Period
to 14 November 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 14 November 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
14 Nov 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 102 122 183
Rank change year-on-year +20 +61 +132
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 4,165 4,444 3,535
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 3.04% 2.72% 1.96%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.30% 2.96% 2.12%
Number of salaries quoted 3,304 3,675 2,918
UK median annual salary £65,000 £65,000 £60,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +8.33% -
10th Percentile £37,500 £37,200 £32,500
90th Percentile £107,500 £100,000 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £52,895 £50,000
% change year-on-year -0.75% +5.79% -

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 126,225 150,194 166,677
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 92.06% 91.82% 92.21%
Number of salaries quoted 99,734 119,570 131,835
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% - +4.17%
10th Percentile £30,000 £29,000 £28,000
90th Percentile £86,250 £85,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 14 November 2019.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 15 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 14 November 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +16 3,919 £65,000 - 618
London +24 2,450 £75,000 +3.45% 301
UK excluding London +9 1,636 £52,500 -0.75% 350
South East +3 542 £55,000 - 117
South West +17 334 £50,000 -4.76% 46
North of England +96 301 £52,500 +10.53% 58
North West +60 182 £52,500 +7.69% 31
East of England -74 147 £59,000 -1.67% 67
Scotland +30 140 £45,000 - 26
Midlands +51 133 £50,000 +5.26% 33
Yorkshire +51 97 £52,500 +16.67% 17
West Midlands +35 73 £50,000 +17.65% 28
East Midlands +15 60 £50,000 - 4
Wales +49 47 £37,500 -14.29% 3
North East +34 23 £40,418 -10.18% 10

For the 6 months to 14 November 2019, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 2,160 (51.86%) Python
2 1,837 (44.11%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,615 (38.78%) Data Science
4 1,264 (30.35%) Analytics
5 1,248 (29.96%) Agile Software Development
6 1,233 (29.60%) AWS
7 1,129 (27.11%) SQL
7 1,129 (27.11%) Big Data
8 1,070 (25.69%) Java
9 914 (21.94%) Software Engineering
10 870 (20.89%) Degree
11 784 (18.82%) Finance
12 781 (18.75%) Azure
13 715 (17.17%) R
14 710 (17.05%) Algorithms
15 678 (16.28%) Computer Science
16 675 (16.21%) DevOps
17 672 (16.13%) JavaScript
18 639 (15.34%) Mathematics
19 606 (14.55%) Apache Spark
20 596 (14.31%) Analytical Skills
21 594 (14.26%) C#
22 574 (13.78%) Docker
23 515 (12.36%) Deep Learning
24 513 (12.32%) C++
25 476 (11.43%) GCP
26 469 (11.26%) Hadoop
27 466 (11.19%) Linux
28 455 (10.92%) Microservices
29 453 (10.88%) Visualisation

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 606 (14.55%) Apache Spark
2 197 (4.73%) Elasticsearch
3 121 (2.91%) Apache
4 85 (2.04%) SAS
5 69 (1.66%) WebSphere
6 55 (1.32%) Jupyter
7 46 (1.10%) Apache Airflow
8 45 (1.08%) CMS
9 36 (0.86%) Tornado
10 34 (0.82%) Apache Pig
10 34 (0.82%) Confluence
11 31 (0.74%) Apache Solr
12 30 (0.72%) Luigi
