Period
to 31 July 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 31 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
31 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 662 531 672
Rank change year-on-year -131 +141 -8
Permanent jobs citing PKI 344 281 469
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.30% 0.41% 0.33%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.77% 1.16% 0.93%
Number of salaries quoted 227 220 320
10th Percentile £40,000 £38,000 £40,000
25th Percentile £45,375 £50,938 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £60,000 £57,500
Median % change year-on-year -8.33% +4.35% -4.17%
75th Percentile £73,750 £82,500 £76,250
90th Percentile £85,000 £95,000 £90,050
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% -9.09%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 44,456 24,157 50,520
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.13% 35.52% 35.14%
Number of salaries quoted 26,974 19,221 38,650
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,750 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £41,250 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £52,723
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.32% +0.42%
75th Percentile £78,750 £76,250 £72,500
90th Percentile £97,500 £96,750 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Salary trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 31 July 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 31 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -137 272 £61,500 -1.60% 52
UK excluding London -146 174 £55,000 +4.76% 40
London -133 99 £65,000 -18.75% 15
Work from Home -204 88 £80,000 - 10
South East -82 83 £62,500 +19.05% 15
South West -62 37 £55,000 -38.89% 5
Midlands -69 18 £47,500 -5.00% 10
North of England -86 17 £57,500 +7.48% 6
West Midlands -62 15 £47,500 -5.00% 6
Scotland -75 12 £55,000 +4.76% 2
North West -54 10 £50,000 -6.54% 3
Wales -26 7 - - 1
East of England -42 7 £48,500 -3.00% 1
Yorkshire -65 6 £57,500 -20.69% 2
East Midlands -51 3 £48,250 - 4
North East -26 1 - - 1

For the 6 months to 31 July 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 178 (51.74%) Microsoft
2 145 (42.15%) Active Directory
3 128 (37.21%) Linux
4 125 (36.34%) Windows
5 120 (34.88%) Azure
6 78 (22.67%) Gemalto
7 76 (22.09%) PowerShell
8 75 (21.80%) VMware
9 71 (20.64%) DNS
10 67 (19.48%) Windows Server
11 61 (17.73%) Firewall
12 60 (17.44%) SSL
13 58 (16.86%) Social Skills
14 56 (16.28%) Microsoft 365
15 55 (15.99%) AWS
16 53 (15.41%) VMware Infrastructure
16 53 (15.41%) DevOps
16 53 (15.41%) Agile Software Development
17 52 (15.12%) SQL
17 52 (15.12%) Security Cleared
17 52 (15.12%) Azure Active Directory
18 49 (14.24%) Bash Shell
19 48 (13.95%) TCP/IP
20 47 (13.66%) Problem-Solving
21 44 (12.79%) Kubernetes
22 42 (12.21%) Infrastructure Engineering
22 42 (12.21%) Python
