Period
to 15 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 15 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
15 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 89 95 96
Rank change year-on-year +6 +1 +30
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 3,557 2,664 4,710
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.52% 3.18% 3.28%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.78% 3.44% 3.55%
Number of salaries quoted 2,015 2,133 3,607
10th Percentile £40,000 £38,250 £35,000
25th Percentile £47,500 £47,500 £47,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,500 £67,500 £65,000
Median % change year-on-year -7.41% +3.85% +4.00%
75th Percentile £82,500 £90,000 £85,000
90th Percentile £95,000 £114,750 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% -

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 94,023 77,381 132,645
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 93.12% 92.34% 92.33%
Number of salaries quoted 66,030 62,195 105,225
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £30,000
25th Percentile £41,250 £41,250 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £73,750 £70,000
90th Percentile £91,250 £90,000 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,900 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +2.95% +5.56% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 15 June 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 15 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +12 3,321 £65,000 -3.70% 468
London +3 1,936 £70,000 -9.68% 239
UK excluding London +16 1,468 £55,000 - 252
Work from Home -11 691 £60,000 - 97
South East +11 422 £55,000 -8.33% 48
South West +37 388 £52,500 +5.00% 22
North of England +11 260 £60,000 +14.29% 50
North West +16 183 £57,500 +9.52% 24
East of England +4 150 £52,500 -0.31% 76
Midlands -15 117 £57,500 +4.55% 32
Scotland -41 76 £55,000 - 17
West Midlands -32 73 £57,500 +4.55% 16
Yorkshire -20 59 £80,000 +45.45% 18
East Midlands -15 42 £60,000 +29.73% 16
Northern Ireland -2 23 £77,500 +47.62% 5
Isle of Man - 23 - -
North East -12 18 £65,000 +30.00% 8
Wales -6 9 £51,750 +19.13% 3

For the 6 months to 15 June 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 1,925 (54.12%) Python
2 1,550 (43.58%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,385 (38.94%) Data Science
4 1,315 (36.97%) AWS
5 1,308 (36.77%) Agile Software Development
6 1,104 (31.04%) Analytics
7 978 (27.50%) Software Engineering
8 950 (26.71%) Azure
9 924 (25.98%) SQL
10 878 (24.68%) Docker
11 761 (21.39%) DevOps
12 746 (20.97%) JavaScript
13 731 (20.55%) Big Data
14 727 (20.44%) Finance
15 654 (18.39%) GCP
16 649 (18.25%) Degree
17 644 (18.11%) Kubernetes
18 638 (17.94%) Java
19 620 (17.43%) Social Skills
20 608 (17.09%) Microservices
21 573 (16.11%) Algorithms
22 549 (15.43%) Computer Science
23 534 (15.01%) Scrum
24 524 (14.73%) React
25 477 (13.41%) Mathematics
26 437 (12.29%) Linux
27 435 (12.23%) Problem-Solving
28 417 (11.72%) C#
29 413 (11.61%) Mentoring
30 410 (11.53%) Business Intelligence

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 297 (8.35%) Apache Spark
2 251 (7.06%) Confluence
3 181 (5.09%) Elasticsearch
4 135 (3.80%) Apache Airflow
