Period
to 2 July 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 2 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
2 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 95 98 122
Rank change year-on-year +3 +24 +99
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 2,468 4,737 4,882
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.13% 3.25% 2.77%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.39% 3.52% 3.00%
Number of salaries quoted 2,099 3,881 4,202
Median annual salary £65,000 £65,000 £62,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +4.00% -
10th Percentile £37,500 £36,250 £36,250
90th Percentile £112,500 £100,000 £96,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £55,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% -4.55% +4.76%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 72,835 134,554 162,549
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 92.25% 92.22% 92.19%
Number of salaries quoted 57,989 105,836 130,616
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +3.63%
10th Percentile £31,750 £30,000 £29,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £86,250 £82,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 2 July 2020.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 2 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 2,324 £67,500 +3.85% 244
London -5 1,410 £75,000 - 100
UK excluding London +12 1,028 £55,000 +4.76% 160
South East +43 364 £60,000 +14.29% 41
Work from Home +3 205 £60,000 -7.69% 45
North of England +27 178 £55,000 - 36
South West +7 160 £50,000 - 15
East of England -9 128 £52,500 -16.00% 33
North West +32 123 £52,500 -4.55% 19
Midlands +54 86 £55,000 - 17
Scotland +14 79 £55,000 +22.22% 15
West Midlands +80 72 £55,000 - 12
Yorkshire +62 39 £55,000 -8.33% 8
East Midlands +19 21 £55,000 +10.00% 5
Wales -6 20 £50,000 - 2
North East +18 16 £40,000 -15.20% 9
Northern Ireland +31 14 £55,000 +10.00% 1
Channel Islands - 7 £65,000 -

For the 6 months to 2 July 2020, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 1,272 (51.54%) Python
2 1,146 (46.43%) Artificial Intelligence
3 901 (36.51%) Data Science
4 751 (30.43%) Agile Software Development
5 750 (30.39%) AWS
6 736 (29.82%) SQL
7 704 (28.53%) Analytics
8 616 (24.96%) Java
9 608 (24.64%) JavaScript
10 557 (22.57%) Software Engineering
11 556 (22.53%) Big Data
12 542 (21.96%) Finance
13 532 (21.56%) Azure
14 515 (20.87%) Degree
15 495 (20.06%) Docker
16 454 (18.40%) C#
17 385 (15.60%) Microservices
18 380 (15.40%) Computer Science
19 379 (15.36%) DevOps
20 371 (15.03%) Algorithms
21 364 (14.75%) .NET
22 359 (14.55%) R
23 352 (14.26%) Kubernetes
24 311 (12.60%) Apache Spark
25 308 (12.48%) React
26 300 (12.16%) Analytical Skills
27 271 (10.98%) Business Intelligence
28 268 (10.86%) Mathematics
28 268 (10.86%) Hadoop
29 267 (10.82%) Web Services

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 311 (12.60%) Apache Spark
2 126 (5.11%) Elasticsearch
3 78 (3.16%) Apache
4 53 (2.15%) SAS
5 48 (1.94%) Jupyter
6 46 (1.86%) Apache Airflow
7 18 (0.73%) Confluence
8 16 (0.65%) OpenStack
8 16 (0.65%) WebSphere
9 15 (0.61%) SharePoint
10 14 (0.57%) ArcGIS