22 42 (12.21%) Git (software)
23 41 (11.92%) Docker
23 41 (11.92%) HTML

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 31 (9.01%) MS Exchange
2 28 (8.14%) IIS
3 20 (5.81%) SharePoint
4 19 (5.52%) Apache
5 13 (3.78%) Elasticsearch
6 10 (2.91%) Confluence
7 3 (0.87%) Skype for Business
7 3 (0.87%) Tomcat
8 2 (0.58%) Apache Spark
8 2 (0.58%) Exchange Server 2013
8 2 (0.58%) WebLogic
9 1 (0.29%) Exchange Server 2010
9 1 (0.29%) SharePoint 2013
Applications
1 21 (6.10%) Microsoft Office
2 1 (0.29%) Microsoft Excel
2 1 (0.29%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 1 (0.29%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 19 (5.52%) Payment Gateway
2 7 (2.03%) R3 Corda
3 1 (0.29%) Distributed Ledger
Cloud Services
1 120 (34.88%) Azure
2 56 (16.28%) Microsoft 365
3 55 (15.99%) AWS
4 52 (15.12%) Azure Active Directory
5 31 (9.01%) PaaS
6 24 (6.98%) IaaS
7 23 (6.69%) SaaS
8 11 (3.20%) Cloud Computing
9 10 (2.91%) Azure Stack
9 10 (2.91%) OneDrive
10 9 (2.62%) GCP
11 7 (2.03%) GitHub
12 6 (1.74%) Azure App Service
12 6 (1.74%) Azure Cosmos DB
12 6 (1.74%) Azure ExpressRoute
12 6 (1.74%) Azure Synapse Analytics
13 5 (1.45%) Amazon EKS
14 4 (1.16%) Amazon CloudWatch
14 4 (1.16%) Amazon GuardDuty
14 4 (1.16%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 71 (20.64%) DNS
2 61 (17.73%) Firewall
3 60 (17.44%) SSL
4 48 (13.95%) TCP/IP
5 38 (11.05%) VPN
6 25 (7.27%) DHCP
7 24 (6.98%) WAN
8 23 (6.69%) HTTP
9 21 (6.10%) LAN
10 16 (4.65%) Cisco ASA
11 13 (3.78%) Network Security
12 12 (3.49%) Cisco ISE
13 11 (3.20%) IPsec
14 9 (2.62%) Kerberos
15 8 (2.33%) Cisco IOS
15 8 (2.33%) Internet
15 8 (2.33%) Remote Desktop
15 8 (2.33%) SAN
15 8 (2.33%) Wireless
16 7 (2.03%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 38 (11.05%) SQL Server
2 35 (10.17%) MySQL
3 24 (6.98%) MariaDB
4 14 (4.07%) Apache Cassandra
5 12 (3.49%) NoSQL
6 11 (3.20%) Big Data
6 11 (3.20%) Hadoop
7 10 (2.91%) MongoDB
7 10 (2.91%) PostgreSQL
8 8 (2.33%) Blockchain
9 7 (2.03%) Amazon RDS
10 6 (1.74%) Azure SQL Database
11 2 (0.58%) Data Warehouse
11 2 (0.58%) Oracle Database
11 2 (0.58%) Oracle Database 11g
12 1 (0.29%) Relational Database
12 1 (0.29%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 42 (12.21%) Git (software)
2 26 (7.56%) Jenkins
3 15 (4.36%) JIRA
4 12 (3.49%) GitLab
5 9 (2.62%) Artifactory
6 6 (1.74%) Robot Framework
7 5 (1.45%) CMake
7 5 (1.45%) JMeter
7 5 (1.45%) PHPUnit
8 4 (1.16%) Atlassian Bamboo
9 3 (0.87%) Bitbucket
9 3 (0.87%) Maven
9 3 (0.87%) VSS/SourceSafe
10 2 (0.58%) Subversion
10 2 (0.58%) Team Foundation Server
10 2 (0.58%) WinDbg
11 1 (0.29%) Cucumber
11 1 (0.29%) JUnit
11 1 (0.29%) Mockito
11 1 (0.29%) Oracle APEX
General
1 58 (16.86%) Social Skills
2 36 (10.47%) Finance
3 17 (4.94%) Analytical Skills
4 15 (4.36%) Manufacturing
5 11 (3.20%) Telecoms
6 10 (2.91%) Legal
6 10 (2.91%) Public Sector
