Period
to 12 April 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in permanent job vacancies. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 12 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK
6 months to
12 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 583 646 675
Rank change year-on-year +63 +29 +86
Permanent jobs citing PKI 269 379 481
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 0.33% 0.33% 0.32%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.82% 0.87% 0.82%
Number of salaries quoted 176 281 381
10th Percentile £40,000 £37,500 £40,000
25th Percentile £45,000 £46,250 £45,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,500 £67,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year -7.41% +22.73% +4.76%
75th Percentile £78,750 £85,000 £76,250
90th Percentile £88,125 £95,000 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year -4.76% +5.00% +11.11%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 32,608 43,803 58,696
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.51% 38.59% 39.42%
Number of salaries quoted 23,207 34,115 44,835
10th Percentile £32,500 £30,750 £29,250
25th Percentile £41,250 £39,750 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £71,655
90th Percentile £95,000 £93,750 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +5.56% -

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing PKI.

Salary trend for PKI in the UK

PKI
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing PKI over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Salary histogram for PKI in the UK

PKI
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the UK over the 6 months to 12 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +18 220 £62,500 -10.71% 57
UK excluding London +19 125 £50,000 -4.76% 51
London +76 100 £77,500 -3.13% 14
Work from Home -64 81 £75,000 -6.25% 8
South East +47 52 £62,000 +7.83% 15
South West +1 28 £55,000 +35.80% 9
Midlands +20 18 £50,000 - 7
North of England +33 15 £48,250 +20.63% 8
North West +31 12 £44,500 -33.59% 1
West Midlands +13 12 £50,000 - 5
Wales +34 9 £47,500 +18.01% 2
Scotland 0 7 £31,250 -40.48% 6
East Midlands +29 6 £45,000 - 2
East of England +47 2 £51,000 +7.37% 4
Yorkshire +14 2 £57,500 +27.78% 6
North East +10 1 £50,000 +42.86% 1

For the 6 months to 12 April 2021, IT jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for PKI.

1 135 (50.19%) Microsoft
2 107 (39.78%) Active Directory
3 102 (37.92%) Windows
4 97 (36.06%) Azure
5 90 (33.46%) Linux
6 67 (24.91%) PowerShell
7 61 (22.68%) Firewall
8 60 (22.30%) DevOps
9 54 (20.07%) Docker
10 53 (19.70%) VMware
11 52 (19.33%) DNS
12 51 (18.96%) Security Cleared
13 47 (17.47%) AWS
14 46 (17.10%) DevSecOps
15 45 (16.73%) Gemalto
16 44 (16.36%) Cybersecurity
17 42 (15.61%) Azure Active Directory
17 42 (15.61%) Information Security
18 41 (15.24%) Kubernetes
19 39 (14.50%) VMware Infrastructure
19 39 (14.50%) Python
20 37 (13.75%) Infrastructure as Code
21 36 (13.38%) Agile Software Development
22 35 (13.01%) Unix
22 35 (13.01%) Microsoft 365
22 35 (13.01%) Windows Server
23 34 (12.64%) TCP/IP
24 33 (12.27%) SQL
25 31 (11.52%) SIEM
25 31 (11.52%) Identity Access Management

