Period
to 2 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 2 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 86 90 101
Rank change year-on-year +4 +11 +22
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 4,605 1,897 4,136
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.57% 3.41% 3.08%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.78% 3.67% 3.33%
Number of salaries quoted 2,172 1,612 3,320
10th Percentile £38,000 £37,500 £37,639
25th Percentile £48,750 £45,000 £47,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £62,500 £65,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.00% -3.85% -
75th Percentile £85,000 £80,000 £87,500
90th Percentile £105,000 £95,000 £110,800
UK excluding London median annual salary £57,500 £52,500 £52,500
% change year-on-year +9.52% - -0.55%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 121,729 51,713 124,343
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 94.36% 92.88% 92.59%
Number of salaries quoted 81,314 43,396 99,764
10th Percentile £33,000 £32,500 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,000 £38,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% +1.94%
75th Percentile £77,500 £73,750 £71,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £90,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £48,750 £45,000
% change year-on-year +2.56% +8.33% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 2 December 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +6 4,092 £65,000 +4.00% 542
London -3 2,639 £75,000 +3.45% 277
UK excluding London -31 1,511 £57,500 +9.52% 290
Work from Home -27 848 £62,500 +4.17% 104
South East -30 463 £60,000 - 60
North of England -48 280 £55,000 +15.79% 85
East of England -11 240 £46,250 -19.57% 44
South West -3 209 £55,500 +11.00% 30
North West -31 180 £55,000 +4.76% 52
Midlands -37 177 £61,500 +26.15% 42
West Midlands -47 140 £62,500 +38.89% 30
Yorkshire -40 76 £65,000 +30.00% 13
Scotland -83 66 £50,000 - 24
Northern Ireland +4 65 £75,000 +62.16% 1
East Midlands -32 35 £47,500 -24.00% 12
North East -40 24 £55,000 +37.50% 21
Wales -53 11 £50,000 +11.11% 4
Isle of Man - 2 - -

For the 6 months to 2 December 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 2,573 (55.87%) Python
2 2,068 (44.91%) Artificial Intelligence
3 2,036 (44.21%) Data Science
4 1,575 (34.20%) AWS
5 1,549 (33.64%) Analytics
6 1,512 (32.83%) Agile Software Development
7 1,339 (29.08%) Software Engineering
8 1,325 (28.77%) SQL
9 1,059 (23.00%) Azure
10 1,024 (22.24%) Algorithms
11 1,014 (22.02%) Docker
12 995 (21.61%) Degree
13 981 (21.30%) JavaScript
14 963 (20.91%) Social Skills
15 934 (20.28%) Finance
16 923 (20.04%) GCP
17 912 (19.80%) Kubernetes
18 855 (18.57%) Java
19 833 (18.09%) DevOps
20 797 (17.31%) Computer Science
21 761 (16.53%) React
22 757 (16.44%) Big Data
23 745 (16.18%) Mathematics
24 733 (15.92%) Microservices
25 624 (13.55%) Git (software)
26 617 (13.40%) Problem-Solving
27 582 (12.64%) Analytical Skills
28 572 (12.42%) Visualisation
29 559 (12.14%) Google
30 555 (12.05%) Natural Language Processing

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 480 (10.42%) Apache Spark
2 207 (4.50%) Elasticsearch
3 129 (2.80%) Apache Airflow
4 118 (2.56%) Confluence
5 110 (2.39%) Apache
6 77 (1.67%) Jupyter
7 59 (1.28%) SAS
8 39 (0.85%) CMS
