Period
to 28 November 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Open Source skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Open Source over the 6 months to 28 November 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Open Source
UK
6 months to
28 Nov 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 177 115 141
Rank change year-on-year -62 +26 -39
Contract jobs citing Open Source 1,365 805 1,527
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.55% 2.23% 1.87%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 1.75% 2.57% 2.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 912 559 1,024
10th Percentile £400 £359 £380
25th Percentile £463 £438 £463
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £550
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% -4.55% +4.76%
75th Percentile £670 £638 £650
90th Percentile £744 £700 £714
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £480 £500
% change year-on-year +4.17% -4.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 5 13 10
10th Percentile £17.00 £25.39 £16.03
25th Percentile £27.50 " £19.25
Median hourly rate £42.50 £30.00 £32.00
Median % change year-on-year +41.67% -6.25% -20.00%
75th Percentile £85.00 £42.50 £45.06
90th Percentile " £63.00 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £35.00 £24.00
% change year-on-year +21.43% +45.83% -31.43%

Open Source is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 78,203 31,284 70,942
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.02% 86.68% 86.73%
Number of daily rates quoted 54,847 21,254 47,446
10th Percentile £325 £300 £288
25th Percentile £413 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £523 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - +2.70%
75th Percentile £623 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £656 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £433 £435
% change year-on-year +6.94% -0.63% +2.41%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,706 982 2,144
10th Percentile £12.25 £11.64 £11.86
25th Percentile £15.00 £15.50 £15.00
Median hourly rate £25.00 £26.51 £22.34
Median % change year-on-year -5.68% +18.67% +11.68%
75th Percentile £49.94 £46.75 £45.00
90th Percentile £64.06 £60.00 £53.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.00 £23.75 £21.00
% change year-on-year -15.79% +13.10% +5.00%

Open Source
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Open Source as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Open Source in the UK

Open Source
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Open Source.

Daily rate trend for Open Source in the UK

Open Source
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Open Source over the 6 months to 28 November 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Open Source in the UK

Open Source
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Open Source.

Hourly rate trend for Open Source in the UK

Open Source
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Open Source over the 6 months to 28 November 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Open Source in the UK

Open Source
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Open Source within the UK over the 6 months to 28 November 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -72 1,144 £565 +7.62% 427
London -55 745 £600 +9.09% 223
Work from Home -52 427 £540 -9.24% 89
UK excluding London -59 363 £500 +4.17% 233
North of England -26 95 £475 +2.70% 63
South East -70 95 £526 +5.20% 45
South West -32 53 £509 -3.14% 33
Yorkshire -10 52 £475 +5.56% 10
East of England -29 43 £540 +17.71% 28
North West -36 40 £513 +10.81% 37
Midlands -76 38 £420 +18.31% 30
West Midlands -64 28 £405 +12.50% 17
Scotland -67 23 £513 +2.50% 24
Wales -15 18 £515 +21.18% 6
East Midlands -31 10 £483 +48.46% 13
North East -16 3 £450 -14.29% 16
Isle of Man - 1 £750 -

For the 6 months to 28 November 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Open Source also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Open Source.

1 666 (48.79%) Agile Software Development
2 452 (33.11%) AWS
3 436 (31.94%) Java
4 413 (30.26%) DevOps
5 392 (28.72%) Python
6 364 (26.67%) Kubernetes
7 356 (26.08%) Microservices
8 349 (25.57%) Docker
9 341 (24.98%) Social Skills
10 333 (24.40%) Azure
11 313 (22.93%) Jenkins
12 281 (20.59%) SQL
12 281 (20.59%) Terraform
13 271 (19.85%) Linux
14 263 (19.27%) JavaScript
15 252 (18.46%) Test Automation
16 251 (18.39%) Git (software)
17 219 (16.04%) Security Cleared
18 206 (15.09%) Software Engineering
19 204 (14.95%) Finance
20 198 (14.51%) Scrum
21 181 (13.26%) TDD
22 178 (13.04%) Ansible
22 178 (13.04%) Public Sector
23 173 (12.67%) Kafka
24 171 (12.53%) SC Cleared
25 167 (12.23%) GCP
26 166 (12.16%) Maven
27 162 (11.87%) Microsoft
28 160 (11.72%) Analytics