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 11 (4.09%) IIS
2 9 (3.35%) Confluence
3 8 (2.97%) MS Exchange
4 7 (2.60%) SharePoint
5 4 (1.49%) Apache
6 3 (1.12%) Elasticsearch
6 3 (1.12%) JBoss
6 3 (1.12%) Tomcat
6 3 (1.12%) WebLogic
7 2 (0.74%) Skype for Business
7 2 (0.74%) WebSphere
7 2 (0.74%) WebSphere Application Server
8 1 (0.37%) Apache Spark
8 1 (0.37%) nginx
Applications
1 14 (5.20%) Microsoft Office
2 2 (0.74%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 1 (0.37%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.37%) Microsoft Project
3 1 (0.37%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 19 (7.06%) R3 Corda
2 3 (1.12%) Distributed Ledger
2 3 (1.12%) Payment Gateway
3 1 (0.37%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 97 (36.06%) Azure
2 47 (17.47%) AWS
3 42 (15.61%) Azure Active Directory
4 35 (13.01%) Microsoft 365
5 26 (9.67%) PaaS
6 24 (8.92%) IaaS
7 17 (6.32%) SaaS
8 6 (2.23%) Azure ExpressRoute
9 5 (1.86%) Cloud Computing
9 5 (1.86%) Virtual Private Cloud
10 4 (1.49%) Amazon EC2
10 4 (1.49%) Google Workspace
11 3 (1.12%) Akamai
11 3 (1.12%) Amazon CloudWatch
11 3 (1.12%) Amazon ELB
11 3 (1.12%) Amazon GuardDuty
12 2 (0.74%) Apigee
12 2 (0.74%) GCP
12 2 (0.74%) IBM Cloud
13 1 (0.37%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 61 (22.68%) Firewall
2 52 (19.33%) DNS
3 34 (12.64%) TCP/IP
4 28 (10.41%) VPN
5 25 (9.29%) WAN
6 23 (8.55%) DHCP
6 23 (8.55%) Network Security
7 18 (6.69%) SSL
8 16 (5.95%) Intrusion Detection
8 16 (5.95%) LAN
9 12 (4.46%) IPsec
10 8 (2.97%) Remote Desktop
11 7 (2.60%) Cisco IOS
11 7 (2.60%) Cisco ISE
12 6 (2.23%) Cisco ASA
12 6 (2.23%) HTTP
13 5 (1.86%) Internet
13 5 (1.86%) NetScaler
14 4 (1.49%) Wireshark
15 3 (1.12%) Unified Communications
Database & Business Intelligence
1 19 (7.06%) Blockchain
2 12 (4.46%) Big Data
3 10 (3.72%) SQL Server
4 9 (3.35%) Amazon RDS
5 7 (2.60%) NoSQL
6 6 (2.23%) Azure SQL Database
6 6 (2.23%) Cosmos DB
6 6 (2.23%) Hadoop
6 6 (2.23%) MongoDB
7 5 (1.86%) Apache Accumulo
7 5 (1.86%) MySQL
8 4 (1.49%) Relational Database
9 3 (1.12%) MariaDB
9 3 (1.12%) Oracle Database
9 3 (1.12%) Oracle Database 11g
10 2 (0.74%) Apache Cassandra
11 1 (0.37%) PostgreSQL
Development Applications
1 12 (4.46%) Jenkins
2 9 (3.35%) JIRA
3 6 (2.23%) Bitbucket
4 5 (1.86%) Git (software)
5 4 (1.49%) GitLab
6 3 (1.12%) Maven
7 2 (0.74%) Atlassian Bamboo
7 2 (0.74%) Oracle APEX
7 2 (0.74%) Subversion
7 2 (0.74%) Team Foundation Server
7 2 (0.74%) WinDbg
8 1 (0.37%) Automake
8 1 (0.37%) Cucumber
8 1 (0.37%) JUnit
8 1 (0.37%) Mockito
8 1 (0.37%) VSS/SourceSafe
General
1 29 (10.78%) Finance
2 17 (6.32%) Legal
3 8 (2.97%) Telecoms
4 7 (2.60%) Public Sector
4 7 (2.60%) Retail
5 4 (1.49%) Banking
6 3 (1.12%) Law
6 3 (1.12%) Marketing
7 2 (0.74%) Aerospace
7 2 (0.74%) Back Office
7 2 (0.74%) Electronics
7 2 (0.74%) Japanese Language
