Period
to 18 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 18 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
18 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 95 121 224
Rank change year-on-year +26 +103 +130
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 4,698 4,746 2,714
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 3.28% 2.76% 1.58%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.56% 3.00% 1.72%
Number of salaries quoted 3,570 3,943 2,250
UK median annual salary £65,000 £62,500 £62,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.00% - +4.17%
10th Percentile £35,000 £35,000 £35,000
90th Percentile £100,000 £97,500 £97,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £53,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year -1.87% +7.00% -4.76%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 131,979 158,139 157,895
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 92.02% 92.00% 91.75%
Number of salaries quoted 103,511 127,273 128,647
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
10th Percentile £30,000 £29,000 £27,750
90th Percentile £86,250 £82,500 £78,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 18 June 2019.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 18 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +20 4,363 £65,000 +4.00% 389
London +23 2,667 £72,500 +3.57% 213
UK excluding London +8 1,899 £52,500 -1.87% 189
South East -20 533 £52,500 -4.55% 44
South West +47 366 £50,000 -4.76% 36
North of England +61 331 £55,000 +10.00% 32
East of England +1 315 £60,000 +4.35% 51
North West +19 220 £55,000 +10.00% 20
Scotland +18 171 £45,000 -10.00% 6
Midlands +35 145 £52,750 +17.22% 13
Yorkshire +49 89 £60,000 +20.00% 10
West Midlands +6 75 £55,000 +22.22% 9
East Midlands +50 70 £47,500 -5.00% 4
Wales +31 34 £55,000 +16.03% 4
North East +29 22 £47,169 -30.12% 2
Northern Ireland -21 6 £50,000 - 3

For the 6 months to 18 June 2019, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 2,432 (51.77%) Python
2 2,165 (46.08%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,770 (37.68%) Data Science
4 1,564 (33.29%) Agile Software Development
5 1,456 (30.99%) Analytics
6 1,444 (30.74%) Java
7 1,343 (28.59%) SQL
8 1,260 (26.82%) Big Data
9 1,181 (25.14%) Software Engineering
10 1,123 (23.90%) Amazon AWS
11 982 (20.90%) Degree
12 938 (19.97%) Algorithms
13 862 (18.35%) Finance
14 818 (17.41%) Microsoft Azure
15 764 (16.26%) R
16 754 (16.05%) Mathematics
17 737 (15.69%) DevOps
18 728 (15.50%) C#
19 725 (15.43%) Computer Science
20 709 (15.09%) Analytical Skills
21 708 (15.07%) Apache Spark
22 688 (14.64%) C++
23 665 (14.15%) Hadoop
24 641 (13.64%) JavaScript
25 598 (12.73%) Linux
26 597 (12.71%) Visualisation
27 577 (12.28%) Docker
28 560 (11.92%) Business Intelligence
29 526 (11.20%) Deep Learning
30 493 (10.49%) PhD

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 708 (15.07%) Apache Spark
2 244 (5.19%) Elasticsearch
3 210 (4.47%) Apache
4 152 (3.24%) Apache Pig
5 124 (2.64%) SAS
6 45 (0.96%) Jupyter
7 44 (0.94%) SharePoint
8 35 (0.74%) Confluence
9 33 (0.70%) CMS
10 31 (0.66%) Apache Solr
11 28 (0.60%) WebSphere
12 27 (0.57%) Hyperledger
