Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 29 June 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
29 Jun 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 64 87 99
Rank change year-on-year +23 +12 +1
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 8,932 3,818 2,494
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 5.01% 3.60% 3.14%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.26% 3.84% 3.38%
Number of salaries quoted 2,309 2,051 2,000
10th Percentile £40,371 £40,000 £37,500
25th Percentile £52,500 £47,500 £46,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £72,500 £64,000 £65,500
Median % change year-on-year +13.28% -2.29% +0.77%
75th Percentile £90,000 £82,500 £88,750
90th Percentile £110,000 £95,000 £111,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £59,732 £55,000 £55,000
% change year-on-year +8.60% - +4.76%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 169,734 99,487 73,860
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 95.30% 93.82% 92.91%
Number of salaries quoted 84,284 68,812 59,613
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £31,500
25th Percentile £44,750 £41,500 £41,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% - +4.76%
75th Percentile £80,000 £75,000 £73,750
90th Percentile £96,250 £91,250 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £49,500 £47,500
% change year-on-year +6.06% +4.21% +5.56%

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 29 June 2022.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 29 June 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England +19 7,550 £75,000 +15.38% 464
London +12 5,239 £80,000 +11.11% 215
Work from Home +19 3,470 £75,000 +25.00% 221
UK excluding London +21 2,534 £59,732 +8.60% 260
North of England +45 590 £60,000 -7.69% 62
South East -29 554 £62,000 +12.73% 62
East of England +20 436 £57,500 +15.00% 62
South West -11 370 £50,000 -5.66% 33
North West +13 354 £59,732 +3.88% 39
Midlands +73 334 £60,000 +4.35% 29
West Midlands +55 217 £60,000 +4.35% 20
Yorkshire +61 195 £62,500 -16.67% 22
Scotland +29 194 £60,000 +14.29% 9
East Midlands +37 117 £60,000 +29.73% 9
Wales +37 85 £57,063 +10.27%
North East +2 41 £48,872 -24.81% 1
Northern Ireland -33 24 £37,500 -50.00% 3

For the 6 months to 29 June 2022, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 5,374 (60.17%) Python
2 4,159 (46.56%) Data Science
3 3,791 (42.44%) AWS
4 3,615 (40.47%) Artificial Intelligence
5 3,347 (37.47%) Agile
6 3,256 (36.45%) Analytics
7 2,994 (33.52%) Software Engineering
8 2,474 (27.70%) SQL
9 2,339 (26.19%) Java
10 2,329 (26.07%) Social Skills
11 2,297 (25.72%) Algorithms
12 2,205 (24.69%) Azure
13 2,200 (24.63%) GCP
14 2,117 (23.70%) Finance
15 1,952 (21.85%) Degree
16 1,817 (20.34%) Big Data
17 1,808 (20.24%) Docker
18 1,749 (19.58%) DevOps
19 1,684 (18.85%) JavaScript
20 1,645 (18.42%) Computer Science
21 1,634 (18.29%) Kubernetes
22 1,613 (18.06%) CI/CD
23 1,506 (16.86%) Microservices
24 1,465 (16.40%) Problem-Solving
25 1,454 (16.28%) Analytical Skills
26 1,426 (15.97%) React
27 1,401 (15.69%) Data Engineering
28 1,273 (14.25%) Mentoring
29 1,249 (13.98%) Data Analytics
30 1,210 (13.55%) Mathematics

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 914 (10.23%) Apache Spark
2 298 (3.34%) Apache
