Period
to 20 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
20 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 180 167 200
Rank change year-on-year -13 +33 +74
Contract jobs citing Machine Learning 755 911 1,380
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.41% 1.59% 1.44%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 1.62% 1.86% 1.65%
Number of daily rates quoted 536 629 959
10th Percentile £362 £382 £370
25th Percentile £427 £450 £463
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £550 £550
75th Percentile £638 £650 £614
90th Percentile £713 £726 £688
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £475 £500
% change year-on-year +5.26% -5.00% +0.50%
Number of hourly rates quoted 8 10 12
10th Percentile £25.05 £13.05 £13.05
25th Percentile £26.93 £19.06 £19.33
Median hourly rate £40.68 £35.00 £43.75
Median % change year-on-year +16.21% -20.00% -2.78%
75th Percentile £52.73 £53.44 £50.00
90th Percentile £64.38 £55.50 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £50.72 £47.50 £22.93
% change year-on-year +6.78% +107.15% -37.18%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 46,528 48,924 83,745
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.88% 85.19% 87.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 31,905 32,513 56,467
10th Percentile £306 £281 £300
25th Percentile £400 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £488 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.63% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £576 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £656 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £436 £445 £435
% change year-on-year -2.02% +2.30% +3.57%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,436 1,553 2,004
10th Percentile £12.25 £12.37 £11.57
25th Percentile £15.81 £15.85 £14.50
Median hourly rate £26.50 £21.50 £22.75
Median % change year-on-year +23.24% -5.49% +8.33%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £43.88
90th Percentile £59.38 £55.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.00 £20.11 £22.40
% change year-on-year +14.37% -10.22% +12.00%

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Daily rate trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Hourly rate trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 20 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -27 642 £550 - 494
London -62 393 £550 -2.22% 257
Work from Home -104 214 £550 -0.45% 104
UK excluding London +47 210 £500 +5.26% 259
South East +31 82 £500 -4.76% 57
South West +78 39 £633 +26.50% 39
Midlands +52 31 £400 -20.99% 26
West Midlands +34 25 £388 -23.46% 18
North of England +39 22 £500 +11.11% 63
East of England +17 22 £518 +23.51% 50
North West +25 17 £548 +21.67% 37
Scotland -10 8 £450 - 20
East Midlands +25 6 £505 - 8
Wales +14 6 £416 +0.91% 2
Yorkshire +22 5 £375 -6.25% 13

For the 6 months to 20 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 465 (61.59%) Python
2 382 (50.60%) Data Science
3 262 (34.70%) Analytics
3 262 (34.70%) Agile Software Development
4 259 (34.30%) Artificial Intelligence
5 250 (33.11%) SQL
6 238 (31.52%) Azure
7 188 (24.90%) AWS
8 146 (19.34%) Visualisation