11 12 (0.49%) Cloud Foundry
11 12 (0.49%) Luigi
11 12 (0.49%) nginx
12 11 (0.45%) Apache Solr
12 11 (0.45%) Mule
13 10 (0.41%) Adobe Experience Manager
13 10 (0.41%) CMS
13 10 (0.41%) IBM Domino
14 9 (0.36%) Apache Pig
Applications
1 42 (1.70%) Chatbot
1 42 (1.70%) Microsoft Excel
2 25 (1.01%) SPSS
3 18 (0.73%) Microsoft Office
4 9 (0.36%) S-PLUS
5 8 (0.32%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 5 (0.20%) Figma
7 3 (0.12%) Gephi
7 3 (0.12%) MS Visio
8 2 (0.081%) EViews
8 2 (0.081%) InVision
8 2 (0.081%) Sketch
8 2 (0.081%) Stata
8 2 (0.081%) Weka
9 1 (0.041%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 1 (0.041%) Adobe Illustrator
9 1 (0.041%) Photoshop
Business Applications
1 24 (0.97%) Eagle PACE
1 24 (0.97%) Markit EDM
1 24 (0.97%) PolarLake
2 11 (0.45%) Distributed Ledger
3 6 (0.24%) R3 Corda
3 6 (0.24%) SAP ERP
4 5 (0.20%) SAP CRM
4 5 (0.20%) SAP IS-U
5 4 (0.16%) Dynamics CRM
5 4 (0.16%) FastStats
5 4 (0.16%) SAP S/4HANA
5 4 (0.16%) Tesseract
6 2 (0.081%) Elite 3E
6 2 (0.081%) Maximo
6 2 (0.081%) SAP BPC
7 1 (0.041%) Oracle EBS R12
7 1 (0.041%) Oracle Payables
7 1 (0.041%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
Cloud Services
1 750 (30.39%) AWS
2 532 (21.56%) Azure
3 260 (10.53%) GCP
4 177 (7.17%) Power Platform
5 159 (6.44%) SaaS
6 86 (3.48%) Serverless
7 80 (3.24%) Cloud Computing
8 56 (2.27%) Slack
9 53 (2.15%) Amazon S3
10 47 (1.90%) AWS CloudFormation
10 47 (1.90%) PaaS
11 44 (1.78%) Dropbox
11 44 (1.78%) OpenShift
12 35 (1.42%) Azure Machine Learning
13 31 (1.26%) AWS Lambda
14 30 (1.22%) Amazon ECS
14 30 (1.22%) Amazon SQS
15 29 (1.18%) Azure Data Factory
15 29 (1.18%) IaaS
16 24 (0.97%) Office 365
Communications & Networking
1 68 (2.76%) Internet
2 19 (0.77%) Firewall
3 11 (0.45%) HTTP
4 10 (0.41%) Network Security
5 8 (0.32%) DMZ
6 7 (0.28%) MQTT
6 7 (0.28%) TCP/IP
7 6 (0.24%) SSL
8 5 (0.20%) Skype
8 5 (0.20%) Software-Defined Networking
9 4 (0.16%) WAN
10 3 (0.12%) 5G
10 3 (0.12%) Bluetooth
10 3 (0.12%) DNS
10 3 (0.12%) HTTPS
10 3 (0.12%) RFID
10 3 (0.12%) Unified Communications
11 2 (0.081%) Ethernet
11 2 (0.081%) MPLS
11 2 (0.081%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 556 (22.53%) Big Data
2 268 (10.86%) Hadoop
3 252 (10.21%) NoSQL
4 242 (9.81%) SQL Server
5 203 (8.23%) MongoDB
6 170 (6.89%) Power BI
7 159 (6.44%) MySQL
8 148 (6.00%) PostgreSQL
9 135 (5.47%) Data Warehouse
10 123 (4.98%) Redis
11 104 (4.21%) SQL Server Analysis Services
12 96 (3.89%) Data Lake
13 94 (3.81%) Relational Database
14 93 (3.77%) Data Mining
15 87 (3.53%) Apache Cassandra
16 77 (3.12%) Amazon Redshift
17 70 (2.84%) Apache Hive
18 68 (2.76%) Microsoft Analysis Services
19 67 (2.71%) SQL Server Integration Services
20 53 (2.15%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 192 (7.78%) Git (software)
2 126 (5.11%) Jenkins
3 69 (2.80%) JIRA
4 62 (2.51%) TeamCity
5 52 (2.11%) JUnit
5 52 (2.11%) Octopus Deploy
6 49 (1.99%) Mocha
7 46 (1.86%) MSBuild
7 46 (1.86%) Selenium
8 43 (1.74%) Cucumber
9 40 (1.62%) CircleCI
10 37 (1.50%) Maven
11 31 (1.26%) GitLab
12 25 (1.01%) Team Foundation Server
13 24 (0.97%) Visual Studio
14 20 (0.81%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 18 (0.73%) webpack