7 8 (2.33%) Organisational Skills
8 7 (2.03%) Electronics
8 7 (2.03%) Marketing
9 5 (1.45%) Banking
10 4 (1.16%) Inclusion and Diversity
10 4 (1.16%) Military
11 3 (0.87%) French Language
11 3 (0.87%) German Language
11 3 (0.87%) Multimedia
11 3 (0.87%) Retail
12 2 (0.58%) Aerospace
12 2 (0.58%) Japanese Language
12 2 (0.58%) Law
Job Titles
1 65 (18.90%) Consultant
2 38 (11.05%) Developer
3 30 (8.72%) Infrastructure Engineer
4 26 (7.56%) Cryptography Engineer
4 26 (7.56%) Security Consultant
4 26 (7.56%) Senior Developer
5 25 (7.27%) Architect
6 24 (6.98%) PHP Developer
7 19 (5.52%) Senior PHP Developer
8 16 (4.65%) 3rd Line Engineer
9 14 (4.07%) Systems Engineer
10 13 (3.78%) DevOps Engineer
11 12 (3.49%) 3rd Line Infrastructure Engineer
11 12 (3.49%) Cloud Engineer
11 12 (3.49%) NOC Engineer
11 12 (3.49%) Security Engineer
12 11 (3.20%) Network Engineer
13 9 (2.62%) Security Architect
13 9 (2.62%) Site Engineer
13 9 (2.62%) Site Reliability Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 41 (11.92%) HTML
2 34 (9.88%) LAMP
3 33 (9.59%) LDAP
4 29 (8.43%) SAML
5 27 (7.85%) CSS
5 27 (7.85%) Kafka
5 27 (7.85%) REST
5 27 (7.85%) SOAP
6 24 (6.98%) jQuery
7 20 (5.81%) OpenID
8 14 (4.07%) XML
9 12 (3.49%) OAuth
9 12 (3.49%) Web Services
10 10 (2.91%) LAPP Stack
10 10 (2.91%) OAuth2
11 9 (2.62%) JSON
12 8 (2.33%) Elastic Stack
12 8 (2.33%) Spring
12 8 (2.33%) Spring Boot
13 7 (2.03%) SailPoint
Miscellaneous
1 39 (11.34%) Data Centre
2 26 (7.56%) Algorithms
3 25 (7.27%) Public Cloud
4 24 (6.98%) Mobile App
5 20 (5.81%) Clustering
6 16 (4.65%) Self-Motivation
7 15 (4.36%) Hybrid Cloud
8 13 (3.78%) Private Cloud
9 10 (2.91%) Enterprise Storage
9 10 (2.91%) Management Information System
10 6 (1.74%) Cloud Native
10 6 (1.74%) Linux Command Line
11 5 (1.45%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
11 5 (1.45%) Replication
12 4 (1.16%) Client/Server
13 3 (0.87%) Device Driver
13 3 (0.87%) Greenfield Project
13 3 (0.87%) SCADA
14 2 (0.58%) Cybercrime
14 2 (0.58%) iPhone
Operating Systems
1 128 (37.21%) Linux
2 125 (36.34%) Windows
3 67 (19.48%) Windows Server
4 37 (10.76%) Windows Server 2012
5 30 (8.72%) Unix
6 26 (7.56%) Windows Server 2019
7 19 (5.52%) Windows Server 2016
8 16 (4.65%) Mac OS
9 14 (4.07%) Windows Server 2008
10 12 (3.49%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 11 (3.20%) Android
11 11 (3.20%) CentOS
12 10 (2.91%) Windows 10
13 8 (2.33%) Windows Server 2003
14 7 (2.03%) Mac OS X
15 6 (1.74%) Solaris
16 4 (1.16%) Apple iOS
17 2 (0.58%) Ubuntu
17 2 (0.58%) Windows Mobile
Processes & Methodologies
1 53 (15.41%) Agile Software Development
1 53 (15.41%) DevOps
2 47 (13.66%) Problem-Solving
3 42 (12.21%) Infrastructure Engineering
4 33 (9.59%) ITIL
4 33 (9.59%) Validation
5 32 (9.30%) Cryptography
6 28 (8.14%) Information Security
7 26 (7.56%) Cybersecurity
7 26 (7.56%) Server Management
7 26 (7.56%) Unit Testing