13 24 (0.51%) Tomcat
14 19 (0.40%) Tornado
15 17 (0.36%) Ethereum
16 16 (0.34%) Apache Airflow
17 13 (0.28%) IIS
18 12 (0.26%) nginx
19 11 (0.23%) JBoss
19 11 (0.23%) Skype for Business
Applications
1 90 (1.92%) Microsoft Excel
2 68 (1.45%) Chatbot
3 45 (0.96%) SPSS
4 37 (0.79%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 17 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
6 13 (0.28%) GNU Octave
7 12 (0.26%) Stata
8 11 (0.23%) MS Visio
9 8 (0.17%) Microsoft Project
10 7 (0.15%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 7 (0.15%) Spreadsheet
11 5 (0.11%) Weka
12 4 (0.085%) Gephi
13 3 (0.064%) Simulink
13 3 (0.064%) Sketch
13 3 (0.064%) S-PLUS
14 2 (0.043%) CPLEX
14 2 (0.043%) InVision
14 2 (0.043%) LaTeX
14 2 (0.043%) Photoshop
Business Applications
1 30 (0.64%) Summit
2 13 (0.28%) Distributed Ledger
3 7 (0.15%) MultiChain
3 7 (0.15%) Quorum
4 6 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
5 5 (0.11%) SAP FI-GL
6 4 (0.085%) Cognos Business Intelligence
6 4 (0.085%) Remedy ITSM
7 2 (0.043%) Dynamics CRM
7 2 (0.043%) PolarLake
7 2 (0.043%) SAP MDG
7 2 (0.043%) SAP MDM
7 2 (0.043%) SAP S/4HANA
8 1 (0.021%) Cognos TM1
8 1 (0.021%) Dynamics NAV
8 1 (0.021%) FastStats
8 1 (0.021%) HFM
8 1 (0.021%) WebTrends
8 1 (0.021%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 1,123 (23.90%) Amazon AWS
2 818 (17.41%) Microsoft Azure
3 492 (10.47%) Google Cloud Platform
4 199 (4.24%) Serverless
5 190 (4.04%) Power Platform
6 165 (3.51%) Cloud Computing
7 155 (3.30%) SaaS
8 123 (2.62%) AWS Lambda
9 116 (2.47%) Amazon S3
10 92 (1.96%) Azure Machine Learning
11 91 (1.94%) Amazon SQS
12 88 (1.87%) GitHub
13 85 (1.81%) Amazon EC2
14 65 (1.38%) Amazon ECS
14 65 (1.38%) PaaS
15 50 (1.06%) AWS CloudFormation
16 49 (1.04%) Amazon EMR
17 43 (0.92%) Azure Data Factory
18 38 (0.81%) Amazon Kinesis
19 36 (0.77%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 76 (1.62%) Broadband
2 41 (0.87%) Internet
3 38 (0.81%) HTTP
4 28 (0.60%) Firewall
5 25 (0.53%) Skype
6 18 (0.38%) VPN
7 14 (0.30%) WAN
7 14 (0.30%) Wireless
8 12 (0.26%) Cisco ASA
9 11 (0.23%) DNS
9 11 (0.23%) Remote Desktop
9 11 (0.23%) TCP/IP
10 10 (0.21%) Network Security
11 9 (0.19%) MPLS
12 8 (0.17%) HTTPS
12 8 (0.17%) LAN
13 7 (0.15%) Intranet
13 7 (0.15%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
14 6 (0.13%) SSL
14 6 (0.13%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,260 (26.82%) Big Data
2 665 (14.15%) Hadoop
3 424 (9.03%) NoSQL
4 286 (6.09%) Data Warehouse
5 270 (5.75%) Apache Hive
6 266 (5.66%) Data Mining
7 265 (5.64%) SQL Server
8 240 (5.11%) MongoDB
9 187 (3.98%) Power BI
10 185 (3.94%) PostgreSQL
11 182 (3.87%) Relational Database
12 167 (3.55%) MySQL
13 160 (3.41%) Apache Cassandra
14 159 (3.38%) HBase
15 153 (3.26%) Data Lake
16 151 (3.21%) Blockchain
17 107 (2.28%) Sqoop
18 102 (2.17%) Amazon Redshift
19 100 (2.13%) QlikView
20 88 (1.87%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 405 (8.62%) Git (software)
2 292 (6.22%) Jenkins
3 161 (3.43%) Maven
4 114 (2.43%) JIRA
5 102 (2.17%) Eclipse
6 98 (2.09%) Selenium
7 69 (1.47%) Eclipse RCP
8 63 (1.34%) Subversion
9 61 (1.30%) Gradle
10 53 (1.13%) JUnit
11 46 (0.98%) Ant