3 250 (2.80%) Apache Airflow
4 208 (2.33%) Umbraco
5 191 (2.14%) Confluence
6 139 (1.56%) Jupyter
7 123 (1.38%) SAS
8 91 (1.02%) CMS
9 53 (0.59%) WordPress
10 45 (0.50%) Cloud Foundry
11 40 (0.45%) Oracle Workflow
12 39 (0.44%) Apache Solr
13 37 (0.41%) nginx
13 37 (0.41%) SharePoint
14 32 (0.36%) Headless CMS
15 28 (0.31%) Apache Pig
16 27 (0.30%) Luigi
17 25 (0.28%) Tornado
18 24 (0.27%) Apache Pulsar
19 16 (0.18%) ThingWorx
Applications
1 113 (1.27%) Microsoft Excel
2 62 (0.69%) Chatbot
3 49 (0.55%) Sketch
4 38 (0.43%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 29 (0.32%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 28 (0.31%) Microsoft Office
6 28 (0.31%) MS Visio
7 27 (0.30%) Maya
8 25 (0.28%) InVision
9 22 (0.25%) Blender
10 21 (0.24%) Adobe Illustrator
10 21 (0.24%) Spreadsheet
10 21 (0.24%) Stata
11 20 (0.22%) Photoshop
12 19 (0.21%) Adobe XD
12 19 (0.21%) ZBrush
13 12 (0.13%) Zeplin
14 11 (0.12%) SPSS
15 10 (0.11%) Simulink
16 9 (0.10%) Zemax
Business Applications
1 21 (0.24%) Payment Gateway
1 21 (0.24%) Shopify
2 19 (0.21%) Oracle Payables
3 10 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
4 4 (0.045%) Magento
4 4 (0.045%) SAP Hybris
5 3 (0.034%) SAP S/4HANA
6 2 (0.022%) Dynamics AX
6 2 (0.022%) Relativity
6 2 (0.022%) SAP ERP
6 2 (0.022%) SystmOne
7 1 (0.011%) Maximo
7 1 (0.011%) SAP Forecasting and Replenishment
7 1 (0.011%) SAP Oil and Gas
7 1 (0.011%) SAP Retail
Cloud Services
1 3,791 (42.44%) AWS
2 2,205 (24.69%) Azure
3 2,200 (24.63%) GCP
4 888 (9.94%) Serverless
5 583 (6.53%) SaaS
6 568 (6.36%) GitHub
7 453 (5.07%) Power Platform
8 440 (4.93%) AWS Lambda
9 425 (4.76%) Cloud Computing
10 416 (4.66%) Amazon S3
11 282 (3.16%) Snowflake
12 278 (3.11%) Slack
13 270 (3.02%) AWS CloudFormation
14 244 (2.73%) Amazon ECS
15 192 (2.15%) Amazon SageMaker
16 182 (2.04%) Amazon EC2
17 173 (1.94%) Amazon SQS
18 169 (1.89%) Azure DevOps
19 133 (1.49%) Azure Machine Learning
20 127 (1.42%) Azure Data Factory
Communications & Networking
1 202 (2.26%) Internet
2 100 (1.12%) HTTP
3 82 (0.92%) MQTT
4 54 (0.60%) AMQP
5 50 (0.56%) Firewall
6 39 (0.44%) VPN
7 25 (0.28%) Broadband
8 21 (0.24%) SSH
9 19 (0.21%) Software-Defined Networking
9 19 (0.21%) Wireless
10 13 (0.15%) Network Security
11 11 (0.12%) TCP/IP
12 10 (0.11%) NAS
12 10 (0.11%) SSL
13 8 (0.090%) HTTPS
13 8 (0.090%) Skype
14 5 (0.056%) InfiniBand
14 5 (0.056%) LAN
14 5 (0.056%) Software-Defined Radio
14 5 (0.056%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,817 (20.34%) Big Data
2 868 (9.72%) PostgreSQL
3 775 (8.68%) NoSQL
4 615 (6.89%) Data Warehouse
5 520 (5.82%) MySQL
6 488 (5.46%) Data Lake
7 469 (5.25%) Relational Database
8 440 (4.93%) Power BI
9 437 (4.89%) Elasticsearch
10 412 (4.61%) Hadoop
11 390 (4.37%) Tableau
12 377 (4.22%) BigQuery
13 370 (4.14%) Redis
14 345 (3.86%) MongoDB
15 264 (2.96%) Amazon Redshift
16 261 (2.92%) DynamoDB
17 255 (2.85%) SQL Server
18 235 (2.63%) Data Mining
19 185 (2.07%) Amazon RDS
20 157 (1.76%) Flink
Development Applications
1 951 (10.65%) Git (software)
2 502 (5.62%) Jenkins
3 392 (4.39%) JIRA
4 246 (2.75%) GitLab
5 225 (2.52%) Cypress.io
6 192 (2.15%) Selenium
7 185 (2.07%) CircleCI
8 174 (1.95%) Maven
9 115 (1.29%) Cucumber
10 107 (1.20%) Gradle
11 104 (1.16%) Mockito
12 90 (1.01%) Atlassian Bamboo