Open Source
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 93 (6.81%) Apache Spark
2 57 (4.18%) Apache
3 48 (3.52%) Confluence
4 34 (2.49%) Elasticsearch
5 23 (1.68%) CMS
6 22 (1.61%) OpenStack
7 20 (1.47%) nginx
8 19 (1.39%) ArcGIS
9 18 (1.32%) Apache Airflow
10 16 (1.17%) Mule
11 14 (1.03%) Tomcat
12 13 (0.95%) SharePoint
13 11 (0.81%) Mule ESB
14 8 (0.59%) Jupyter
15 6 (0.44%) Camunda
15 6 (0.44%) JBoss
16 5 (0.37%) Ethereum
16 5 (0.37%) MS Exchange
16 5 (0.37%) Skype for Business
16 5 (0.37%) WildFly
Applications
1 12 (0.88%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (0.37%) Microsoft Office
3 3 (0.22%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 3 (0.22%) XMetaL
4 2 (0.15%) Microsoft Project
5 1 (0.073%) Adobe XD
5 1 (0.073%) CPLEX
5 1 (0.073%) Figma
5 1 (0.073%) MS Visio
5 1 (0.073%) Sketch
5 1 (0.073%) Spreadsheet
5 1 (0.073%) SPSS
5 1 (0.073%) SPSS Modeler
5 1 (0.073%) Steinberg Cubase
Business Applications
1 11 (0.81%) SAP HCM
2 7 (0.51%) Dynamics CRM
3 3 (0.22%) Magento
3 3 (0.22%) Sprinklr
4 2 (0.15%) Distributed Ledger
4 2 (0.15%) R3 Corda
4 2 (0.15%) SAP S/4HANA
4 2 (0.15%) Workfront
5 1 (0.073%) Cognos Business Intelligence
5 1 (0.073%) Dynamics AX
5 1 (0.073%) nopCommerce
5 1 (0.073%) Oracle EBS
5 1 (0.073%) Payment Gateway
Cloud Services
1 452 (33.11%) AWS
2 333 (24.40%) Azure
3 167 (12.23%) GCP
4 138 (10.11%) GitHub
5 108 (7.91%) PaaS
6 99 (7.25%) IaaS
7 85 (6.23%) SaaS
8 84 (6.15%) Serverless
9 83 (6.08%) AWS CloudFormation
10 53 (3.88%) npm
11 41 (3.00%) AWS Lambda
12 39 (2.86%) Power Platform
13 35 (2.56%) Amazon ECS
14 33 (2.42%) Amazon S3
15 28 (2.05%) Azure Functions
15 28 (2.05%) Azure Synapse Analytics
16 25 (1.83%) Amazon EC2
17 23 (1.68%) Azure Active Directory
17 23 (1.68%) OpenShift
18 22 (1.61%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 43 (3.15%) Firewall
2 41 (3.00%) WAN
3 40 (2.93%) HTTP
4 35 (2.56%) Network Security
5 30 (2.20%) Internet
6 29 (2.12%) DNS
7 22 (1.61%) SSL
8 16 (1.17%) TCP/IP
9 14 (1.03%) Wireless
10 13 (0.95%) VPN
11 12 (0.88%) Wi-Fi
12 10 (0.73%) SAN
13 9 (0.66%) LAN
13 9 (0.66%) SSH
14 8 (0.59%) IPv4
14 8 (0.59%) Multicast
14 8 (0.59%) Wireshark
15 7 (0.51%) 4G
15 7 (0.51%) IPv6
15 7 (0.51%) UPnP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 122 (8.94%) Big Data
2 117 (8.57%) PostgreSQL
3 113 (8.28%) NoSQL
4 105 (7.69%) MySQL
5 80 (5.86%) MongoDB
6 74 (5.42%) SQL Server
7 73 (5.35%) Relational Database
8 71 (5.20%) Hadoop
9 56 (4.10%) Apache Cassandra
10 49 (3.59%) Data Warehouse
11 48 (3.52%) Tableau
12 38 (2.78%) Data Lake
12 38 (2.78%) Power BI
13 31 (2.27%) Redis
14 30 (2.20%) Amazon RDS
15 25 (1.83%) Oracle Database
16 24 (1.76%) HBase
17 23 (1.68%) Flink
18 22 (1.61%) Amazon DynamoDB
18 22 (1.61%) Apache Hive
Development Applications
1 313 (22.93%) Jenkins
2 251 (18.39%) Git (software)
3 166 (12.16%) Maven
4 124 (9.08%) JIRA
5 103 (7.55%) Gradle
6 81 (5.93%) Selenium
7 80 (5.86%) GitLab
8 69 (5.05%) Cucumber
9 60 (4.40%) JUnit
10 55 (4.03%) CircleCI
10 55 (4.03%) gulp
11 54 (3.96%) Gatling
12 49 (3.59%) TeamCity
13 43 (3.15%) Travis CI
14 42 (3.08%) SonarQube
15 38 (2.78%) JMeter
16 36 (2.64%) Sonatype Nexus
17 31 (2.27%) Bitbucket