12 43 (0.92%) TeamCity
13 42 (0.89%) webpack
14 39 (0.83%) GitLab
15 31 (0.66%) Grunt
16 30 (0.64%) git-flow
16 30 (0.64%) Octopus Deploy
17 29 (0.62%) Visual Studio
18 28 (0.60%) Bitbucket
19 27 (0.57%) CircleCI
General
1 862 (18.35%) Finance
2 314 (6.68%) Marketing
3 311 (6.62%) Retail
4 303 (6.45%) Banking
5 285 (6.07%) Law
6 108 (2.30%) Games
7 79 (1.68%) Pharmaceutical
8 75 (1.60%) Legal
9 67 (1.43%) Telecoms
10 62 (1.32%) Front Office
11 55 (1.17%) Advertising
12 52 (1.11%) Electronics
12 52 (1.11%) Military
13 49 (1.04%) Manufacturing
14 34 (0.72%) Automotive
14 34 (0.72%) Investment Banking
15 30 (0.64%) Financial Institution
15 30 (0.64%) Publishing
16 20 (0.43%) Billing
17 18 (0.38%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 1,162 (24.73%) Developer
2 840 (17.88%) Data Scientist
3 522 (11.11%) Software Engineer
4 404 (8.60%) Data Engineer
5 340 (7.24%) Architect
6 262 (5.58%) Analyst
7 246 (5.24%) Java Developer
8 244 (5.19%) Senior Developer
9 236 (5.02%) Senior Data Scientist
10 228 (4.85%) Python Engineer
11 218 (4.64%) Python Developer
12 210 (4.47%) Machine Learning Engineer
13 190 (4.04%) Consultant
14 181 (3.85%) Senior Software Engineer
15 159 (3.38%) Junior
16 158 (3.36%) Big Data Engineer
17 152 (3.24%) DevOps Engineer
18 141 (3.00%) Software Developer
19 136 (2.89%) .NET Developer
20 135 (2.87%) Data Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 472 (10.05%) Natural Language Processing
2 406 (8.64%) React
3 404 (8.60%) HTML
4 383 (8.15%) Kafka
5 368 (7.83%) .NET
6 358 (7.62%) CSS
7 351 (7.47%) AngularJS
8 343 (7.30%) TensorFlow
9 336 (7.15%) Node.js
10 276 (5.87%) Web Services
11 269 (5.73%) scikit-learn
12 237 (5.04%) RESTful
13 216 (4.60%) Pandas
14 212 (4.51%) Spring
15 177 (3.77%) NumPy
16 163 (3.47%) Keras
17 153 (3.26%) JSON
18 148 (3.15%) REST
19 107 (2.28%) .NET Core
20 104 (2.21%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 938 (19.97%) Algorithms
2 709 (15.09%) Analytical Skills
3 245 (5.21%) Robotics
4 244 (5.19%) User Experience
5 235 (5.00%) Data Structures
6 189 (4.02%) Greenfield Project
7 92 (1.96%) Self-Motivation
8 76 (1.62%) Management Information System
9 69 (1.47%) Mobile App
10 58 (1.23%) Enterprise Software
11 52 (1.11%) Social Media
12 50 (1.06%) Virtual Team
13 45 (0.96%) Cloud Native
13 45 (0.96%) Public Cloud
14 36 (0.77%) Social Network
15 33 (0.70%) Life Science
16 31 (0.66%) Blog
17 30 (0.64%) Augmented Reality
18 29 (0.62%) Analytical Mindset
19 27 (0.57%) Linux Command Line
Operating Systems
1 598 (12.73%) Linux
2 205 (4.36%) Windows
3 148 (3.15%) Unix
4 86 (1.83%) Android
5 68 (1.45%) Apple iOS
6 31 (0.66%) CentOS
7 30 (0.64%) Ubuntu
8 10 (0.21%) Windows Server
9 6 (0.13%) Mac OS
10 4 (0.085%) CoreOS
10 4 (0.085%) Mac OS X
11 3 (0.064%) VxWorks
12 1 (0.021%) Debian
12 1 (0.021%) Embedded Linux
12 1 (0.021%) Robot Operating System
12 1 (0.021%) VMS
12 1 (0.021%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,165 (46.08%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,770 (37.68%) Data Science
3 1,564 (33.29%) Agile Software Development
4 1,456 (30.99%) Analytics
5 1,181 (25.14%) Software Engineering
6 754 (16.05%) Mathematics
7 737 (15.69%) DevOps