7 2 (0.74%) Manufacturing
7 2 (0.74%) Military
8 1 (0.37%) French Language
8 1 (0.37%) German Language
8 1 (0.37%) Spanish Language
Job Titles
1 38 (14.13%) Consultant
2 28 (10.41%) Security Engineer
3 23 (8.55%) Architect
4 17 (6.32%) Infrastructure Engineer
5 13 (4.83%) Cryptography Engineer
5 13 (4.83%) Cybersecurity Engineer
5 13 (4.83%) Security Consultant
6 12 (4.46%) DevOps Engineer
7 11 (4.09%) Cloud Architect
7 11 (4.09%) Developer
8 10 (3.72%) Analyst
8 10 (3.72%) DevSecOps Engineer
9 9 (3.35%) Cloud Engineer
9 9 (3.35%) Systems Engineer
10 8 (2.97%) Ethical Hacker
10 8 (2.97%) Network Engineer
10 8 (2.97%) Penetration Tester
10 8 (2.97%) Security Architect
10 8 (2.97%) Solutions Architect
10 8 (2.97%) Tester
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 26 (9.67%) Kafka
2 16 (5.95%) SAML
3 14 (5.20%) LDAP
4 12 (4.46%) REST
4 12 (4.46%) SOAP
5 9 (3.35%) Web Services
6 8 (2.97%) HTML
6 8 (2.97%) JSON
7 7 (2.60%) CSS
7 7 (2.60%) RESTful
7 7 (2.60%) SailPoint
7 7 (2.60%) XML
8 6 (2.23%) OpenID
9 5 (1.86%) .NET
9 5 (1.86%) AngularJS
9 5 (1.86%) Apache NiFi
9 5 (1.86%) jQuery
9 5 (1.86%) OAuth
10 4 (1.49%) LAMP
10 4 (1.49%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 23 (8.55%) Public Cloud
2 19 (7.06%) Data Centre
3 17 (6.32%) Management Information System
4 14 (5.20%) Cloud Native
5 13 (4.83%) Algorithms
5 13 (4.83%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
6 10 (3.72%) Analytical Skills
7 9 (3.35%) Private Cloud
8 8 (2.97%) Hybrid Cloud
8 8 (2.97%) Self-Motivation
9 6 (2.23%) Cyberattack
9 6 (2.23%) Replication
10 4 (1.49%) Mobile App
11 3 (1.12%) Client/Server
11 3 (1.12%) Clustering
12 2 (0.74%) DataPower
12 2 (0.74%) EPoS
13 1 (0.37%) Blog
13 1 (0.37%) iPhone
13 1 (0.37%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 102 (37.92%) Windows
2 90 (33.46%) Linux
3 35 (13.01%) Unix
3 35 (13.01%) Windows Server
4 30 (11.15%) Windows Server 2012
5 25 (9.29%) Windows Server 2016
6 20 (7.43%) Windows Server 2019
7 19 (7.06%) Mac OS
8 16 (5.95%) Android
9 11 (4.09%) Windows Server 2008
10 10 (3.72%) Apple iOS
10 10 (3.72%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 8 (2.97%) Windows 10
12 7 (2.60%) CentOS
12 7 (2.60%) Solaris
12 7 (2.60%) Windows Server 2003
13 6 (2.23%) Mac OS X
14 4 (1.49%) MVS
15 2 (0.74%) Windows Mobile
16 1 (0.37%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 60 (22.30%) DevOps
2 46 (17.10%) DevSecOps
3 44 (16.36%) Cybersecurity
4 42 (15.61%) Information Security
5 37 (13.75%) Infrastructure as Code
6 36 (13.38%) Agile Software Development
7 31 (11.52%) Identity Access Management
7 31 (11.52%) Problem-Solving
7 31 (11.52%) SIEM
8 27 (10.04%) Continuous Improvement
8 27 (10.04%) Fintech
9 26 (9.67%) Security Operations
10 25 (9.29%) Infrastructure Engineering
10 25 (9.29%) ITIL
11 23 (8.55%) Analytics
12 22 (8.18%) Information Assurance