5 78 (2.19%) Apache
6 72 (2.02%) SAS
7 53 (1.49%) CMS
8 39 (1.10%) Jupyter
9 24 (0.67%) SharePoint
10 17 (0.48%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 15 (0.42%) Oracle Workflow
12 10 (0.28%) Apache Pig
12 10 (0.28%) WordPress
13 9 (0.25%) Cloud Foundry
14 6 (0.17%) IIS
14 6 (0.17%) Luigi
15 5 (0.14%) Drupal
16 4 (0.11%) Headless CMS
16 4 (0.11%) MS Exchange
17 3 (0.084%) Umbraco
Applications
1 48 (1.35%) Microsoft Excel
2 41 (1.15%) Simulink
3 37 (1.04%) Chatbot
3 37 (1.04%) Stateflow
4 15 (0.42%) MS Visio
5 14 (0.39%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 10 (0.28%) InVision
6 10 (0.28%) Microsoft Office
6 10 (0.28%) Photoshop
6 10 (0.28%) Sketch
6 10 (0.28%) SPSS
7 7 (0.20%) Adobe Illustrator
8 6 (0.17%) Figma
8 6 (0.17%) Gephi
9 4 (0.11%) Adobe XD
9 4 (0.11%) GIMP
9 4 (0.11%) Inkscape
10 2 (0.056%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 2 (0.056%) Weka
10 2 (0.056%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 24 (0.67%) Payment Gateway
2 23 (0.65%) Shopify
3 7 (0.20%) FINCAD Analytics
4 5 (0.14%) Loan IQ
5 4 (0.11%) Sentinel
5 4 (0.11%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 1 (0.028%) Eikon
6 1 (0.028%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
6 1 (0.028%) Remedy ITSM
6 1 (0.028%) SAP R/3
6 1 (0.028%) Summit
6 1 (0.028%) WebTrends
Cloud Services
1 1,315 (36.97%) AWS
2 950 (26.71%) Azure
3 654 (18.39%) GCP
4 251 (7.06%) Serverless
5 218 (6.13%) Power Platform
6 195 (5.48%) SaaS
7 153 (4.30%) GitHub
8 132 (3.71%) Amazon S3
9 98 (2.76%) Cloud Computing
10 93 (2.61%) AWS Lambda
11 89 (2.50%) AWS CloudFormation
12 82 (2.31%) PaaS
13 77 (2.16%) Amazon SageMaker
14 66 (1.86%) Azure Data Factory
14 66 (1.86%) Azure Machine Learning
15 51 (1.43%) Amazon EC2
16 48 (1.35%) Azure Functions
17 45 (1.27%) Snowflake
18 39 (1.10%) Amazon ECS
19 37 (1.04%) AWS Fargate
Communications & Networking
1 153 (4.30%) Firewall
2 105 (2.95%) VPN
3 98 (2.76%) IPv4
4 84 (2.36%) VLAN
5 83 (2.33%) OSPF
6 52 (1.46%) Internet
7 43 (1.21%) HTTP
8 17 (0.48%) Network Security
9 16 (0.45%) DNS
10 15 (0.42%) TCP/IP
11 12 (0.34%) SSL
12 10 (0.28%) FTP
13 7 (0.20%) Ethernet
13 7 (0.20%) IPsec
14 6 (0.17%) Intrusion Detection
14 6 (0.17%) MPLS
15 3 (0.084%) MQTT
16 2 (0.056%) DSL
16 2 (0.056%) RFID
16 2 (0.056%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 731 (20.55%) Big Data
2 250 (7.03%) PostgreSQL
3 242 (6.80%) Data Warehouse
4 232 (6.52%) NoSQL
5 209 (5.88%) SQL Server
6 203 (5.71%) Power BI
7 171 (4.81%) Relational Database
8 168 (4.72%) Data Mining
9 160 (4.50%) Hadoop
10 146 (4.10%) Tableau
11 134 (3.77%) MongoDB
12 132 (3.71%) Data Lake
13 126 (3.54%) MySQL
14 103 (2.90%) Redis
15 76 (2.14%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 72 (2.02%) BigQuery
17 61 (1.71%) Amazon Redshift
18 60 (1.69%) GIS
18 60 (1.69%) SQL Server Reporting Services
19 51 (1.43%) Amazon DynamoDB
Development Applications
1 398 (11.19%) Git (software)
2 318 (8.94%) JIRA
3 237 (6.66%) Jenkins
4 89 (2.50%) Subversion
5 66 (1.86%) Cypress.io
6 65 (1.83%) Bitbucket
7 54 (1.52%) Selenium
8 52 (1.46%) webpack
9 41 (1.15%) GitLab
10 30 (0.84%) Cucumber
11 28 (0.79%) gulp
12 27 (0.76%) Jasmine
13 24 (0.67%) Team Foundation Server
