 4 (2.04%) Oracle Database
6 4 (2.04%) Oracle Database 11g
6 4 (2.04%) Relational Database
7 3 (1.53%) Blockchain
7 3 (1.53%) PostgreSQL
8 2 (1.02%) Apache Cassandra
8 2 (1.02%) MySQL
9 1 (0.51%) Neo4j
9 1 (0.51%) NoSQL
9 1 (0.51%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 9 (4.59%) Jenkins
2 8 (4.08%) JIRA
3 7 (3.57%) Git (software)
4 6 (3.06%) Bitbucket
5 5 (2.55%) Subversion
6 4 (2.04%) Oracle APEX
6 4 (2.04%) Team Foundation Server
7 3 (1.53%) Burp Suite
8 2 (1.02%) Artifactory
8 2 (1.02%) Maven
9 1 (0.51%) Automake
9 1 (0.51%) SpecFlow
9 1 (0.51%) Visual Studio
General
1 22 (11.22%) Legal
2 15 (7.65%) Finance
3 7 (3.57%) Retail
4 6 (3.06%) Public Sector
5 5 (2.55%) Aerospace
5 5 (2.55%) Law
5 5 (2.55%) Military
6 4 (2.04%) Banking
7 2 (1.02%) French Language
7 2 (1.02%) German Language
7 2 (1.02%) Telecoms
8 1 (0.51%) Automotive
8 1 (0.51%) Electronics
8 1 (0.51%) Investment Banking
8 1 (0.51%) Italian Language
8 1 (0.51%) Manufacturing
8 1 (0.51%) Marketing
8 1 (0.51%) Spanish Language
Job Titles
1 30 (15.31%) Security Engineer
2 16 (8.16%) Architect
2 16 (8.16%) Cybersecurity Engineer
3 14 (7.14%) Infrastructure Engineer
3 14 (7.14%) Systems Engineer
4 12 (6.12%) 3rd Line Engineer
4 12 (6.12%) Consultant
5 11 (5.61%) DevSecOps Engineer
6 10 (5.10%) Cloud Engineer
7 8 (4.08%) Security Architect
7 8 (4.08%) Support Engineer
8 7 (3.57%) 3rd Line Support
8 7 (3.57%) 3rd Line Support Engineer
8 7 (3.57%) Analyst
8 7 (3.57%) Lead Systems Engineer
8 7 (3.57%) Network Engineer
8 7 (3.57%) NOC Engineer
9 6 (3.06%) Cloud Architect
9 6 (3.06%) Linux Systems Engineer
9 6 (3.06%) Platform Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 11 (5.61%) Kafka
1 11 (5.61%) REST
1 11 (5.61%) Web Services
2 8 (4.08%) SOAP
2 8 (4.08%) XML
3 6 (3.06%) Apache NiFi
4 5 (2.55%) .NET
4 5 (2.55%) LDAP
4 5 (2.55%) RESTful
5 4 (2.04%) HTML
5 4 (2.04%) JSON
6 3 (1.53%) AngularJS
6 3 (1.53%) CSS
6 3 (1.53%) OAuth
6 3 (1.53%) React
6 3 (1.53%) YAML
7 2 (1.02%) EJB 3.0
7 2 (1.02%) JPA
7 2 (1.02%) jQuery
7 2 (1.02%) RabbitMQ
Miscellaneous
1 24 (12.24%) Analytical Skills
2 18 (9.18%) Management Information System
3 13 (6.63%) Cloud Native
3 13 (6.63%) Data Centre
4 12 (6.12%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
5 11 (5.61%) Public Cloud
6 6 (3.06%) Cyberattack
6 6 (3.06%) Replication
7 4 (2.04%) Life Science
7 4 (2.04%) NHS
8 3 (1.53%) Algorithms
8 3 (1.53%) Linux Command Line
8 3 (1.53%) Private Cloud
9 2 (1.02%) Blackberry
9 2 (1.02%) CESG
9 2 (1.02%) Cyberthreat
9 2 (1.02%) DataPower
9 2 (1.02%) Fat Client
9 2 (1.02%) Hybrid Cloud
9 2 (1.02%) Thin Client
Operating Systems
1 99 (50.51%) Windows
2 68 (34.69%) Linux
3 33 (16.84%) Windows Server
4 28 (14.29%) Windows Server 2012
5 20 (10.20%) Windows Server 2016
6 14 (7.14%) Solaris
7 13 (6.63%) Unix
7 13 (6.63%) Windows 10
8 12 (6.12%) Windows Server 2019
9 10 (5.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 9 (4.59%) Mac OS
10 9 (4.59%) Windows Server 2003
11 8 (4.08%) Android
11 8 (4.08%) CentOS
11 8 (4.08%) Windows Server 2008
12 7 (3.57%) Windows 7
13 6 (3.06%) Apple iOS
13 6 (3.06%) Windows XP
14 4 (2.04%) MVS
14 4 (2.04%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 48 (24.49%) Cybersecurity