9 34 (0.74%) Appian
10 21 (0.46%) SharePoint
11 19 (0.41%) Cloud Foundry
12 16 (0.35%) Apache Solr
13 14 (0.30%) Luigi
14 11 (0.24%) Tornado
15 10 (0.22%) OpenStack
16 8 (0.17%) Apache Pig
16 8 (0.17%) nginx
17 7 (0.15%) Apache Synapse
17 7 (0.15%) Ethereum
18 6 (0.13%) Headless CMS
Applications
1 91 (1.98%) Microsoft Excel
2 69 (1.50%) Chatbot
3 32 (0.69%) Simulink
4 30 (0.65%) Microsoft Office
5 18 (0.39%) Stateflow
6 15 (0.33%) Figma
7 14 (0.30%) MS Visio
8 8 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 7 (0.15%) Spreadsheet
10 6 (0.13%) Adobe Illustrator
11 5 (0.11%) Fireworks
11 5 (0.11%) Photoshop
12 4 (0.087%) Oracle Smart View
13 3 (0.065%) GNU Octave
13 3 (0.065%) Sketch
13 3 (0.065%) SPSS
13 3 (0.065%) Weka
14 2 (0.043%) Adobe XD
15 1 (0.022%) 3ds Max
15 1 (0.022%) Maya
Business Applications
1 21 (0.46%) Payment Gateway
1 21 (0.46%) Shopify
2 7 (0.15%) Dynamics CRM
3 6 (0.13%) Oracle BRM
4 4 (0.087%) Maximo
4 4 (0.087%) SAP S/4HANA
4 4 (0.087%) Summit
5 3 (0.065%) NetSuite
5 3 (0.065%) Oracle Applications
5 3 (0.065%) Oracle BPM
5 3 (0.065%) Oracle ERP
5 3 (0.065%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
5 3 (0.065%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 2 (0.043%) SAP MDG
6 2 (0.043%) SAP R/3
6 2 (0.043%) Tesseract
6 2 (0.043%) WebTrends
7 1 (0.022%) Oracle Assets
7 1 (0.022%) Oracle Cash Management
7 1 (0.022%) SAP Forecasting and Replenishment
Cloud Services
1 1,575 (34.20%) AWS
2 1,059 (23.00%) Azure
3 923 (20.04%) GCP
4 466 (10.12%) Serverless
5 351 (7.62%) Power Platform
6 282 (6.12%) SaaS
7 187 (4.06%) Cloud Computing
8 183 (3.97%) AWS Lambda
9 173 (3.76%) GitHub
10 171 (3.71%) Amazon S3
11 115 (2.50%) AWS CloudFormation
12 112 (2.43%) OpenShift
13 98 (2.13%) PaaS
14 88 (1.91%) Amazon EC2
15 84 (1.82%) Amazon ECS
15 84 (1.82%) Azure Data Factory
16 76 (1.65%) Amazon Kinesis
17 74 (1.61%) Amazon SQS
17 74 (1.61%) Snowflake
18 73 (1.59%) Azure Machine Learning
Communications & Networking
1 105 (2.28%) Kerberos
2 83 (1.80%) HTTP
3 57 (1.24%) Internet
4 41 (0.89%) Firewall
5 34 (0.74%) Broadband
5 34 (0.74%) DNS
5 34 (0.74%) TCP/IP
6 33 (0.72%) VPN
7 26 (0.56%) SSH
8 23 (0.50%) IPv4
9 22 (0.48%) SSL
10 16 (0.35%) HTTPS
10 16 (0.35%) Network Security
11 14 (0.30%) Wireless
12 13 (0.28%) SMTP
13 11 (0.24%) VLAN
14 10 (0.22%) DHCP
14 10 (0.22%) IPv6
14 10 (0.22%) OSPF
14 10 (0.22%) SNMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 757 (16.44%) Big Data
2 408 (8.86%) NoSQL
3 401 (8.71%) PostgreSQL
4 307 (6.67%) Power BI
5 301 (6.54%) Data Warehouse
6 292 (6.34%) MySQL
7 286 (6.21%) Hadoop
8 239 (5.19%) Relational Database
9 205 (4.45%) Tableau
10 199 (4.32%) SQL Server
11 188 (4.08%) MongoDB
12 187 (4.06%) Data Lake
13 149 (3.24%) BigQuery
14 144 (3.13%) Data Mining
14 144 (3.13%) Redis
15 132 (2.87%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 89 (1.93%) Metadata
17 85 (1.85%) Looker
18 82 (1.78%) Apache Hive
19 80 (1.74%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 624 (13.55%) Git (software)
2 366 (7.95%) Jenkins
3 229 (4.97%) JIRA
4 137 (2.98%) Maven
5 74 (1.61%) GitLab
6 69 (1.50%) webpack
7 54 (1.17%) Selenium
8 53 (1.15%) Team Foundation Server
9 46 (1.00%) Bitbucket
9 46 (1.00%) CircleCI
10 44 (0.96%) Cypress.io
11 43 (0.93%) Mocha
11 43 (0.93%) TeamCity
12 40 (0.87%) Gradle