9 139 (18.41%) Finance
10 135 (17.88%) R
10 135 (17.88%) DevOps
11 130 (17.22%) Apache Spark
12 125 (16.56%) Algorithms
13 124 (16.42%) Analytical Skills
14 120 (15.89%) Computer Science
15 119 (15.76%) Big Data
16 107 (14.17%) Degree
16 107 (14.17%) Mathematics
17 104 (13.77%) Problem-Solving
18 98 (12.98%) Java
19 93 (12.32%) Software Engineering
20 92 (12.19%) Data Modelling
21 91 (12.05%) Statistics
22 89 (11.79%) Data Engineering
23 87 (11.52%) C#
24 86 (11.39%) ETL
24 86 (11.39%) Data Analysis
25 82 (10.86%) Business Intelligence
26 81 (10.73%) JavaScript

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 130 (17.22%) Apache Spark
2 44 (5.83%) Apache Airflow
3 41 (5.43%) Elasticsearch
4 27 (3.58%) Apache
5 23 (3.05%) Jupyter
6 19 (2.52%) SAS
7 14 (1.85%) Confluence
8 8 (1.06%) DNN
9 4 (0.53%) Apache Solr
9 4 (0.53%) ArcGIS
10 3 (0.40%) Apache Pig
10 3 (0.40%) nginx
10 3 (0.40%) WebLogic
11 2 (0.26%) CMS
11 2 (0.26%) SharePoint
12 1 (0.13%) Documentum
12 1 (0.13%) IIS
12 1 (0.13%) IPython
12 1 (0.13%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 1 (0.13%) Tomcat
Applications
1 18 (2.38%) Chatbot
2 10 (1.32%) Microsoft Excel
3 2 (0.26%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 2 (0.26%) SPSS
4 1 (0.13%) Adobe After Effects
4 1 (0.13%) Adobe Captivate
4 1 (0.13%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 1 (0.13%) Adobe Illustrator
4 1 (0.13%) Adobe Premiere
4 1 (0.13%) GNU Octave
4 1 (0.13%) Microsoft Office
4 1 (0.13%) Photoshop
4 1 (0.13%) Spreadsheet
4 1 (0.13%) Stata
Business Applications
1 7 (0.93%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
2 2 (0.26%) NetSuite
2 2 (0.26%) Oracle EBS
2 2 (0.26%) SAP CRM
3 1 (0.13%) Adobe Campaign
3 1 (0.13%) Eloqua
3 1 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
3 1 (0.13%) SAP ERP
3 1 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
3 1 (0.13%) SAP IS-U
3 1 (0.13%) SAP MDG
3 1 (0.13%) SAP MDM
3 1 (0.13%) SAP Oil and Gas
3 1 (0.13%) SAP PM
3 1 (0.13%) SAP S/4HANA
3 1 (0.13%) Sentinel
3 1 (0.13%) Unica
Cloud Services
1 238 (31.52%) Azure
2 188 (24.90%) AWS
3 81 (10.73%) GCP
4 55 (7.28%) Power Platform
5 45 (5.96%) Azure Machine Learning
6 34 (4.50%) Serverless
7 33 (4.37%) GitHub
8 30 (3.97%) Azure Data Factory
9 24 (3.18%) Amazon S3
10 20 (2.65%) AWS Lambda
11 18 (2.38%) Amazon SageMaker
12 17 (2.25%) Amazon EC2
12 17 (2.25%) Amazon EMR
12 17 (2.25%) Azure Synapse Analytics
13 16 (2.12%) Amazon Kinesis
13 16 (2.12%) AWS CloudFormation
14 15 (1.99%) Azure Functions
15 12 (1.59%) Amazon EKS
15 12 (1.59%) Cloud Computing
15 12 (1.59%) SaaS
Communications & Networking
1 14 (1.85%) HTTP
2 7 (0.93%) RTMP
3 6 (0.79%) Reverse Proxy
4 5 (0.66%) Firewall
5 3 (0.40%) DNS
5 3 (0.40%) FTP
5 3 (0.40%) Network Security
6 2 (0.26%) Internet
6 2 (0.26%) RTP
6 2 (0.26%) SNMP
7 1 (0.13%) 4G
7 1 (0.13%) Cisco IPT
7 1 (0.13%) LAN
7 1 (0.13%) SAN
7 1 (0.13%) TCP/IP
7 1 (0.13%) VPN
7 1 (0.13%) WAN
7 1 (0.13%) WebEx
7 1 (0.13%) X.21
7 1 (0.13%) ZigBee
Database & Business Intelligence
1 119 (15.76%) Big Data
2 67 (8.87%) Hadoop
3 66 (8.74%) Data Warehouse
4 62 (8.21%) Data Lake
4 62 (8.21%) Data Mining
5 56 (7.42%) NoSQL
6 51 (6.75%) Power BI
7 46 (6.09%) SQL Server