2 41 (20.92%) Problem-Solving
3 33 (16.84%) DevOps
4 32 (16.33%) Agile Software Development
4 32 (16.33%) Information Security
5 31 (15.82%) SIEM
6 30 (15.31%) DevSecOps
7 25 (12.76%) Security Operations
8 23 (11.73%) Continuous Improvement
9 22 (11.22%) Infrastructure Engineering
9 22 (11.22%) Vulnerability Scanning
10 21 (10.71%) Identity Access Management
11 20 (10.20%) Information Assurance
11 20 (10.20%) Project Delivery
11 20 (10.20%) Vulnerability Management
12 18 (9.18%) Analytics
13 17 (8.67%) Data Security
13 17 (8.67%) Infrastructure as Code
13 17 (8.67%) ITIL
13 17 (8.67%) Site Reliability Engineering
Programming Languages
1 53 (27.04%) PowerShell
2 25 (12.76%) Perl
2 25 (12.76%) Python
3 24 (12.24%) Bash Shell
4 21 (10.71%) SQL
5 19 (9.69%) Java
6 10 (5.10%) C
7 8 (4.08%) Shell Script
8 7 (3.57%) JavaScript
9 4 (2.04%) C++
9 4 (2.04%) PL/SQL
9 4 (2.04%) T-SQL
10 3 (1.53%) C#
10 3 (1.53%) VB
11 2 (1.02%) Ruby
12 1 (0.51%) Go
Qualifications
1 43 (21.94%) Security Cleared
2 29 (14.80%) SC Cleared
3 12 (6.12%) DV Cleared
4 11 (5.61%) Degree
5 9 (4.59%) CISSP
6 8 (4.08%) OSCE
7 7 (3.57%) SANS
8 6 (3.06%) CEH
8 6 (3.06%) CEPT
8 6 (3.06%) EC-Council LPT
8 6 (3.06%) GXPN
8 6 (3.06%) Microsoft Certification
9 5 (2.55%) Cisco Certification
9 5 (2.55%) DBS Check
10 4 (2.04%) CCNA
10 4 (2.04%) GIAC
10 4 (2.04%) OSWP
11 3 (1.53%) CCIE
11 3 (1.53%) CISM
11 3 (1.53%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 18 (9.18%) GDPR
2 11 (5.61%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 7 (3.57%) NIST
4 5 (2.55%) HMG Security Policy Framework
4 5 (2.55%) NCSC
4 5 (2.55%) PCI DSS
5 4 (2.04%) SLA
6 3 (1.53%) NIST 800
7 2 (1.02%) Cyber Essentials
7 2 (1.02%) QA
8 1 (0.51%) COBIT
8 1 (0.51%) ISO 26262
8 1 (0.51%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.51%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 73 (37.24%) Active Directory
2 37 (18.88%) VMware Infrastructure
3 36 (18.37%) Docker
4 8 (4.08%) Virtual Desktop
4 8 (4.08%) VMware ESXi
5 6 (3.06%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 6 (3.06%) Hyper-V
6 5 (2.55%) BitLocker
7 3 (1.53%) vSphere
7 3 (1.53%) XenApp
7 3 (1.53%) XenDesktop
8 2 (1.02%) VMware NSX
9 1 (0.51%) Microsoft Virtual Server
9 1 (0.51%) NFS
9 1 (0.51%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 29 (14.80%) SCCM
2 21 (10.71%) Kubernetes
2 21 (10.71%) SCOM
3 17 (8.67%) Microsoft Intune
4 15 (7.65%) SCOrch
4 15 (7.65%) Single Sign-On
5 14 (7.14%) Terraform
6 12 (6.12%) Ansible
7 5 (2.55%) AirWatch
8 4 (2.04%) SCVMM
8 4 (2.04%) vCenter Server
9 3 (1.53%) Host Intrusion Detection System
9 3 (1.53%) Microsoft Clustering
9 3 (1.53%) Opscode Chef
9 3 (1.53%) Puppet
10 2 (1.02%) CA Single Sign-On
10 2 (1.02%) Jamf Pro
10 2 (1.02%) Nessus
10 2 (1.02%) OpenVAS
10 2 (1.02%) WSUS
Vendors
1 85 (43.37%) Microsoft
2 53 (27.04%) VMware
3 12 (6.12%) Cisco
3 12 (6.12%) Veeam
4 11 (5.61%) Red Hat
5 10 (5.10%) Gemalto
5 10 (5.10%) Google
6 9 (4.59%) Citrix
6 9 (4.59%) IBM
7 6 (3.06%) MobileIron
8 5 (2.55%) EMC
8 5 (2.55%) Oracle
8 5 (2.55%) SolarWinds
9 4 (2.04%) AlienVault
9 4 (2.04%) BeyondTrust
9 4 (2.04%) F5
9 4 (2.04%) Fortinet
9 4 (2.04%) Splunk
10 3 (1.53%) CA
10 3 (1.53%) Palo Alto