13 36 (0.78%) Octopus Deploy
14 30 (0.65%) Babel
15 29 (0.63%) Jasmine
15 29 (0.63%) Mockito
16 27 (0.59%) Subversion
17 26 (0.56%) Visual Studio Team System
General
1 963 (20.91%) Social Skills
2 934 (20.28%) Finance
3 582 (12.64%) Analytical Skills
4 359 (7.80%) Retail
5 306 (6.64%) Marketing
6 242 (5.26%) Banking
7 195 (4.23%) Games
8 176 (3.82%) Legal
9 175 (3.80%) Law
10 158 (3.43%) Pharmaceutical
11 138 (3.00%) Inclusion and Diversity
12 134 (2.91%) Presentation Skills
13 117 (2.54%) Public Sector
14 95 (2.06%) Telecoms
15 93 (2.02%) Advertising
16 77 (1.67%) Manufacturing
17 73 (1.59%) Influencing Skills
18 57 (1.24%) Financial Institution
19 56 (1.22%) Electronics
20 52 (1.13%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 896 (19.46%) Developer
2 632 (13.72%) Software Engineer
3 567 (12.31%) Data Scientist
4 359 (7.80%) Data Engineer
5 308 (6.69%) Machine Learning Engineer
6 263 (5.71%) Senior Software Engineer
7 225 (4.89%) Architect
8 221 (4.80%) Senior Developer
9 186 (4.04%) Senior Data Scientist
10 160 (3.47%) Python Developer
11 156 (3.39%) Full Stack Developer
12 147 (3.19%) Python Engineer
13 144 (3.13%) Analyst
14 104 (2.26%) Consultant
14 104 (2.26%) Graduate
15 102 (2.21%) Backend Developer
16 95 (2.06%) Data Architect
17 92 (2.00%) Software Developer
18 87 (1.89%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
19 83 (1.80%) Lead Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 761 (16.53%) React
2 449 (9.75%) Node.js
3 403 (8.75%) TensorFlow
4 345 (7.49%) .NET
5 341 (7.40%) REST
6 322 (6.99%) Kafka
7 313 (6.80%) HTML
8 310 (6.73%) RESTful
9 309 (6.71%) CSS
10 300 (6.51%) Web Services
11 283 (6.15%) PyTorch
12 256 (5.56%) GraphQL
13 254 (5.52%) AngularJS
14 234 (5.08%) scikit-learn
15 214 (4.65%) Pandas
16 198 (4.30%) Flask
17 194 (4.21%) Spring Boot
18 192 (4.17%) Django
19 189 (4.10%) Redux
20 166 (3.60%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 1,024 (22.24%) Algorithms
2 385 (8.36%) User Experience
3 154 (3.34%) Data Structures
4 141 (3.06%) Cloud Native
5 129 (2.80%) Greenfield Project
6 111 (2.41%) Virtual Team
7 104 (2.26%) Robotics
8 100 (2.17%) Mobile App
8 100 (2.17%) Self-Motivation
9 97 (2.11%) Life Science
10 90 (1.95%) Social Media
11 76 (1.65%) Public Cloud
12 72 (1.56%) Management Information System
13 69 (1.50%) Blog
13 69 (1.50%) NHS
14 53 (1.15%) Enterprise Software
15 52 (1.13%) Equities
16 50 (1.09%) Augmented Reality
16 50 (1.09%) Tandem
17 49 (1.06%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 419 (9.10%) Linux
2 132 (2.87%) Android
3 115 (2.50%) Apple iOS
4 105 (2.28%) Unix
5 104 (2.26%) Windows
6 36 (0.78%) CentOS
7 33 (0.72%) Ubuntu
8 24 (0.52%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 19 (0.41%) VMS
10 17 (0.37%) Robot Operating System
11 15 (0.33%) Embedded Linux
11 15 (0.33%) Windows Server
12 10 (0.22%) Mac OS
13 9 (0.20%) Mesosphere
14 8 (0.17%) Solaris
15 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2016
16 4 (0.087%) DC/OS
17 2 (0.043%) Alpine Linux
18 1 (0.022%) Debian
18 1 (0.022%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,068 (44.91%) Artificial Intelligence
2 2,036 (44.21%) Data Science
3 1,549 (33.64%) Analytics
4 1,512 (32.83%) Agile Software Development
5 1,339 (29.08%) Software Engineering
6 833 (18.09%) DevOps
7 797 (17.31%) Computer Science