8 44 (5.83%) Tableau
9 41 (5.43%) Relational Database
10 27 (3.58%) MySQL
11 21 (2.78%) Apache Hive
11 21 (2.78%) PostgreSQL
12 20 (2.65%) Amazon Athena
12 20 (2.65%) Amazon Redshift
13 19 (2.52%) MongoDB
14 16 (2.12%) Geospatial Data
15 15 (1.99%) Apache Cassandra
15 15 (1.99%) Azure SQL Database
15 15 (1.99%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 81 (10.73%) Git (software)
2 42 (5.56%) Jenkins
3 26 (3.44%) JIRA
4 19 (2.52%) GitLab
5 14 (1.85%) MLflow
6 12 (1.59%) Gradle
7 10 (1.32%) Artifactory
7 10 (1.32%) CircleCI
7 10 (1.32%) CMake
8 8 (1.06%) Jasmine
8 8 (1.06%) JUnit
8 8 (1.06%) RStudio
9 7 (0.93%) Karma Test Runner
9 7 (0.93%) NUnit
9 7 (0.93%) Selenium
10 6 (0.79%) PyCharm
11 5 (0.66%) Cypress.io
11 5 (0.66%) git-flow
12 4 (0.53%) Maven
12 4 (0.53%) Moq
General
1 139 (18.41%) Finance
2 52 (6.89%) Public Sector
3 50 (6.62%) Marketing
4 37 (4.90%) Banking
5 26 (3.44%) Retail
6 25 (3.31%) Front Office
7 15 (1.99%) Legal
8 14 (1.85%) Pharmaceutical
8 14 (1.85%) Telecoms
9 13 (1.72%) Back Office
10 12 (1.59%) Games
11 10 (1.32%) Investment Banking
12 8 (1.06%) Local Government
12 8 (1.06%) Retail Banking
13 5 (0.66%) Manufacturing
14 4 (0.53%) Electronics
15 3 (0.40%) Aerospace
15 3 (0.40%) Automotive
15 3 (0.40%) Military
16 2 (0.26%) Law
Job Titles
1 186 (24.64%) Data Scientist
2 138 (18.28%) Developer
3 73 (9.67%) Data Engineer
4 72 (9.54%) Architect
5 68 (9.01%) Senior Data Scientist
6 46 (6.09%) Analyst
7 44 (5.83%) Python Developer
8 42 (5.56%) Python Engineer
9 38 (5.03%) Machine Learning Engineer
10 37 (4.90%) DevOps Engineer
11 35 (4.64%) Data Architect
12 30 (3.97%) Consultant
13 24 (3.18%) Software Engineer
14 23 (3.05%) AWS Engineer
15 22 (2.91%) Data Analyst
16 21 (2.78%) Solutions Architect
17 17 (2.25%) .NET Developer
18 16 (2.12%) Cloud Engineer
19 15 (1.99%) C# Developer
19 15 (1.99%) Full Stack Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 68 (9.01%) .NET
2 59 (7.81%) TensorFlow
3 52 (6.89%) Kafka
4 47 (6.23%) Pandas
4 47 (6.23%) PyTorch
4 47 (6.23%) React
5 45 (5.96%) NumPy
6 43 (5.70%) scikit-learn
7 40 (5.30%) AngularJS
8 39 (5.17%) Web Services
9 36 (4.77%) Node.js
10 34 (4.50%) HTML
11 29 (3.84%) Keras
12 24 (3.18%) RESTful
13 21 (2.78%) PySpark
14 19 (2.52%) REST
15 18 (2.38%) CSS
15 18 (2.38%) JSON
16 17 (2.25%) Django
16 17 (2.25%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 125 (16.56%) Algorithms
2 124 (16.42%) Analytical Skills
3 57 (7.55%) Data Structures
4 26 (3.44%) Greenfield Project
5 24 (3.18%) Cloud Native
6 23 (3.05%) User Experience
7 14 (1.85%) Organisational Skills
7 14 (1.85%) Self-Motivation
8 13 (1.72%) Analytical Mindset
9 10 (1.32%) Augmented Reality
9 10 (1.32%) Robotics
9 10 (1.32%) Virtual Team
10 9 (1.19%) Client/Server
11 8 (1.06%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 8 (1.06%) Hedge funds
11 8 (1.06%) NHS
12 7 (0.93%) Equities
12 7 (0.93%) Lidar
13 6 (0.79%) Fixed Income
13 6 (0.79%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 34 (4.50%) Linux
2 24 (3.18%) Windows
3 13 (1.72%) Android
3 13 (1.72%) Unix
4 3 (0.40%) AIX
5 2 (0.26%) Apple iOS
5 2 (0.26%) Ubuntu
5 2 (0.26%) Windows 10
6 1 (0.13%) Alpine Linux