13 79 (0.88%) Bitbucket
14 73 (0.82%) Postman
14 73 (0.82%) webpack
15 67 (0.75%) SonarQube
16 62 (0.69%) Sonatype Nexus
17 60 (0.67%) JMeter
18 58 (0.65%) TeamCity
19 56 (0.63%) Mocha
General
1 2,329 (26.07%) Social Skills
2 2,117 (23.70%) Finance
3 1,454 (16.28%) Analytical Skills
4 915 (10.24%) Games
5 804 (9.00%) Marketing
6 773 (8.65%) Inclusion and Diversity
7 577 (6.46%) Banking
8 401 (4.49%) Retail
9 298 (3.34%) Legal
10 273 (3.06%) Law
11 229 (2.56%) Presentation Skills
12 209 (2.34%) Public Sector
13 178 (1.99%) Advertising
13 178 (1.99%) Pharmaceutical
14 157 (1.76%) Telecoms
15 146 (1.63%) Influencing Skills
16 145 (1.62%) Manufacturing
17 120 (1.34%) Publishing
18 115 (1.29%) Automotive
19 108 (1.21%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 1,738 (19.46%) Software Engineer
2 1,301 (14.57%) Developer
3 959 (10.74%) Data Scientist
4 811 (9.08%) Data Engineer
5 572 (6.40%) Senior Software Engineer
6 459 (5.14%) Senior Data Scientist
7 434 (4.86%) Architect
8 369 (4.13%) Trainee
9 353 (3.95%) Senior Developer
10 323 (3.62%) Analyst
11 314 (3.52%) DevOps Engineer
12 312 (3.49%) Graduate
13 248 (2.78%) Machine Learning Engineer
14 226 (2.53%) Senior Data Engineer
15 216 (2.42%) Java Developer
16 208 (2.33%) Full Stack Developer
17 201 (2.25%) Data Architect
18 186 (2.08%) Graduate Software Engineer
19 176 (1.97%) Python Engineer
20 162 (1.81%) Java Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,426 (15.97%) React
2 783 (8.77%) Spring
3 767 (8.59%) Node.js
4 711 (7.96%) HTML
5 692 (7.75%) CSS
6 670 (7.50%) Kafka
7 663 (7.42%) TensorFlow
8 639 (7.15%) .NET
9 573 (6.42%) AngularJS
10 500 (5.60%) scikit-learn
11 471 (5.27%) Pandas
12 435 (4.87%) PyTorch
13 380 (4.25%) REST
14 359 (4.02%) Sass
15 352 (3.94%) GraphQL
16 327 (3.66%) RESTful
17 321 (3.59%) NumPy
18 302 (3.38%) Vue.js
19 296 (3.31%) RabbitMQ
19 296 (3.31%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 2,297 (25.72%) Algorithms
2 757 (8.48%) User Experience
3 490 (5.49%) Data Structures
4 332 (3.72%) Cloud Native
5 313 (3.50%) Self-Motivation
6 279 (3.12%) IoT
7 271 (3.03%) Mobile App
8 229 (2.56%) Greenfield Project
9 208 (2.33%) Social Network
10 203 (2.27%) Blog
11 175 (1.96%) Social Media
12 147 (1.65%) Management Information System
12 147 (1.65%) Public Cloud
13 122 (1.37%) Blockchain
14 120 (1.34%) Renewable Energy
15 118 (1.32%) Robotics
16 116 (1.30%) Augmented Reality
17 112 (1.25%) Virtual Team
18 103 (1.15%) Cyberattack
19 92 (1.03%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 971 (10.87%) Linux
2 241 (2.70%) Windows
3 239 (2.68%) Android
4 200 (2.24%) Unix
5 187 (2.09%) Apple iOS
6 55 (0.62%) Ubuntu
7 53 (0.59%) Embedded Linux
8 48 (0.54%) Mac OS
9 18 (0.20%) CentOS
10 15 (0.17%) VMS
11 9 (0.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 8 (0.090%) Mac OS X
12 8 (0.090%) Solaris
12 8 (0.090%) Windows Server
13 5 (0.056%) RTLinux
13 5 (0.056%) VxWorks
14 4 (0.045%) Kali Linux
15 3 (0.034%) FreeBSD
16 2 (0.022%) AIX
16 2 (0.022%) Angstrom
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,159 (46.56%) Data Science
2 3,615 (40.47%) Artificial Intelligence
3 3,347 (37.47%) Agile
4 3,256 (36.45%) Analytics
5 2,994 (33.52%) Software Engineering
6 1,749 (19.58%) DevOps
7 1,645 (18.42%) Computer Science
8 1,613 (18.06%) CI/CD