16 16 (0.65%) Vagrant
16 16 (0.65%) Visual Studio Team System
17 12 (0.49%) gulp
General
1 542 (21.96%) Finance
2 147 (5.96%) Front Office
3 135 (5.47%) Marketing
4 124 (5.02%) Banking
5 115 (4.66%) Retail
6 70 (2.84%) Law
7 63 (2.55%) Legal
8 48 (1.94%) Games
9 41 (1.66%) Back Office
10 37 (1.50%) Telecoms
11 35 (1.42%) Public Sector
12 29 (1.18%) Aerospace
13 27 (1.09%) Advertising
13 27 (1.09%) Electronics
14 25 (1.01%) Investment Banking
14 25 (1.01%) Manufacturing
15 23 (0.93%) Pharmaceutical
16 16 (0.65%) Automotive
16 16 (0.65%) Financial Institution
16 16 (0.65%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 706 (28.61%) Developer
2 328 (13.29%) Data Scientist
3 254 (10.29%) Data Engineer
4 241 (9.76%) Software Engineer
5 178 (7.21%) Architect
6 146 (5.92%) Java Developer
7 137 (5.55%) .NET Developer
8 135 (5.47%) Analyst
9 116 (4.70%) Senior Developer
10 110 (4.46%) Senior Data Scientist
11 101 (4.09%) Python Engineer
12 94 (3.81%) Machine Learning Engineer
13 91 (3.69%) Full Stack Developer
14 78 (3.16%) Python Developer
15 73 (2.96%) Software Developer
16 70 (2.84%) C# Developer
17 68 (2.76%) Solutions Architect
18 64 (2.59%) Java Engineer
19 62 (2.51%) Data Architect
20 60 (2.43%) DevOps Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 364 (14.75%) .NET
2 308 (12.48%) React
3 267 (10.82%) Web Services
4 261 (10.58%) Natural Language Processing
5 228 (9.24%) AngularJS
6 219 (8.87%) HTML
7 192 (7.78%) CSS
8 189 (7.66%) Node.js
9 183 (7.41%) Kafka
10 175 (7.09%) .NET Core
11 166 (6.73%) TensorFlow
12 132 (5.35%) Pandas
13 128 (5.19%) scikit-learn
14 114 (4.62%) ASP.NET
15 109 (4.42%) NumPy
16 100 (4.05%) Spring
17 98 (3.97%) .NET Framework
18 87 (3.53%) Redux
19 75 (3.04%) Keras
19 75 (3.04%) PyTorch
Miscellaneous
1 371 (15.03%) Algorithms
2 300 (12.16%) Analytical Skills
3 155 (6.28%) User Experience
4 110 (4.46%) Greenfield Project
5 93 (3.77%) Hedge funds
6 68 (2.76%) Equities
7 55 (2.23%) Data Structures
8 54 (2.19%) Fixed Income
9 50 (2.03%) Cloud Native
10 47 (1.90%) Mobile App
11 44 (1.78%) Management Information System
12 43 (1.74%) Derivative
12 43 (1.74%) Robotics
13 32 (1.30%) Reference Data
14 31 (1.26%) Self-Motivation
15 30 (1.22%) Blog
16 29 (1.18%) Internet of Things
17 28 (1.13%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
18 26 (1.05%) Life Science
18 26 (1.05%) Social Network
Operating Systems
1 233 (9.44%) Linux
2 71 (2.88%) Windows
3 34 (1.38%) Android
3 34 (1.38%) Unix
4 26 (1.05%) Apple iOS
5 12 (0.49%) CentOS
6 6 (0.24%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 6 (0.24%) Ubuntu
7 5 (0.20%) VMS
7 5 (0.20%) Windows Server
8 3 (0.12%) Windows Server 2012
9 2 (0.081%) Mac OS
9 2 (0.081%) Solaris
10 1 (0.041%) Embedded Linux
10 1 (0.041%) Robot Operating System
10 1 (0.041%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,146 (46.43%) Artificial Intelligence
2 901 (36.51%) Data Science
3 751 (30.43%) Agile Software Development
4 704 (28.53%) Analytics
5 557 (22.57%) Software Engineering
6 385 (15.60%) Microservices
7 380 (15.40%) Computer Science
8 379 (15.36%) DevOps
9 271 (10.98%) Business Intelligence