6 1 (0.13%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 382 (50.60%) Data Science
2 262 (34.70%) Agile Software Development
2 262 (34.70%) Analytics
3 259 (34.30%) Artificial Intelligence
4 146 (19.34%) Visualisation
5 135 (17.88%) DevOps
6 120 (15.89%) Computer Science
7 107 (14.17%) Mathematics
8 104 (13.77%) Problem-Solving
9 93 (12.32%) Software Engineering
10 92 (12.19%) Data Modelling
11 91 (12.05%) Statistics
12 89 (11.79%) Data Engineering
13 86 (11.39%) Data Analysis
13 86 (11.39%) ETL
14 82 (10.86%) Business Intelligence
15 81 (10.73%) Data Analytics
16 67 (8.87%) Data Visualisation
16 67 (8.87%) Natural Language Processing
17 52 (6.89%) Deep Learning
Programming Languages
1 465 (61.59%) Python
2 250 (33.11%) SQL
3 135 (17.88%) R
4 98 (12.98%) Java
5 87 (11.52%) C#
6 81 (10.73%) JavaScript
7 49 (6.49%) Scala
8 44 (5.83%) C++
9 39 (5.17%) TypeScript
10 36 (4.77%) Bash Shell
11 34 (4.50%) PowerShell
12 23 (3.05%) MATLAB
13 16 (2.12%) Go
14 15 (1.99%) C
15 12 (1.59%) Shell Script
16 8 (1.06%) Data Analysis Expressions (DAX)
16 8 (1.06%) PHP
17 7 (0.93%) VBA
18 6 (0.79%) Ruby
19 5 (0.66%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 107 (14.17%) Degree
2 79 (10.46%) Security Cleared
3 66 (8.74%) SC Cleared
4 43 (5.70%) PhD
5 33 (4.37%) DV Cleared
6 16 (2.12%) Computer Science Degree
7 15 (1.99%) Master's Degree
8 12 (1.59%) AWS Certification
9 9 (1.19%) Numerate Degree
10 5 (0.66%) Postgraduate
11 4 (0.53%) Microsoft Certification
12 3 (0.40%) BPSS Clearance
12 3 (0.40%) DBS Check
12 3 (0.40%) TOGAF Certification
13 2 (0.26%) CISM
13 2 (0.26%) CISSP
13 2 (0.26%) ISEB
13 2 (0.26%) MCTS
14 1 (0.13%) ISTQB
14 1 (0.13%) LPIC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 37 (4.90%) Data Quality
2 34 (4.50%) QA
3 8 (1.06%) GDPR
4 3 (0.40%) Disclosure Scotland
5 2 (0.26%) Actionable Recommendations
5 2 (0.26%) ISO/IEC 20000
6 1 (0.13%) HL7
6 1 (0.13%) IFRS
6 1 (0.13%) ISO 9000
6 1 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 1 (0.13%) NIST
6 1 (0.13%) PCI DSS
6 1 (0.13%) PMO
6 1 (0.13%) TARGET2
System Software
1 69 (9.14%) Docker
2 4 (0.53%) HDFS
3 3 (0.40%) Active Directory
4 2 (0.26%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.13%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 1 (0.13%) Apache Flume
5 1 (0.13%) IAG
5 1 (0.13%) Varnish
5 1 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 72 (9.54%) Kubernetes
2 56 (7.42%) Terraform
3 20 (2.65%) Ansible
4 12 (1.59%) Kibana
5 10 (1.32%) Opscode Chef
5 10 (1.32%) Prometheus
6 8 (1.06%) Grafana
7 7 (0.93%) HP SIM
7 7 (0.93%) Icinga
7 7 (0.93%) Nagios
7 7 (0.93%) Opsview
8 6 (0.79%) Kubeflow
9 5 (0.66%) Puppet
10 3 (0.40%) logstash
10 3 (0.40%) MIIS
11 2 (0.26%) Argo
11 2 (0.26%) Istio
12 1 (0.13%) Hadoop YARN
12 1 (0.13%) Rsyslog
Vendors
1 47 (6.23%) Microsoft
1 47 (6.23%) Oracle
2 46 (6.09%) Databricks
3 39 (5.17%) Google
4 20 (2.65%) IBM
5 16 (2.12%) SAP
6 15 (1.99%) Splunk
7 11 (1.46%) Salesforce.com
8 10 (1.32%) Adobe
8 10 (1.32%) AppDynamics
9 7 (0.93%) Dynatrace
9 7 (0.93%) HP
9 7 (0.93%) Sage
9 7 (0.93%) Sparx
10 6 (0.79%) Informatica
10 6 (0.79%) ServiceNow
10 6 (0.79%) Teradata
11 5 (0.66%) Cognos
12 3 (0.40%) Cadence
12 3 (0.40%) JD Edwards