14 19 (0.53%) Atlassian Bamboo
14 19 (0.53%) TeamCity
14 19 (0.53%) Visual Studio
15 18 (0.51%) CircleCI
16 17 (0.48%) Rational DOORS
17 15 (0.42%) Octopus Deploy
18 14 (0.39%) Pylint
General
1 727 (20.44%) Finance
2 620 (17.43%) Social Skills
3 380 (10.68%) Analytical Skills
4 272 (7.65%) Banking
5 204 (5.74%) Marketing
6 190 (5.34%) Retail
7 168 (4.72%) Games
8 165 (4.64%) Legal
9 146 (4.10%) Law
10 107 (3.01%) Telecoms
11 106 (2.98%) Presentation Skills
12 76 (2.14%) Pharmaceutical
13 75 (2.11%) Investment Banking
14 66 (1.86%) Public Sector
15 65 (1.83%) Front Office
16 62 (1.74%) Influencing Skills
17 60 (1.69%) Financial Institution
18 59 (1.66%) Manufacturing
19 57 (1.60%) Advertising
20 54 (1.52%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 827 (23.25%) Developer
2 396 (11.13%) Software Engineer
3 386 (10.85%) Data Scientist
4 283 (7.96%) Data Engineer
5 211 (5.93%) Architect
6 182 (5.12%) Python Engineer
7 180 (5.06%) Senior Developer
8 170 (4.78%) Machine Learning Engineer
9 166 (4.67%) Senior Software Engineer
10 128 (3.60%) Analyst
11 116 (3.26%) DevOps Engineer
11 116 (3.26%) Full Stack Developer
12 106 (2.98%) Python Developer
13 101 (2.84%) C# Developer
14 97 (2.73%) Senior Data Scientist
15 89 (2.50%) Data Architect
15 89 (2.50%) JavaScript Developer
16 83 (2.33%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
16 83 (2.33%) Solutions Architect
17 76 (2.14%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 524 (14.73%) React
2 373 (10.49%) .NET
3 361 (10.15%) Node.js
4 306 (8.60%) AngularJS
5 268 (7.53%) Web Services
6 266 (7.48%) CSS
7 248 (6.97%) HTML
8 243 (6.83%) REST
9 226 (6.35%) Kafka
9 226 (6.35%) TensorFlow
10 187 (5.26%) Vue.js
11 185 (5.20%) RESTful
12 175 (4.92%) NumPy
13 166 (4.67%) .NET Core
14 164 (4.61%) GraphQL
15 161 (4.53%) Pandas
16 147 (4.13%) scikit-learn
17 146 (4.10%) PyTorch
18 141 (3.96%) Django
19 110 (3.09%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 573 (16.11%) Algorithms
2 325 (9.14%) User Experience
3 120 (3.37%) Hedge funds
4 119 (3.35%) Greenfield Project
5 117 (3.29%) Data Structures
6 111 (3.12%) Cyberattack
7 105 (2.95%) Hybrid Cloud
8 101 (2.84%) Public Cloud
9 100 (2.81%) Cloud Native
10 86 (2.42%) Robotics
11 81 (2.28%) Mobile App
12 79 (2.22%) Equities
13 67 (1.88%) Linux Command Line
14 60 (1.69%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 52 (1.46%) Fixed Income
16 50 (1.41%) Self-Motivation
17 47 (1.32%) Derivative
18 46 (1.29%) NHS
19 44 (1.24%) Blog
20 39 (1.10%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 437 (12.29%) Linux
2 116 (3.26%) Windows
3 108 (3.04%) CentOS
4 87 (2.45%) Unix
5 82 (2.31%) Android
6 77 (2.16%) Apple iOS
7 67 (1.88%) Ubuntu
7 67 (1.88%) Windows Server
8 60 (1.69%) Windows Server 2016
9 47 (1.32%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 9 (0.25%) VMS
11 6 (0.17%) Mac OS
12 1 (0.028%) Debian
12 1 (0.028%) Robot Operating System
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,550 (43.58%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,385 (38.94%) Data Science
3 1,308 (36.77%) Agile Software Development
4 1,104 (31.04%) Analytics
5 978 (27.50%) Software Engineering
6 761 (21.39%) DevOps
7 608 (17.09%) Microservices