18 30 (2.20%) Subversion
19 25 (1.83%) Jasmine
General
1 341 (24.98%) Social Skills
2 204 (14.95%) Finance
3 178 (13.04%) Public Sector
4 145 (10.62%) Analytical Skills
5 90 (6.59%) Banking
6 59 (4.32%) Investment Banking
7 57 (4.18%) Presentation Skills
8 47 (3.44%) Telecoms
9 41 (3.00%) Influencing Skills
10 38 (2.78%) Marketing
11 20 (1.47%) Organisational Skills
12 17 (1.25%) Electronics
12 17 (1.25%) Front Office
13 16 (1.17%) Legal
13 16 (1.17%) Retail
14 14 (1.03%) Documentation Skills
15 11 (0.81%) Manufacturing
16 9 (0.66%) Financial Institution
16 9 (0.66%) Games
17 8 (0.59%) Law
Job Titles
1 375 (27.47%) Developer
2 229 (16.78%) Architect
3 134 (9.82%) DevOps Engineer
4 127 (9.30%) Java Developer
5 88 (6.45%) Solutions Architect
6 68 (4.98%) Data Engineer
7 64 (4.69%) Senior Developer
8 55 (4.03%) Analyst
9 52 (3.81%) Azure Architect
10 51 (3.74%) Software Engineer
11 49 (3.59%) Cloud Architect
12 48 (3.52%) Data Architect
13 44 (3.22%) Test Engineer
14 43 (3.15%) Data Scientist
15 41 (3.00%) Consultant
15 41 (3.00%) Kubernetes Engineer
16 36 (2.64%) Azure Engineer
16 36 (2.64%) Python Developer
17 35 (2.56%) Tester
18 32 (2.34%) AWS Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 173 (12.67%) Kafka
2 155 (11.36%) Node.js
3 152 (11.14%) Spring
4 131 (9.60%) REST
5 123 (9.01%) React
6 120 (8.79%) HTML
7 111 (8.13%) CSS
8 90 (6.59%) Spring Boot
9 87 (6.37%) Web Services
10 75 (5.49%) RESTful
11 73 (5.35%) .NET
12 65 (4.76%) AngularJS
13 62 (4.54%) Hibernate
14 61 (4.47%) XML
15 58 (4.25%) GraphQL
16 46 (3.37%) HTML5
16 46 (3.37%) JSON
16 46 (3.37%) SOAP
17 42 (3.08%) J2SE
18 33 (2.42%) RabbitMQ
Miscellaneous
1 111 (8.13%) Public Cloud
2 76 (5.57%) Cloud Native
3 56 (4.10%) User Experience
4 50 (3.66%) Algorithms
5 40 (2.93%) Virtual Team
6 38 (2.78%) Data Structures
7 37 (2.71%) Linux Command Line
8 27 (1.98%) Data Centre
8 27 (1.98%) Management Information System
9 24 (1.76%) Hybrid Cloud
10 21 (1.54%) Legacy Systems
11 19 (1.39%) Greenfield Project
12 18 (1.32%) NHS
12 18 (1.32%) Self-Motivation
13 17 (1.25%) Data Protection Act
14 15 (1.10%) Clustering
14 15 (1.10%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 15 (1.10%) Mobile App
15 14 (1.03%) PKI
16 13 (0.95%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 271 (19.85%) Linux
2 147 (10.77%) Windows
3 84 (6.15%) Unix
4 56 (4.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 26 (1.90%) Android
5 26 (1.90%) Windows Server
6 20 (1.47%) Apple iOS
7 16 (1.17%) Ubuntu
7 16 (1.17%) Windows 10
8 8 (0.59%) CentOS
9 7 (0.51%) Mac OS X
10 6 (0.44%) OpenWrt
11 5 (0.37%) Windows 7
11 5 (0.37%) Windows Server 2016
12 4 (0.29%) Debian
12 4 (0.29%) Mac OS
12 4 (0.29%) Solaris
12 4 (0.29%) Windows Server 2008
12 4 (0.29%) Windows Server 2019
13 3 (0.22%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 666 (48.79%) Agile Software Development
2 413 (30.26%) DevOps
3 356 (26.08%) Microservices
4 252 (18.46%) Test Automation
5 206 (15.09%) Software Engineering
6 198 (14.51%) Scrum
7 181 (13.26%) TDD
8 160 (11.72%) Analytics
9 158 (11.58%) Continuous Integration
9 158 (11.58%) Infrastructure as Code
10 152 (11.14%) Problem-Solving
11 113 (8.28%) SDLC
12 109 (7.99%) Migration