10 268 (10.86%) Mathematics
11 265 (10.74%) Deep Learning
12 260 (10.53%) Data Analytics
13 240 (9.72%) Visualisation
14 238 (9.64%) Scrum
15 215 (8.71%) Statistics
16 201 (8.14%) Problem-Solving
17 198 (8.02%) Mentoring
18 189 (7.66%) Data Modelling
19 179 (7.25%) Fintech
20 171 (6.93%) Data Analysis
Programming Languages
1 1,272 (51.54%) Python
2 736 (29.82%) SQL
3 616 (24.96%) Java
4 608 (24.64%) JavaScript
5 454 (18.40%) C#
6 359 (14.55%) R
7 239 (9.68%) C++
8 226 (9.16%) Scala
9 125 (5.06%) Go
10 118 (4.78%) C
11 76 (3.08%) F#
11 76 (3.08%) TypeScript
12 68 (2.76%) MATLAB
13 58 (2.35%) Bash Shell
13 58 (2.35%) Java 8
14 47 (1.90%) PHP
15 43 (1.74%) T-SQL
16 41 (1.66%) Perl
17 38 (1.54%) Ruby
18 34 (1.38%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 515 (20.87%) Degree
2 193 (7.82%) PhD
3 146 (5.92%) Security Cleared
4 121 (4.90%) Computer Science Degree
5 98 (3.97%) DV Cleared
6 72 (2.92%) SC Cleared
7 37 (1.50%) Master's Degree
8 30 (1.22%) Numerate Degree
9 13 (0.53%) TOGAF Certification
10 8 (0.32%) AWS Certification
11 7 (0.28%) Postgraduate
12 6 (0.24%) ITIL Certification
13 4 (0.16%) CISSP
13 4 (0.16%) ISTQB
13 4 (0.16%) MBA
14 3 (0.12%) Microsoft Certification
15 2 (0.081%) CIMA
15 2 (0.081%) Cisco Certification
15 2 (0.081%) Linux+ Certification
15 2 (0.081%) Network+ Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 108 (4.38%) QA
2 57 (2.31%) Data Quality
3 29 (1.18%) NIST
4 26 (1.05%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 21 (0.85%) GDPR
6 14 (0.57%) NCSC
6 14 (0.57%) NIST 800
7 11 (0.45%) Actionable Recommendations
8 4 (0.16%) SLA
9 3 (0.12%) HMG Security Policy Framework
9 3 (0.12%) PMO
10 2 (0.081%) HL7
10 2 (0.081%) IEC 62304
10 2 (0.081%) PCI DSS
11 1 (0.041%) COBIT
11 1 (0.041%) ISO 13485
11 1 (0.041%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 495 (20.06%) Docker
2 33 (1.34%) Active Directory
3 23 (0.93%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 17 (0.69%) VMware Infrastructure
5 15 (0.61%) HDFS
6 11 (0.45%) Apache Flume
7 10 (0.41%) VirtualBox
8 7 (0.28%) Hyper-V
9 5 (0.20%) vSphere
10 4 (0.16%) Firmware
11 2 (0.081%) Gluster
11 2 (0.081%) GlusterFS
11 2 (0.081%) vCloud
11 2 (0.081%) Virtual Machines
12 1 (0.041%) Microsoft App-V
Systems Management
1 352 (14.26%) Kubernetes
2 176 (7.13%) Terraform
3 125 (5.06%) Ansible
4 62 (2.51%) Puppet
5 46 (1.86%) Opscode Chef
6 23 (0.93%) Docker Swarm
7 21 (0.85%) Istio
8 19 (0.77%) Kubeflow
9 18 (0.73%) Kibana
9 18 (0.73%) Prometheus
10 15 (0.61%) Salt
11 14 (0.57%) Oozie
12 13 (0.53%) Mesos
12 13 (0.53%) Netcool
13 12 (0.49%) Opsview
14 11 (0.45%) Grafana
15 9 (0.36%) Packer
16 6 (0.24%) Hadoop YARN
17 5 (0.20%) Marathon
18 4 (0.16%) Rancher
Vendors
1 208 (8.43%) Microsoft
2 141 (5.71%) Google
3 126 (5.11%) Tableau
4 64 (2.59%) Oracle
5 61 (2.47%) Databricks
6 45 (1.82%) Splunk
7 44 (1.78%) CrowdStrike
8 31 (1.26%) Bloomberg
9 25 (1.01%) Reuters
10 22 (0.89%) Blue Prism
11 20 (0.81%) UiPath
11 20 (0.81%) Xamarin
12 19 (0.77%) SAP
13 17 (0.69%) Automation Anywhere
13 17 (0.69%) Facebook
13 17 (0.69%) Informatica
13 17 (0.69%) VMware
14 16 (0.65%) Alteryx
14 16 (0.65%) AppDynamics
14 16 (0.65%) Sparx