8 725 (15.43%) Computer Science
9 597 (12.71%) Visualisation
10 560 (11.92%) Business Intelligence
11 526 (11.20%) Deep Learning
12 463 (9.86%) Problem-Solving
13 429 (9.13%) Data Analysis
14 395 (8.41%) Microservices
14 395 (8.41%) Statistics
15 377 (8.02%) Data Analytics
16 370 (7.88%) ETL
17 345 (7.34%) Data Modelling
18 329 (7.00%) Mentoring
19 316 (6.73%) Data Visualisation
Programming Languages
1 2,432 (51.77%) Python
2 1,444 (30.74%) Java
3 1,343 (28.59%) SQL
4 764 (16.26%) R
5 728 (15.50%) C#
6 688 (14.64%) C++
7 641 (13.64%) JavaScript
8 461 (9.81%) Scala
9 310 (6.60%) C
10 254 (5.41%) MATLAB
11 191 (4.07%) PHP
12 163 (3.47%) TypeScript
13 132 (2.81%) Java 8
14 127 (2.70%) ES6
15 124 (2.64%) Bash Shell
16 121 (2.58%) Go
17 72 (1.53%) Ruby
18 69 (1.47%) VBA
19 64 (1.36%) T-SQL
20 52 (1.11%) VB
Qualifications
1 982 (20.90%) Degree
2 493 (10.49%) PhD
3 188 (4.00%) Computer Science Degree
4 128 (2.72%) Security Cleared
5 117 (2.49%) Numerate Degree
6 75 (1.60%) SC Cleared
7 67 (1.43%) DV Cleared
8 62 (1.32%) Master's Degree
9 57 (1.21%) Microsoft Certification
10 41 (0.87%) BPSS Clearance
11 22 (0.47%) AWS Certification
12 21 (0.45%) Postgraduate
13 16 (0.34%) DBS Check
13 16 (0.34%) MCSA
14 11 (0.23%) CCENT
15 8 (0.17%) MBA
16 7 (0.15%) MCP
17 6 (0.13%) A+ Certification
18 5 (0.11%) Cisco Certification
18 5 (0.11%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 175 (3.72%) QA
2 106 (2.26%) Data Quality
3 43 (0.92%) GDPR
4 13 (0.28%) SLA
5 12 (0.26%) Actionable Recommendations
6 9 (0.19%) PCI DSS
7 6 (0.13%) IFRS
7 6 (0.13%) Solvency II
8 5 (0.11%) PMO
9 4 (0.085%) MiFID
9 4 (0.085%) NIST
10 2 (0.043%) EMIR
10 2 (0.043%) ISO 9001
11 1 (0.021%) Basel III
11 1 (0.021%) Cyber Essentials
11 1 (0.021%) Dodd-Frank
11 1 (0.021%) IEC 62304
11 1 (0.021%) ISO/IEC 27001
System Software
1 577 (12.28%) Docker
2 87 (1.85%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 56 (1.19%) Apache Flume
3 56 (1.19%) HDFS
4 22 (0.47%) Active Directory
5 15 (0.32%) Virtual Machines
5 15 (0.32%) XenApp
6 11 (0.23%) XenDesktop
7 7 (0.15%) etcd
8 6 (0.13%) Firmware
8 6 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
9 5 (0.11%) VirtualBox
10 2 (0.043%) vCloud
10 2 (0.043%) VMware ESXi
11 1 (0.021%) Cronacle
11 1 (0.021%) Xen
Systems Management
1 356 (7.58%) Kubernetes
2 181 (3.85%) Terraform
3 130 (2.77%) Oozie
4 119 (2.53%) Ansible
5 96 (2.04%) Opscode Chef
6 78 (1.66%) Puppet
7 27 (0.57%) Docker Swarm
8 26 (0.55%) Ambari
9 25 (0.53%) Nagios
10 23 (0.49%) Consul
11 19 (0.40%) Prometheus
12 14 (0.30%) Hadoop YARN
13 12 (0.26%) FortiGate
13 12 (0.26%) Microsoft Intune
14 11 (0.23%) HP Data Protector
14 11 (0.23%) Kibana
14 11 (0.23%) Mesos
14 11 (0.23%) NetBackup
15 10 (0.21%) Istio
16 9 (0.19%) Salt
Vendors
1 323 (6.88%) Microsoft
2 319 (6.79%) Google
3 260 (5.53%) Tableau
4 169 (3.60%) Cloudera
4 169 (3.60%) Oracle
5 93 (1.98%) Splunk
6 81 (1.72%) Blue Prism
7 77 (1.64%) IBM
8 57 (1.21%) UiPath
9 55 (1.17%) SAP
10 54 (1.15%) Automation Anywhere
11 52 (1.11%) Informatica
12 51 (1.09%) Databricks
13 42 (0.89%) Hortonworks
14 32 (0.68%) Cognizant
15 31 (0.66%) Cisco
15 31 (0.66%) WorldPay
16 25 (0.53%) Intel
17 24 (0.51%) Talend
18 23 (0.49%) Alteryx