13 104 (7.62%) Data Modelling
14 101 (7.40%) Continuous Delivery
14 101 (7.40%) Kanban
15 97 (7.11%) Mentoring
16 91 (6.67%) Computer Science
17 87 (6.37%) Data Science
18 84 (6.15%) Business Intelligence
Programming Languages
1 436 (31.94%) Java
2 392 (28.72%) Python
3 281 (20.59%) SQL
4 263 (19.27%) JavaScript
5 133 (9.74%) Bash Shell
6 91 (6.67%) C#
7 89 (6.52%) PowerShell
8 70 (5.13%) TypeScript
9 59 (4.32%) Scala
10 56 (4.10%) R
11 52 (3.81%) Groovy
12 46 (3.37%) Go
13 43 (3.15%) C++
14 35 (2.56%) Java 8
15 34 (2.49%) PHP
16 33 (2.42%) C
17 28 (2.05%) Shell Script
18 26 (1.90%) Ruby
19 25 (1.83%) Perl
20 15 (1.10%) Java 11
Qualifications
1 219 (16.04%) Security Cleared
2 171 (12.53%) SC Cleared
3 127 (9.30%) Degree
4 36 (2.64%) DV Cleared
5 33 (2.42%) Computer Science Degree
6 28 (2.05%) BPSS Clearance
7 23 (1.68%) ISEB
7 23 (1.68%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 21 (1.54%) ISTQB
9 15 (1.10%) CISSP
10 9 (0.66%) AWS Certification
10 9 (0.66%) CISA
10 9 (0.66%) Numerate Degree
10 9 (0.66%) TOGAF Certification
11 8 (0.59%) OCPJP
11 8 (0.59%) Sun Certification
12 7 (0.51%) CEH
12 7 (0.51%) Cisco Certification
12 7 (0.51%) GIAC
13 6 (0.44%) OSCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 105 (7.69%) QA
2 33 (2.42%) GDPR
3 30 (2.20%) Accessibility
4 22 (1.61%) Data Quality
5 18 (1.32%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 9 (0.66%) NIST
7 8 (0.59%) SLA
8 6 (0.44%) JTAG
8 6 (0.44%) NCSC
8 6 (0.44%) WCAG
9 5 (0.37%) HL7
10 4 (0.29%) Disclosure Scotland
11 3 (0.22%) OASIS TOSCA
12 2 (0.15%) COBIT
12 2 (0.15%) HIPAA
12 2 (0.15%) HMG Security Policy Framework
12 2 (0.15%) JSP 440
12 2 (0.15%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 1 (0.073%) Def Stans
13 1 (0.073%) GxP
System Software
1 349 (25.57%) Docker
2 41 (3.00%) Active Directory
3 34 (2.49%) VMware Infrastructure
4 21 (1.54%) Virtual Machines
5 11 (0.81%) VMware ESXi
6 9 (0.66%) NFS
7 8 (0.59%) HDFS
8 6 (0.44%) Virtual Desktop
8 6 (0.44%) vSphere
9 5 (0.37%) Hyper-V
9 5 (0.37%) Postfix
9 5 (0.37%) VMware NSX
10 4 (0.29%) KVM
11 3 (0.22%) Apache Flume
11 3 (0.22%) Firmware
11 3 (0.22%) LXC
12 2 (0.15%) Ceph
12 2 (0.15%) iptables
13 1 (0.073%) GlusterFS
13 1 (0.073%) Snort
Systems Management
1 364 (26.67%) Kubernetes
2 281 (20.59%) Terraform
3 178 (13.04%) Ansible
4 77 (5.64%) Opscode Chef
5 59 (4.32%) Grafana
6 41 (3.00%) Prometheus
7 39 (2.86%) Puppet
8 23 (1.68%) Nagios
9 19 (1.39%) Kibana
10 16 (1.17%) Active Directory Federation Services
11 14 (1.03%) Host Intrusion Detection System
12 13 (0.95%) Oozie
13 11 (0.81%) Network Intrusion Detection System
13 11 (0.81%) Packer
14 10 (0.73%) HP ALM
15 9 (0.66%) HP Fortify
16 7 (0.51%) logstash
17 6 (0.44%) Docker Swarm
17 6 (0.44%) Istio
18 5 (0.37%) Mesos
Vendors
1 162 (11.87%) Microsoft
2 117 (8.57%) Google
3 84 (6.15%) Oracle
4 57 (4.18%) Databricks
4 57 (4.18%) SAP
5 48 (3.52%) Splunk
6 42 (3.08%) Red Hat
7 41 (3.00%) VMware
8 34 (2.49%) IBM
9 31 (2.27%) Salesforce.com
10 24 (1.76%) AppDynamics
11 19 (1.39%) BiZZdesign
12 16 (1.17%) HP
12 16 (1.17%) MuleSoft
12 16 (1.17%) NetApp
13 14 (1.03%) Cisco
13 14 (1.03%) New Relic
14 13 (0.95%) Cloudera
14 13 (0.95%) Dynatrace
15 12 (0.88%) ServiceNow