Period
to 20 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 88 92 110
Rank change year-on-year +4 +18 +18
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 4,429 1,682 4,291
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.66% 3.42% 3.04%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.89% 3.67% 3.28%
Number of salaries quoted 2,130 1,409 3,328
10th Percentile £38,000 £37,500 £37,500
25th Percentile £47,500 £45,000 £47,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £65,000 £65,000
75th Percentile £82,500 £82,500 £85,000
90th Percentile £97,500 £100,000 £101,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% -

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 113,815 45,798 130,905
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 94.02% 93.24% 92.61%
Number of salaries quoted 75,990 37,717 104,073
10th Percentile £32,500 £32,750 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £76,250 £73,750 £70,000
90th Percentile £93,750 £91,250 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +9 4,058 £65,000 - 470
London +2 2,564 £70,000 -6.67% 249
UK excluding London -13 1,598 £57,500 +4.55% 240
Work from Home -8 849 £62,500 +4.17% 111
South East -22 489 £57,500 -4.17% 53
South West +37 317 £55,000 +4.76% 31
North of England -41 281 £60,000 +26.32% 49
East of England +9 218 £45,000 -25.00% 53
North West -28 192 £55,000 +10.00% 33
Midlands -74 137 £60,000 +33.33% 32
West Midlands -75 102 £60,000 +33.33% 21
Scotland -82 69 £53,750 +4.88% 14
Yorkshire -66 67 £70,000 +47.37% 10
Northern Ireland +4 66 £75,000 +50.00% 3
East Midlands -57 33 £50,000 +12.69% 10
North East -42 22 £50,000 +21.21% 6
Wales -58 12 £50,000 +11.11% 5
Isle of Man - 11 - -

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 2,436 (55.00%) Python
2 2,047 (46.22%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,827 (41.25%) Data Science
4 1,652 (37.30%) AWS
5 1,562 (35.27%) Agile Software Development
6 1,436 (32.42%) Analytics
7 1,320 (29.80%) Software Engineering
8 1,276 (28.81%) SQL
9 1,107 (24.99%) Azure
10 1,048 (23.66%) JavaScript
11 1,023 (23.10%) Docker
12 958 (21.63%) Finance
13 897 (20.25%) GCP
14 883 (19.94%) React
15 866 (19.55%) Algorithms
16 841 (18.99%) Degree
17 834 (18.83%) Microservices
18 832 (18.79%) Social Skills
19 819 (18.49%) Big Data
20 813 (18.36%) Kubernetes
21 799 (18.04%) DevOps
22 782 (17.66%) Java
23 707 (15.96%) Computer Science
24 591 (13.34%) Full Stack Development
25 585 (13.21%) Mathematics
26 580 (13.10%) Problem-Solving
27 576 (13.01%) Scrum
28 552 (12.46%) Analytical Skills
29 532 (12.01%) Visualisation
30 530 (11.97%) Git (software)

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 432 (9.75%) Apache Spark
2 236 (5.33%) Elasticsearch
3 192 (4.34%) Confluence
4 137 (3.09%) Apache Airflow
5 109 (2.46%) Apache
6 73 (1.65%) Jupyter
7 56 (1.26%) SAS
8 51 (1.15%) CMS
9 27 (0.61%) SharePoint
10 20 (0.45%) Cloud Foundry
11 14 (0.32%) Appian
12 13 (0.29%) Luigi
13 10 (0.23%) Apache Solr
14 9 (0.20%) Oracle Workflow
15 7 (0.16%) IIS
16 6 (0.14%) Tornado
16 6 (0.14%) WordPress
17 5 (0.11%) Apache Synapse
17 5 (0.11%) Ethereum
18 4 (0.090%) nginx
Applications
1 80 (1.81%) Microsoft Excel