12 22 (8.18%) Vulnerability Scanning
13 20 (7.43%) Vulnerability Management
14 19 (7.06%) Validation
15 18 (6.69%) Security Architecture
Programming Languages
1 67 (24.91%) PowerShell
2 39 (14.50%) Python
3 33 (12.27%) SQL
4 24 (8.92%) Bash Shell
5 18 (6.69%) Perl
6 17 (6.32%) Java
7 8 (2.97%) C
7 8 (2.97%) JavaScript
8 7 (2.60%) Shell Script
9 5 (1.86%) VB
10 3 (1.12%) PHP
10 3 (1.12%) PL/SQL
10 3 (1.12%) T-SQL
11 2 (0.74%) Go
11 2 (0.74%) Kotlin
11 2 (0.74%) Rust
11 2 (0.74%) Scala
12 1 (0.37%) C#
12 1 (0.37%) Groovy
12 1 (0.37%) Java 8
Qualifications
1 51 (18.96%) Security Cleared
2 30 (11.15%) SC Cleared
3 20 (7.43%) Microsoft Certification
4 16 (5.95%) DV Cleared
5 9 (3.35%) Cisco Certification
5 9 (3.35%) Degree
5 9 (3.35%) SANS
6 8 (2.97%) CCNA
6 8 (2.97%) CEPT
6 8 (2.97%) EC-Council LPT
6 8 (2.97%) GXPN
6 8 (2.97%) OSCE
6 8 (2.97%) OSWP
7 6 (2.23%) CISSP
7 6 (2.23%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
8 4 (1.49%) CISA
8 4 (1.49%) DBS Check
9 3 (1.12%) CESG Certified Professional
9 3 (1.12%) HNC
10 2 (0.74%) CCNP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 11 (4.09%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 7 (2.60%) SLA
3 5 (1.86%) PCI DSS
4 4 (1.49%) GDPR
4 4 (1.49%) NIST
4 4 (1.49%) QA
5 3 (1.12%) NCSC
5 3 (1.12%) NIST 800
6 1 (0.37%) COBIT
6 1 (0.37%) Cyber Essentials
6 1 (0.37%) HMG Security Policy Framework
System Software
1 107 (39.78%) Active Directory
2 54 (20.07%) Docker
3 39 (14.50%) VMware Infrastructure
4 12 (4.46%) VMware ESXi
5 10 (3.72%) BitLocker
6 8 (2.97%) Hyper-V
6 8 (2.97%) XenApp
7 6 (2.23%) vSphere
8 5 (1.86%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 5 (1.86%) Forefront TMG
8 5 (1.86%) Terminal Services
8 5 (1.86%) VMware Workstation
9 4 (1.49%) NDS
9 4 (1.49%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 3 (1.12%) XenDesktop
11 1 (0.37%) KVM
11 1 (0.37%) Snort
11 1 (0.37%) Virtual Desktop
11 1 (0.37%) Virtual Machines
11 1 (0.37%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 41 (15.24%) Kubernetes
2 24 (8.92%) Single Sign-On
2 24 (8.92%) Terraform
3 20 (7.43%) SCCM
4 15 (5.58%) Ansible
4 15 (5.58%) Microsoft Intune
5 12 (4.46%) SCOM
6 11 (4.09%) SCOrch
7 10 (3.72%) Jamf Pro
8 8 (2.97%) Microsoft Clustering
8 8 (2.97%) Nessus
9 7 (2.60%) SCVMM
10 6 (2.23%) Forefront Identity Manager
10 6 (2.23%) vCenter Server
11 5 (1.86%) Kibana
11 5 (1.86%) McAfee ePO
11 5 (1.86%) Prometheus
11 5 (1.86%) vRealize
11 5 (1.86%) WSUS
12 4 (1.49%) MIIS
Vendors
1 135 (50.19%) Microsoft
2 53 (19.70%) VMware
3 45 (16.73%) Gemalto
4 21 (7.81%) Cisco
5 15 (5.58%) Citrix
6 11 (4.09%) McAfee
7 10 (3.72%) F5
7 10 (3.72%) Red Hat
8 9 (3.35%) IBM
8 9 (3.35%) Veeam
9 8 (2.97%) Google
9 8 (2.97%) Oracle
10 7 (2.60%) CA
10 7 (2.60%) Fortinet
11 6 (2.23%) Apple
12 5 (1.86%) Atlassian
12 5 (1.86%) SAP
13 4 (1.49%) CyberArk
13 4 (1.49%) EMC
13 4 (1.49%) Juniper