13 24 (0.58%) SharePoint
14 17 (0.41%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 16 (0.38%) nginx
16 9 (0.22%) IIS
17 8 (0.19%) Ethereum
17 8 (0.19%) OpenStack
18 6 (0.14%) Hyperledger
Applications
1 43 (1.03%) Microsoft Excel
2 32 (0.77%) Chatbot
3 26 (0.62%) SPSS
4 10 (0.24%) Stata
5 9 (0.22%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 9 (0.22%) Simulink
6 8 (0.19%) Microsoft Project
6 8 (0.19%) MS Visio
7 7 (0.17%) Gephi
7 7 (0.17%) Sketch
8 6 (0.14%) Stateflow
9 5 (0.12%) Adobe Illustrator
9 5 (0.12%) InVision
9 5 (0.12%) Photoshop
9 5 (0.12%) Pipeline Pilot
10 4 (0.096%) Microsoft Office
11 3 (0.072%) Weka
12 2 (0.048%) Acrobat
12 2 (0.048%) InDesign
12 2 (0.048%) Mathematica
Business Applications
1 35 (0.84%) PolarLake
2 32 (0.77%) Eagle PACE
2 32 (0.77%) Markit EDM
3 10 (0.24%) FINCAD Analytics
4 7 (0.17%) Dynamics CRM
5 3 (0.072%) MultiChain
5 3 (0.072%) Quorum
5 3 (0.072%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 1 (0.024%) Distributed Ledger
6 1 (0.024%) Dynamics NAV
6 1 (0.024%) FastStats
6 1 (0.024%) Payment Gateway
6 1 (0.024%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 1 (0.024%) SAP CRM
6 1 (0.024%) SAP GTS
6 1 (0.024%) SAP S/4HANA
6 1 (0.024%) Siebel CRM
6 1 (0.024%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 1,233 (29.60%) AWS
2 781 (18.75%) Azure
3 476 (11.43%) GCP
4 175 (4.20%) Power Platform
5 152 (3.65%) Serverless
6 148 (3.55%) SaaS
7 105 (2.52%) Azure Machine Learning
8 102 (2.45%) Cloud Computing
9 91 (2.18%) Amazon S3
10 87 (2.09%) AWS Lambda
11 64 (1.54%) Azure Data Factory
12 62 (1.49%) PaaS
13 55 (1.32%) Amazon ECS
14 53 (1.27%) Amazon Kinesis
15 48 (1.15%) AWS CloudFormation
16 46 (1.10%) GitHub
17 43 (1.03%) Amazon EC2
17 43 (1.03%) Amazon SQS
18 37 (0.89%) Amazon EMR
19 36 (0.86%) Amazon SageMaker
Communications & Networking
1 56 (1.34%) Internet
2 32 (0.77%) HTTP
3 20 (0.48%) DNS
4 18 (0.43%) Wireless
5 17 (0.41%) Firewall
6 16 (0.38%) TCP/IP
7 14 (0.34%) VPN
7 14 (0.34%) Wi-Fi
8 12 (0.29%) Bluetooth
8 12 (0.29%) Ethernet
8 12 (0.29%) SSL
9 10 (0.24%) Software-Defined Networking
10 9 (0.22%) MPLS
11 8 (0.19%) HTTPS
11 8 (0.19%) VoIP
12 7 (0.17%) Network Security
12 7 (0.17%) Wireshark
13 6 (0.14%) MQTT
14 4 (0.096%) SMS
15 3 (0.072%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,129 (27.11%) Big Data
2 469 (11.26%) Hadoop
3 397 (9.53%) NoSQL
4 267 (6.41%) SQL Server
5 226 (5.43%) PostgreSQL
6 213 (5.11%) Data Mining
7 195 (4.68%) Data Warehouse
8 190 (4.56%) Apache Hive
9 175 (4.20%) Power BI
10 165 (3.96%) MongoDB
11 150 (3.60%) Relational Database
12 145 (3.48%) Data Lake
13 142 (3.41%) MySQL
14 116 (2.79%) Amazon Redshift
15 99 (2.38%) BigQuery
16 93 (2.23%) Redis
17 86 (2.06%) Cosmos DB
18 81 (1.94%) Apache Cassandra
19 80 (1.92%) Blockchain
20 77 (1.85%) Impala
Development Applications
1 372 (8.93%) Git (software)
2 208 (4.99%) Jenkins
3 178 (4.27%) JIRA
4 89 (2.14%) Selenium
5 62 (1.49%) Bitbucket
6 60 (1.44%) Maven
7 50 (1.20%) Bitbucket Server
8 45 (1.08%) git-flow
9 40 (0.96%) Cucumber
9 40 (0.96%) JUnit
10 30 (0.72%) Visual Studio
11 28 (0.67%) GitLab
12 27 (0.65%) Atlassian Bamboo
12 27 (0.65%) Subversion
13 26 (0.62%) Hudson
13 26 (0.62%) TeamCity