2 56 (1.26%) Chatbot
3 35 (0.79%) Simulink
4 31 (0.70%) Microsoft Office
5 25 (0.56%) MS Visio
6 24 (0.54%) Stateflow
7 12 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 10 (0.23%) Photoshop
9 9 (0.20%) Adobe Illustrator
10 8 (0.18%) Figma
11 7 (0.16%) Spreadsheet
12 5 (0.11%) Fireworks
12 5 (0.11%) Sketch
13 4 (0.090%) GIMP
13 4 (0.090%) Inkscape
13 4 (0.090%) Weka
14 3 (0.068%) GNU Octave
14 3 (0.068%) InVision
15 2 (0.045%) Adobe XD
15 2 (0.045%) Oracle Smart View
Business Applications
1 28 (0.63%) Payment Gateway
1 28 (0.63%) Shopify
2 7 (0.16%) Dynamics CRM
3 5 (0.11%) Sentinel
4 4 (0.090%) FINCAD Analytics
4 4 (0.090%) Maximo
4 4 (0.090%) Oracle BRM
4 4 (0.090%) Summit
5 3 (0.068%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 2 (0.045%) NetSuite
6 2 (0.045%) Oracle Applications
6 2 (0.045%) Oracle BPM
6 2 (0.045%) Oracle ERP
6 2 (0.045%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
6 2 (0.045%) SAP R/3
6 2 (0.045%) SAP S/4HANA
6 2 (0.045%) WebTrends
7 1 (0.023%) Eikon
7 1 (0.023%) SAP FI-AA
7 1 (0.023%) SAP Forecasting and Replenishment
Cloud Services
1 1,652 (37.30%) AWS
2 1,107 (24.99%) Azure
3 897 (20.25%) GCP
4 454 (10.25%) Serverless
5 330 (7.45%) Power Platform
6 251 (5.67%) SaaS
7 182 (4.11%) GitHub
8 170 (3.84%) Amazon S3
9 168 (3.79%) AWS Lambda
10 155 (3.50%) Cloud Computing
11 107 (2.42%) Amazon SageMaker
12 104 (2.35%) PaaS
13 102 (2.30%) AWS CloudFormation
14 85 (1.92%) Azure Data Factory
15 74 (1.67%) Azure Machine Learning
16 68 (1.54%) Azure Functions
17 63 (1.42%) Amazon ECS
17 63 (1.42%) Cloud Functions
18 62 (1.40%) Amazon Kinesis
18 62 (1.40%) Snowflake
Communications & Networking
1 73 (1.65%) Firewall
2 66 (1.49%) HTTP
3 62 (1.40%) VPN
4 57 (1.29%) Internet
5 52 (1.17%) IPv4
6 34 (0.77%) OSPF
6 34 (0.77%) VLAN
7 32 (0.72%) Broadband
8 29 (0.65%) DNS
9 25 (0.56%) Kerberos
10 21 (0.47%) SSL
11 19 (0.43%) TCP/IP
12 18 (0.41%) SSH
13 16 (0.36%) FTP
14 15 (0.34%) Network Security
15 13 (0.29%) HTTPS
15 13 (0.29%) SMTP
16 10 (0.23%) Wireless
17 9 (0.20%) DHCP
17 9 (0.20%) SNMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 819 (18.49%) Big Data
2 390 (8.81%) PostgreSQL
3 362 (8.17%) NoSQL
4 297 (6.71%) Power BI
5 288 (6.50%) Data Warehouse
6 258 (5.83%) SQL Server
7 248 (5.60%) MySQL
7 248 (5.60%) Relational Database
8 230 (5.19%) Hadoop
9 194 (4.38%) MongoDB
10 178 (4.02%) Tableau
11 172 (3.88%) Data Mining
12 169 (3.82%) Data Lake
13 147 (3.32%) Redis
14 135 (3.05%) BigQuery
15 119 (2.69%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 77 (1.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
17 75 (1.69%) Metadata
18 68 (1.54%) Amazon RDS
19 67 (1.51%) GIS
Development Applications
1 530 (11.97%) Git (software)
2 319 (7.20%) Jenkins
3 296 (6.68%) JIRA
4 79 (1.78%) webpack
5 71 (1.60%) Cypress.io
6 62 (1.40%) GitLab
7 61 (1.38%) Bitbucket
8 59 (1.33%) Selenium
9 58 (1.31%) Team Foundation Server
10 53 (1.20%) Subversion
11 48 (1.08%) Maven
12 46 (1.04%) TeamCity
13 41 (0.93%) Jasmine
14 35 (0.79%) Octopus Deploy
15 32 (0.72%) CircleCI
16 31 (0.70%) Gradle
17 30 (0.68%) Babel
18 29 (0.65%) gulp
18 29 (0.65%) Mocha
19 26 (0.59%) Visual Studio
General