8 25 (7.27%) Software Engineering
9 24 (6.98%) Configuration Management
9 24 (6.98%) Infrastructure as Code
10 23 (6.69%) Mentoring
11 21 (6.10%) DevSecOps
11 21 (6.10%) Fintech
12 20 (5.81%) Scaled Agile Framework
12 20 (5.81%) SIEM
12 20 (5.81%) Technical Leadership
Programming Languages
1 76 (22.09%) PowerShell
2 52 (15.12%) SQL
3 49 (14.24%) Bash Shell
4 42 (12.21%) Python
5 37 (10.76%) JavaScript
6 29 (8.43%) Java
7 24 (6.98%) PHP
8 22 (6.40%) C#
9 18 (5.23%) Perl
10 17 (4.94%) Shell Script
11 13 (3.78%) Ruby
12 12 (3.49%) C
13 9 (2.62%) C++
14 7 (2.03%) Go
15 5 (1.45%) Kotlin
16 4 (1.16%) VB
17 3 (0.87%) Java 11
17 3 (0.87%) Java 8
18 2 (0.58%) PL/SQL
18 2 (0.58%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 52 (15.12%) Security Cleared
2 38 (11.05%) Microsoft Certification
3 32 (9.30%) SC Cleared
4 23 (6.69%) Cisco Certification
5 20 (5.81%) DV Cleared
6 18 (5.23%) CCNA
6 18 (5.23%) Degree
7 9 (2.62%) CISSP
8 7 (2.03%) CCNP
8 7 (2.03%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
9 6 (1.74%) CISM
9 6 (1.74%) MCSE
10 5 (1.45%) Computer Science Degree
10 5 (1.45%) ISTQB
11 4 (1.16%) (ISC)2 CCSP
11 4 (1.16%) AWS Certification
11 4 (1.16%) CISA
11 4 (1.16%) HNC
11 4 (1.16%) MCSA
12 3 (0.87%) OSCE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 24 (6.98%) PCI DSS
2 11 (3.20%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 10 (2.91%) SLA
4 7 (2.03%) QA
5 5 (1.45%) NIST
6 2 (0.58%) GDPR
7 1 (0.29%) Cyber Essentials
7 1 (0.29%) NIST 800
System Software
1 145 (42.15%) Active Directory
2 53 (15.41%) VMware Infrastructure
3 41 (11.92%) Docker
4 26 (7.56%) VMware ESXi
5 15 (4.36%) Hyper-V
5 15 (4.36%) vSphere
6 10 (2.91%) Terminal Services
7 9 (2.62%) BitLocker
8 6 (1.74%) Forefront TMG
8 6 (1.74%) VMware Workstation
8 6 (1.74%) XenApp
9 4 (1.16%) ProxySG
9 4 (1.16%) Virtual Machines
10 3 (0.87%) NDS
10 3 (0.87%) NetIQ eDirectory
11 2 (0.58%) NFS
12 1 (0.29%) KVM
12 1 (0.29%) Microsoft App-V
12 1 (0.29%) Snort
Systems Management
1 44 (12.79%) Kubernetes
2 32 (9.30%) Terraform
3 31 (9.01%) SCCM
4 30 (8.72%) Active Directory Federation Services
5 26 (7.56%) Ansible
5 26 (7.56%) Single Sign-On
6 17 (4.94%) SCOM
7 13 (3.78%) Jamf Pro
7 13 (3.78%) Microsoft Intune
7 13 (3.78%) Puppet
8 10 (2.91%) Microsoft Clustering
8 10 (2.91%) Prometheus
8 10 (2.91%) SCOrch
9 9 (2.62%) Grafana
9 9 (2.62%) Nessus
9 9 (2.62%) Opscode Chef
10 8 (2.33%) SCVMM
11 7 (2.03%) Kibana
11 7 (2.03%) vCenter Server
11 7 (2.03%) WSUS
Vendors
1 178 (51.74%) Microsoft
2 78 (22.67%) Gemalto
3 75 (21.80%) VMware
4 35 (10.17%) Cisco
5 19 (5.52%) Citrix
6 17 (4.94%) Apple
6 17 (4.94%) Red Hat
7 14 (4.07%) F5
8 12 (3.49%) McAfee
9 11 (3.20%) NetIQ
10 10 (2.91%) 3PAR
10 10 (2.91%) CyberArk
10 10 (2.91%) Scality
11 9 (2.62%) Atlassian
11 9 (2.62%) Dell
12 7 (2.03%) CA
12 7 (2.03%) Meraki
12 7 (2.03%) SAP
13 6 (1.74%) Oracle
13 6 (1.74%) Veeam