14 21 (0.50%) CruiseControl
15 19 (0.46%) Appium
15 19 (0.46%) Eclipse
16 17 (0.41%) Jasmine
General
1 784 (18.82%) Finance
2 304 (7.30%) Banking
3 269 (6.46%) Marketing
4 217 (5.21%) Retail
5 173 (4.15%) Front Office
6 107 (2.57%) Games
7 87 (2.09%) Public Sector
8 85 (2.04%) Telecoms
9 74 (1.78%) Law
10 71 (1.70%) Manufacturing
11 63 (1.51%) Electronics
12 61 (1.46%) Legal
13 48 (1.15%) Advertising
14 46 (1.10%) Pharmaceutical
15 44 (1.06%) Automotive
16 41 (0.98%) Back Office
16 41 (0.98%) Military
17 39 (0.94%) Publishing
18 36 (0.86%) Financial Institution
19 25 (0.60%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 1,020 (24.49%) Developer
2 745 (17.89%) Data Scientist
3 408 (9.80%) Software Engineer
4 319 (7.66%) Data Engineer
5 310 (7.44%) Architect
6 277 (6.65%) Java Developer
7 264 (6.34%) Senior Data Scientist
8 207 (4.97%) Senior Developer
9 202 (4.85%) Machine Learning Engineer
10 200 (4.80%) Python Developer
10 200 (4.80%) Python Engineer
11 189 (4.54%) Analyst
12 168 (4.03%) DevOps Engineer
13 161 (3.87%) Consultant
14 120 (2.88%) Java Engineer
15 117 (2.81%) .NET Developer
16 115 (2.76%) Software Developer
17 107 (2.57%) Data Architect
18 106 (2.55%) AWS Engineer
19 105 (2.52%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 425 (10.20%) Web Services
2 415 (9.96%) Natural Language Processing
3 397 (9.53%) .NET
4 393 (9.44%) TensorFlow
5 346 (8.31%) React
6 311 (7.47%) HTML
7 306 (7.35%) Node.js
8 263 (6.31%) CSS
9 259 (6.22%) scikit-learn
10 258 (6.19%) Kafka
11 244 (5.86%) AngularJS
12 228 (5.47%) Pandas
13 183 (4.39%) Spring
14 168 (4.03%) Keras
15 167 (4.01%) NumPy
16 164 (3.94%) RESTful
17 151 (3.63%) REST
18 143 (3.43%) ASP.NET
19 123 (2.95%) .NET Core
20 120 (2.88%) PyTorch
Miscellaneous
1 710 (17.05%) Algorithms
2 596 (14.31%) Analytical Skills
3 215 (5.16%) Greenfield Project
4 209 (5.02%) User Experience
5 172 (4.13%) Robotics
6 111 (2.67%) Data Structures
7 83 (1.99%) Hedge funds
8 82 (1.97%) Cloud Native
9 79 (1.90%) Equities
10 78 (1.87%) Management Information System
11 66 (1.58%) Social Media
12 65 (1.56%) Derivative
13 60 (1.44%) Fixed Income
14 58 (1.39%) Blog
15 57 (1.37%) Mobile App
16 56 (1.34%) Reference Data
17 52 (1.25%) Analytical Mindset
18 50 (1.20%) Virtual Team
19 49 (1.18%) Social Network
20 47 (1.13%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 466 (11.19%) Linux
2 124 (2.98%) Unix
2 124 (2.98%) Windows
3 80 (1.92%) Android
4 52 (1.25%) Apple iOS
5 25 (0.60%) Ubuntu
6 17 (0.41%) CentOS
7 6 (0.14%) Debian
7 6 (0.14%) Windows Server
8 5 (0.12%) VxWorks
9 4 (0.096%) Mac OS
10 2 (0.048%) Robot Operating System
11 1 (0.024%) AIX
11 1 (0.024%) Embedded Linux
11 1 (0.024%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 1 (0.024%) Windows 10
11 1 (0.024%) Windows 7
11 1 (0.024%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,837 (44.11%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,615 (38.78%) Data Science
3 1,264 (30.35%) Analytics
4 1,248 (29.96%) Agile Software Development
5 914 (21.94%) Software Engineering
6 678 (16.28%) Computer Science
7 675 (16.21%) DevOps
8 639 (15.34%) Mathematics
9 515 (12.36%) Deep Learning
10 455 (10.92%) Microservices