1 958 (21.63%) Finance
2 832 (18.79%) Social Skills
3 552 (12.46%) Analytical Skills
4 360 (8.13%) Retail
5 290 (6.55%) Banking
6 285 (6.43%) Marketing
7 199 (4.49%) Games
8 176 (3.97%) Legal
9 155 (3.50%) Pharmaceutical
10 154 (3.48%) Law
11 136 (3.07%) Presentation Skills
12 119 (2.69%) Inclusion and Diversity
13 110 (2.48%) Telecoms
14 102 (2.30%) Public Sector
15 89 (2.01%) Advertising
16 83 (1.87%) Financial Institution
17 69 (1.56%) Front Office
18 65 (1.47%) Manufacturing
19 60 (1.35%) Influencing Skills
20 52 (1.17%) Investment Banking
Job Titles
1 961 (21.70%) Developer
2 555 (12.53%) Software Engineer
3 452 (10.21%) Data Scientist
4 336 (7.59%) Data Engineer
5 291 (6.57%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 233 (5.26%) Senior Software Engineer
7 225 (5.08%) Architect
8 221 (4.99%) Senior Developer
9 189 (4.27%) Python Engineer
10 172 (3.88%) Full Stack Developer
11 133 (3.00%) Python Developer
12 126 (2.84%) Analyst
13 110 (2.48%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 106 (2.39%) Lead Developer
15 105 (2.37%) Senior Data Scientist
16 99 (2.24%) Data Architect
17 95 (2.14%) Graduate
18 84 (1.90%) Consultant
19 83 (1.87%) C# Developer
20 81 (1.83%) .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 883 (19.94%) React
2 504 (11.38%) Node.js
3 440 (9.93%) .NET
4 380 (8.58%) REST
5 373 (8.42%) TensorFlow
6 366 (8.26%) HTML
7 365 (8.24%) CSS
8 355 (8.02%) AngularJS
9 309 (6.98%) Kafka
10 280 (6.32%) GraphQL
11 272 (6.14%) Web Services
12 254 (5.73%) PyTorch
12 254 (5.73%) RESTful
13 218 (4.92%) scikit-learn
14 216 (4.88%) Django
15 214 (4.83%) Vue.js
16 213 (4.81%) Pandas
17 207 (4.67%) .NET Core
18 206 (4.65%) Redux
19 189 (4.27%) Flask
Miscellaneous
1 866 (19.55%) Algorithms
2 461 (10.41%) User Experience
3 149 (3.36%) Data Structures
4 129 (2.91%) Greenfield Project
5 125 (2.82%) Cloud Native
6 100 (2.26%) Hedge funds
7 99 (2.24%) Mobile App
7 99 (2.24%) Robotics
8 90 (2.03%) Cyberattack
9 85 (1.92%) Hybrid Cloud
10 84 (1.90%) Self-Motivation
11 81 (1.83%) Life Science
12 76 (1.72%) Virtual Team
13 70 (1.58%) Equities
14 69 (1.56%) Social Media
15 67 (1.51%) Public Cloud
16 66 (1.49%) Blog
16 66 (1.49%) NHS
17 65 (1.47%) Management Information System
18 61 (1.38%) Fixed Income
Operating Systems
1 402 (9.08%) Linux
2 121 (2.73%) Unix
3 118 (2.66%) Android
4 116 (2.62%) Apple iOS
5 94 (2.12%) Windows
6 62 (1.40%) CentOS
7 42 (0.95%) Ubuntu
8 33 (0.75%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 32 (0.72%) Windows Server
10 23 (0.52%) Windows Server 2016
11 20 (0.45%) VMS
12 9 (0.20%) Embedded Linux
12 9 (0.20%) Mesosphere
13 8 (0.18%) Solaris
14 4 (0.090%) DC/OS
14 4 (0.090%) Robot Operating System
15 3 (0.068%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,047 (46.22%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,827 (41.25%) Data Science
3 1,562 (35.27%) Agile Software Development
4 1,436 (32.42%) Analytics
5 1,320 (29.80%) Software Engineering
6 834 (18.83%) Microservices
7 799 (18.04%) DevOps
8 707 (15.96%) Computer Science
9 591 (13.34%) Full Stack Development
10 585 (13.21%) Mathematics
11 580 (13.10%) Problem-Solving
12 576 (13.01%) Scrum