9 1,506 (16.86%) Microservices
10 1,465 (16.40%) Problem-Solving
11 1,401 (15.69%) Data Engineering
12 1,273 (14.25%) Mentoring
13 1,249 (13.98%) Data Analytics
14 1,210 (13.55%) Mathematics
15 1,056 (11.82%) Visualisation
16 928 (10.39%) Full Stack Development
17 876 (9.81%) Natural Language Processing
18 824 (9.23%) Statistics
19 815 (9.12%) Scrum
20 807 (9.03%) Business Intelligence
Programming Languages
1 5,374 (60.17%) Python
2 2,474 (27.70%) SQL
3 2,339 (26.19%) Java
4 1,684 (18.85%) JavaScript
5 785 (8.79%) TypeScript
6 758 (8.49%) R
7 699 (7.83%) C++
8 599 (6.71%) C#
9 532 (5.96%) Scala
10 470 (5.26%) Go
11 449 (5.03%) C
12 259 (2.90%) Ruby
13 245 (2.74%) Bash
14 239 (2.68%) MATLAB
15 229 (2.56%) PHP
16 180 (2.02%) Kotlin
17 141 (1.58%) Rust
18 135 (1.51%) Shell Script
19 110 (1.23%) PowerShell
20 87 (0.97%) ES6
Qualifications
1 1,952 (21.85%) Degree
2 680 (7.61%) PhD
3 576 (6.45%) Computer Science Degree
4 316 (3.54%) Master's Degree
5 213 (2.38%) Security Cleared
6 129 (1.44%) Numerate Degree
7 113 (1.27%) SC Cleared
8 98 (1.10%) AWS Certification
9 73 (0.82%) CISSP
10 63 (0.71%) CISM
11 62 (0.69%) CRISC
12 37 (0.41%) DV Cleared
13 29 (0.32%) MBA
14 28 (0.31%) Postgraduate
15 17 (0.19%) DBS Check
16 16 (0.18%) PMI Certification
17 13 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
17 13 (0.15%) MPhil
17 13 (0.15%) Sun Certification
18 10 (0.11%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,006 (11.26%) QA
2 345 (3.86%) Data Quality
3 133 (1.49%) Accessibility
4 93 (1.04%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 69 (0.77%) NIST
6 62 (0.69%) GRC
7 51 (0.57%) GDPR
8 28 (0.31%) HL7
9 24 (0.27%) CDISC
10 16 (0.18%) GxP
11 15 (0.17%) HIPAA
12 13 (0.15%) IFRS
12 13 (0.15%) IFRS 9
13 9 (0.10%) MiFID
14 7 (0.078%) Dodd-Frank
14 7 (0.078%) EMIR
14 7 (0.078%) PSD2
14 7 (0.078%) Sarbanes-Oxley
15 6 (0.067%) PCI DSS
15 6 (0.067%) SOC 2
System Software
1 1,808 (20.24%) Docker
2 96 (1.07%) Virtual Machines
3 81 (0.91%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 38 (0.43%) LXC
5 37 (0.41%) Active Directory
6 32 (0.36%) Firmware
7 16 (0.18%) VMware Infrastructure
8 12 (0.13%) NFS
9 11 (0.12%) HDFS
10 8 (0.090%) Hyper-V
10 8 (0.090%) KVM
10 8 (0.090%) Xen
11 6 (0.067%) Slurm Workload Manager
11 6 (0.067%) zsh
12 3 (0.034%) Ceph
12 3 (0.034%) Lustre
13 2 (0.022%) vCloud
13 2 (0.022%) VirtualBox
14 1 (0.011%) Virtual Desktop
Systems Management
1 1,634 (18.29%) Kubernetes
2 951 (10.65%) Terraform
3 344 (3.85%) Ansible
4 134 (1.50%) Prometheus
5 128 (1.43%) Opscode Chef
6 123 (1.38%) Grafana
7 90 (1.01%) Puppet
8 82 (0.92%) Istio
9 49 (0.55%) Cisco IPCC
10 47 (0.53%) Kubeflow
11 44 (0.49%) Fortio
11 44 (0.49%) Kiali
12 35 (0.39%) Kibana
13 30 (0.34%) Consul
13 30 (0.34%) logstash
14 26 (0.29%) HP Quality Center
15 24 (0.27%) Opsgenie
16 23 (0.26%) Jamf Pro
16 23 (0.26%) ZABBIX
17 22 (0.25%) Rancher
Vendors
1 1,100 (12.32%) Google
2 812 (9.09%) Microsoft
3 286 (3.20%) Databricks
4 257 (2.88%) Twitter
5 148 (1.66%) Oracle
6 141 (1.58%) Apple
7 113 (1.27%) Splunk
8 92 (1.03%) Teradata
9 91 (1.02%) Adobe
10 76 (0.85%) Facebook
11 74 (0.83%) Alteryx
12 73 (0.82%) Sony
13 69 (0.77%) CrowdStrike
14 65 (0.73%) Spotify
15 57 (0.64%) New Relic
16 56 (0.63%) Okta
17 49 (0.55%) IBM
18 46 (0.52%) Brandwatch
19 44 (0.49%) Monzo
20 42 (0.47%) BT