11 453 (10.88%) Visualisation
12 447 (10.73%) Statistics
13 443 (10.64%) Data Analytics
14 405 (9.72%) Business Intelligence
15 386 (9.27%) Mentoring
16 370 (8.88%) Problem-Solving
17 336 (8.07%) Scrum
18 326 (7.83%) Data Analysis
19 279 (6.70%) TDD
20 267 (6.41%) ETL
Programming Languages
1 2,160 (51.86%) Python
2 1,129 (27.11%) SQL
3 1,070 (25.69%) Java
4 715 (17.17%) R
5 672 (16.13%) JavaScript
6 594 (14.26%) C#
7 513 (12.32%) C++
8 347 (8.33%) Scala
9 243 (5.83%) C
10 178 (4.27%) TypeScript
11 146 (3.51%) Bash Shell
12 133 (3.19%) MATLAB
13 117 (2.81%) Go
14 110 (2.64%) Java 8
15 88 (2.11%) PHP
16 74 (1.78%) Perl
17 57 (1.37%) Ruby
18 54 (1.30%) PowerShell
19 41 (0.98%) T-SQL
20 35 (0.84%) ES6
Qualifications
1 870 (20.89%) Degree
2 395 (9.48%) PhD
3 194 (4.66%) Computer Science Degree
4 188 (4.51%) Security Cleared
5 117 (2.81%) Master's Degree
6 116 (2.79%) Numerate Degree
7 97 (2.33%) DV Cleared
8 74 (1.78%) SC Cleared
9 26 (0.62%) Microsoft Certification
10 20 (0.48%) MBA
11 18 (0.43%) AWS Certification
12 10 (0.24%) DBS Check
13 5 (0.12%) CGEIT
13 5 (0.12%) MCP
14 4 (0.096%) ISEB
14 4 (0.096%) MCSA
15 3 (0.072%) Cisco Certification
15 3 (0.072%) CISSP
15 3 (0.072%) PRINCE2 Certification
15 3 (0.072%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 211 (5.07%) QA
2 98 (2.35%) Data Quality
3 16 (0.38%) Actionable Recommendations
3 16 (0.38%) SLA
4 12 (0.29%) PMO
5 11 (0.26%) PCI DSS
6 10 (0.24%) GDPR
7 3 (0.072%) ISO 26262
7 3 (0.072%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 3 (0.072%) MISRA
7 3 (0.072%) NIST
8 2 (0.048%) IFRS
8 2 (0.048%) IFRS 9
9 1 (0.024%) DICOM
9 1 (0.024%) EMIR
9 1 (0.024%) MiFID
9 1 (0.024%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 574 (13.78%) Docker
2 61 (1.46%) Apache Flume
3 41 (0.98%) HDFS
4 25 (0.60%) Firmware
5 20 (0.48%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 16 (0.38%) IAG
6 16 (0.38%) VirtualBox
7 9 (0.22%) Active Directory
8 5 (0.12%) Cronacle
9 2 (0.048%) VMware Infrastructure
10 1 (0.024%) Btrfs
10 1 (0.024%) Corosync
10 1 (0.024%) DRBD
10 1 (0.024%) NFS
10 1 (0.024%) vCloud
10 1 (0.024%) Virtual Machines
10 1 (0.024%) VMware ESXi
10 1 (0.024%) vSphere
10 1 (0.024%) XenApp
10 1 (0.024%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 406 (9.75%) Kubernetes
2 228 (5.47%) Terraform
3 152 (3.65%) Ansible
4 87 (2.09%) Oozie
5 69 (1.66%) Puppet
6 58 (1.39%) Opscode Chef
7 31 (0.74%) Istio
8 28 (0.67%) Docker Swarm
9 26 (0.62%) Kibana
10 24 (0.58%) Hadoop YARN
11 23 (0.55%) Consul
12 15 (0.36%) Salt
13 12 (0.29%) Packer
14 10 (0.24%) linkerd
15 6 (0.14%) Tivoli
16 5 (0.12%) BMC PATROL
16 5 (0.12%) Control-M
16 5 (0.12%) Grafana
16 5 (0.12%) Prometheus
16 5 (0.12%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 354 (8.50%) Google
2 321 (7.71%) Microsoft
3 179 (4.30%) Tableau
4 112 (2.69%) Splunk
5 103 (2.47%) Oracle
6 81 (1.94%) Informatica
7 74 (1.78%) Databricks
8 71 (1.70%) Cloudera
9 63 (1.51%) Bloomberg
10 41 (0.98%) Hortonworks
11 40 (0.96%) WorldPay
12 36 (0.86%) Adobe
13 34 (0.82%) SAP
14 28 (0.67%) Facebook
15 25 (0.60%) Alteryx
16 24 (0.58%) Salesforce.com
17 23 (0.55%) Apple
18 21 (0.50%) Dataiku
19 19 (0.46%) Blue Prism
19 19 (0.46%) UiPath