13 532 (12.01%) Visualisation
14 482 (10.88%) Natural Language Processing
15 478 (10.79%) Business Intelligence
16 475 (10.72%) Mentoring
17 401 (9.05%) Statistics
18 384 (8.67%) Test Automation
19 366 (8.26%) Deep Learning
19 366 (8.26%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 2,436 (55.00%) Python
2 1,276 (28.81%) SQL
3 1,048 (23.66%) JavaScript
4 782 (17.66%) Java
5 487 (11.00%) TypeScript
6 485 (10.95%) C#
7 377 (8.51%) C++
8 326 (7.36%) R
9 243 (5.49%) Scala
10 203 (4.58%) C
11 199 (4.49%) Go
12 143 (3.23%) MATLAB
13 112 (2.53%) PowerShell
14 102 (2.30%) Bash Shell
14 102 (2.30%) Ruby
15 89 (2.01%) PHP
16 82 (1.85%) Shell Script
17 76 (1.72%) ES6
18 73 (1.65%) Java 8
19 48 (1.08%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 841 (18.99%) Degree
2 299 (6.75%) PhD
3 208 (4.70%) Computer Science Degree
4 109 (2.46%) Master's Degree
5 82 (1.85%) Security Cleared
6 34 (0.77%) Numerate Degree
7 30 (0.68%) DV Cleared
8 26 (0.59%) SC Cleared
9 21 (0.47%) AWS Certification
10 17 (0.38%) Microsoft Certification
11 15 (0.34%) GIAC
11 15 (0.34%) RHCE
12 13 (0.29%) Six Sigma Green Belt
13 11 (0.25%) BPSS Clearance
14 10 (0.23%) MCSA
14 10 (0.23%) Postgraduate
15 9 (0.20%) DBS Check
16 5 (0.11%) RHCSA
17 4 (0.090%) CFA
18 2 (0.045%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 232 (5.24%) QA
2 133 (3.00%) Data Quality
3 59 (1.33%) GDPR
4 51 (1.15%) Accessibility
5 27 (0.61%) CDISC
6 21 (0.47%) GxP
6 21 (0.47%) PSD2
7 12 (0.27%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 11 (0.25%) Good Clinical Practice
9 10 (0.23%) Dodd-Frank
9 10 (0.23%) EMIR
9 10 (0.23%) MiFID
10 7 (0.16%) WAI
11 6 (0.14%) PMO
12 5 (0.11%) GLP
12 5 (0.11%) GMP
13 4 (0.090%) WCAG
14 2 (0.045%) Cyber Essentials
14 2 (0.045%) SLA
15 1 (0.023%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
System Software
1 1,023 (23.10%) Docker
2 43 (0.97%) VMware Infrastructure
3 36 (0.81%) Active Directory
4 33 (0.75%) VMware ESXi
5 19 (0.43%) Firmware
6 16 (0.36%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 11 (0.25%) etcd
8 8 (0.18%) VirtualBox
9 7 (0.16%) Ceph
9 7 (0.16%) Virtual Machines
10 4 (0.090%) Snort
11 2 (0.045%) HDFS
11 2 (0.045%) Hyper-V
12 1 (0.023%) NFS
12 1 (0.023%) Slurm Workload Manager
Systems Management
1 813 (18.36%) Kubernetes
2 384 (8.67%) Terraform
3 215 (4.85%) Ansible
4 92 (2.08%) Prometheus
5 78 (1.76%) Puppet
6 60 (1.35%) Grafana
7 33 (0.75%) Kubeflow
8 28 (0.63%) Opscode Chef
9 16 (0.36%) Kibana
10 13 (0.29%) logstash
11 12 (0.27%) Consul
11 12 (0.27%) Istio
12 9 (0.20%) Automic
13 8 (0.18%) Docker Swarm
14 7 (0.16%) Galera Cluster
14 7 (0.16%) Oozie
15 6 (0.14%) Control-M
16 4 (0.090%) HAProxy
16 4 (0.090%) Pingdom
16 4 (0.090%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 486 (10.97%) Google
2 366 (8.26%) Microsoft
3 177 (4.00%) Databricks
4 99 (2.24%) Oracle
5 70 (1.58%) SAP
6 63 (1.42%) Samsung
7 57 (1.29%) Facebook
8 54 (1.22%) Red Hat
9 49 (1.11%) Instagram
10 43 (0.97%) VMware
11 40 (0.90%) Dell
11 40 (0.90%) Salesforce.com
12 38 (0.86%) Splunk
13 34 (0.77%) IBM
14 33 (0.75%) Atlassian
15 28 (0.63%) Elastic Path
16 27 (0.61%) Yahoo!
17 26 (0.59%) Apple
18 22 (0.50%) Dataiku
18 22 (0.50%) Snapchat