8 549 (15.43%) Computer Science
9 534 (15.01%) Scrum
10 477 (13.41%) Mathematics
11 435 (12.23%) Problem-Solving
12 413 (11.61%) Mentoring
13 410 (11.53%) Business Intelligence
14 390 (10.96%) Visualisation
15 326 (9.17%) Test Automation
16 320 (9.00%) Natural Language Processing
17 298 (8.38%) SDLC
18 297 (8.35%) Infrastructure as Code
19 286 (8.04%) Continuous Integration
20 283 (7.96%) Data Analytics
Programming Languages
1 1,925 (54.12%) Python
2 924 (25.98%) SQL
3 746 (20.97%) JavaScript
4 638 (17.94%) Java
5 417 (11.72%) C#
6 304 (8.55%) TypeScript
7 282 (7.93%) C++
8 270 (7.59%) R
9 176 (4.95%) Bash Shell
9 176 (4.95%) Scala
10 163 (4.58%) C
10 163 (4.58%) Go
11 152 (4.27%) PowerShell
12 95 (2.67%) MATLAB
13 80 (2.25%) Ruby
14 50 (1.41%) Java 8
15 48 (1.35%) Shell Script
16 47 (1.32%) ES6
17 38 (1.07%) PHP
18 37 (1.04%) Cython
Qualifications
1 649 (18.25%) Degree
2 259 (7.28%) PhD
3 172 (4.84%) Computer Science Degree
4 93 (2.61%) Security Cleared
5 83 (2.33%) Master's Degree
6 44 (1.24%) DV Cleared
7 43 (1.21%) GIAC
8 37 (1.04%) RHCE
9 36 (1.01%) SC Cleared
10 32 (0.90%) Numerate Degree
11 24 (0.67%) AWS Certification
12 11 (0.31%) Microsoft Certification
13 6 (0.17%) CCNA
13 6 (0.17%) CEH
13 6 (0.17%) Cisco Certification
13 6 (0.17%) CISSP
13 6 (0.17%) Linux+ Certification
13 6 (0.17%) MCSE
13 6 (0.17%) Network+ Certification
13 6 (0.17%) SSCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 123 (3.46%) QA
2 49 (1.38%) Data Quality
3 47 (1.32%) GDPR
4 25 (0.70%) Accessibility
5 19 (0.53%) CDISC
6 18 (0.51%) PSD2
7 14 (0.39%) MiFID
8 12 (0.34%) Dodd-Frank
8 12 (0.34%) EMIR
9 8 (0.22%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 7 (0.20%) WAI
11 6 (0.17%) Good Clinical Practice
11 6 (0.17%) NIST
12 4 (0.11%) WCAG
13 3 (0.084%) DICOM
13 3 (0.084%) NCSC
14 2 (0.056%) NIST 800
14 2 (0.056%) PMO
15 1 (0.028%) IFRS
15 1 (0.028%) IFRS 9
System Software
1 878 (24.68%) Docker
2 98 (2.76%) VMware Infrastructure
3 79 (2.22%) VMware ESXi
4 34 (0.96%) Active Directory
5 11 (0.31%) Firmware
5 11 (0.31%) Virtual Machines
6 9 (0.25%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 7 (0.20%) etcd
8 6 (0.17%) Apache Flume
8 6 (0.17%) Ceph
9 5 (0.14%) VirtualBox
10 2 (0.056%) Hyper-V
10 2 (0.056%) Snort
11 1 (0.028%) HDFS
11 1 (0.028%) NFS
11 1 (0.028%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 644 (18.11%) Kubernetes
2 332 (9.33%) Terraform
3 271 (7.62%) Ansible
4 148 (4.16%) Puppet
5 76 (2.14%) Prometheus
6 67 (1.88%) Grafana
7 26 (0.73%) Opscode Chef
8 24 (0.67%) Istio
9 13 (0.37%) Fortio
9 13 (0.37%) Kiali
10 12 (0.34%) Consul
11 10 (0.28%) Kibana
11 10 (0.28%) Kubeflow
12 7 (0.20%) Oozie
13 6 (0.17%) Galera Cluster
14 5 (0.14%) Docker Swarm
14 5 (0.14%) Packer
14 5 (0.14%) systemd
15 4 (0.11%) Marathon
15 4 (0.11%) Mesos
Vendors
1 347 (9.76%) Google
2 338 (9.50%) Microsoft
3 136 (3.82%) Databricks
4 106 (2.98%) Oracle
5 101 (2.84%) VMware
6 86 (2.42%) Red Hat
7 64 (1.80%) SAP
8 41 (1.15%) Facebook
9 40 (1.12%) Yahoo!
10 29 (0.82%) Cloudera
11 28 (0.79%) Splunk
12 25 (0.70%) Salesforce.com
13 23 (0.65%) Elastic Path
14 21 (0.59%) Sun
15 20 (0.56%) Atlassian
16 18 (0.51%) BT
17 17 (0.48%) IBM
17 17 (0.48%) Instagram
18 16 (0.45%) Samsung
19 15 (0.42%) YouTube