8 745 (16.18%) Mathematics
9 733 (15.92%) Microservices
10 617 (13.40%) Problem-Solving
11 572 (12.42%) Visualisation
12 555 (12.05%) Natural Language Processing
13 543 (11.79%) Statistics
14 527 (11.44%) Full Stack Development
15 493 (10.71%) Business Intelligence
16 484 (10.51%) Scrum
17 472 (10.25%) Data Engineering
18 469 (10.18%) Deep Learning
19 443 (9.62%) Mentoring
20 424 (9.21%) Data Modelling
Programming Languages
1 2,573 (55.87%) Python
2 1,325 (28.77%) SQL
3 981 (21.30%) JavaScript
4 855 (18.57%) Java
5 446 (9.69%) TypeScript
6 417 (9.06%) C++
7 398 (8.64%) R
8 393 (8.53%) C#
9 239 (5.19%) Scala
10 226 (4.91%) C
11 218 (4.73%) Go
12 166 (3.60%) MATLAB
13 129 (2.80%) Java 8
14 99 (2.15%) PHP
15 97 (2.11%) Ruby
16 90 (1.95%) Bash Shell
17 87 (1.89%) Shell Script
18 80 (1.74%) ES6
19 72 (1.56%) PowerShell
20 61 (1.32%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 995 (21.61%) Degree
2 372 (8.08%) PhD
3 220 (4.78%) Computer Science Degree
4 131 (2.84%) Master's Degree
5 71 (1.54%) Security Cleared
6 40 (0.87%) Numerate Degree
7 36 (0.78%) AWS Certification
8 33 (0.72%) Six Sigma Green Belt
9 30 (0.65%) SC Cleared
10 27 (0.59%) Microsoft Certification
11 14 (0.30%) BPSS Clearance
12 9 (0.20%) DV Cleared
12 9 (0.20%) MCSA
12 9 (0.20%) Postgraduate
13 6 (0.13%) DBS Check
14 5 (0.11%) CISSP
14 5 (0.11%) RHCSA
15 4 (0.087%) CEH
15 4 (0.087%) MCSE
16 3 (0.065%) GIAC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 255 (5.54%) QA
2 188 (4.08%) Data Quality
3 53 (1.15%) Accessibility
4 51 (1.11%) GDPR
5 40 (0.87%) GxP
6 32 (0.69%) CDISC
7 14 (0.30%) HL7
8 13 (0.28%) Dodd-Frank
8 13 (0.28%) EMIR
8 13 (0.28%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 13 (0.28%) MiFID
9 9 (0.20%) PMO
9 9 (0.20%) PSD2
10 7 (0.15%) Actionable Recommendations
10 7 (0.15%) HIPAA
11 5 (0.11%) GLP
11 5 (0.11%) GMP
11 5 (0.11%) Good Clinical Practice
12 4 (0.087%) NCSC
12 4 (0.087%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 1,014 (22.02%) Docker
2 33 (0.72%) Active Directory
3 30 (0.65%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 22 (0.48%) VMware Infrastructure
5 17 (0.37%) Firmware
6 11 (0.24%) VirtualBox
6 11 (0.24%) VMware ESXi
7 10 (0.22%) HDFS
7 10 (0.22%) Virtual Machines
8 9 (0.20%) etcd
9 8 (0.17%) Slurm Workload Manager
10 7 (0.15%) NFS
11 2 (0.043%) Ceph
11 2 (0.043%) iptables
11 2 (0.043%) KVM
11 2 (0.043%) Snort
12 1 (0.022%) Apache Flume
Systems Management
1 912 (19.80%) Kubernetes
2 407 (8.84%) Terraform
3 255 (5.54%) Ansible
4 69 (1.50%) Prometheus
5 51 (1.11%) Puppet
6 47 (1.02%) Grafana
7 39 (0.85%) Kubeflow
8 37 (0.80%) Opscode Chef
9 23 (0.50%) Kibana
10 14 (0.30%) logstash
11 13 (0.28%) Istio
12 12 (0.26%) Consul
13 9 (0.20%) Automic
13 9 (0.20%) Oozie
14 8 (0.17%) Control-M
14 8 (0.17%) Docker Swarm
15 7 (0.15%) Opsview
16 4 (0.087%) HAProxy
16 4 (0.087%) Mesos
16 4 (0.087%) Pingdom
Vendors
1 559 (12.14%) Google
2 329 (7.14%) Microsoft
3 199 (4.32%) Databricks
4 98 (2.13%) Oracle
5 81 (1.76%) SAP
6 76 (1.65%) Facebook
7 64 (1.39%) Salesforce.com
8 56 (1.22%) Samsung
9 53 (1.15%) Apple
10 49 (1.06%) Splunk
11 43 (0.93%) Automation Anywhere
12 38 (0.83%) MuleSoft
13 37 (0.80%) Atlassian
14 35 (0.76%) Dell
15 30 (0.65%) Red Hat
16 25 (0.54%) IBM
17 24 (0.52%) Dataiku
17 24 (0.52%) Twitter
18 22 (0.48%) Alteryx
18 22 (0.48%) VMware