Period
to 5 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 5 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
5 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 97 96 129
Rank change year-on-year -1 +33 +134
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 3,596 4,929 4,587
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.09% 3.30% 2.59%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.36% 3.58% 2.81%
Number of salaries quoted 3,087 4,070 4,071
Median annual salary £65,000 £65,000 £62,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +4.00% +4.17%
10th Percentile £38,750 £36,250 £36,250
90th Percentile £115,000 £100,000 £96,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £52,500 £55,000 £55,000
% change year-on-year -4.55% - +10.00%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 107,092 137,492 163,416
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 91.91% 92.18% 92.19%
Number of salaries quoted 84,936 108,178 133,002
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £31,250 £30,000 £29,000
90th Percentile £88,750 £85,000 £81,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 5 April 2020.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 5 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -4 3,405 £67,500 +3.85% 526
London -2 2,116 £77,500 +6.90% 299
UK excluding London -1 1,422 £52,500 -4.55% 242
South East +23 490 £55,000 - 87
Work from Home +36 286 £95,000 +46.15% 41
North of England +15 254 £52,500 - 44
South West +8 240 £50,000 - 21
East of England -24 179 £55,000 -8.33% 62
North West +27 171 £50,000 -4.76% 26
Midlands +39 124 £55,000 +22.22% 14
Scotland +11 101 £50,000 +7.53% 11
West Midlands +65 81 £55,000 +4.76% 9
Yorkshire +29 61 £55,000 - 10
East Midlands +9 44 £52,500 +31.25% 5
North East -1 22 £55,000 +11.48% 8
Wales -19 21 £42,000 -23.64% 3
Northern Ireland +17 11 £60,000 +41.18% 1
Channel Islands - 7 £65,000 -

For the 6 months to 5 April 2020, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 1,801 (50.08%) Python
2 1,657 (46.08%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,313 (36.51%) Data Science
4 1,155 (32.12%) Agile Software Development
5 1,134 (31.54%) AWS
6 1,119 (31.12%) Analytics
7 1,077 (29.95%) SQL
8 933 (25.95%) Java
9 820 (22.80%) Software Engineering
10 814 (22.64%) Big Data
11 805 (22.39%) Azure
12 773 (21.50%) Finance
13 761 (21.16%) JavaScript
14 745 (20.72%) Degree
15 653 (18.16%) C#
16 594 (16.52%) Computer Science
17 590 (16.41%) Docker
18 565 (15.71%) DevOps
19 562 (15.63%) R
20 517 (14.38%) Algorithms
21 510 (14.18%) .NET
22 486 (13.52%) Microservices
23 470 (13.07%) Apache Spark
24 453 (12.60%) React
25 446 (12.40%) Analytical Skills
26 438 (12.18%) GCP
27 406 (11.29%) Hadoop
28 403 (11.21%) Mathematics
28 403 (11.21%) Data Analytics
29 402 (11.18%) Natural Language Processing

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 470 (13.07%) Apache Spark
2 194 (5.39%) Elasticsearch
3 102 (2.84%) Apache
4 60 (1.67%) Jupyter
4 60 (1.67%) SAS
5 55 (1.53%) Apache Airflow
6 36 (1.00%) Apache Solr
7 29 (0.81%) OpenStack
8 28 (0.78%) Confluence
9 24 (0.67%) Tornado
10 21 (0.58%) SharePoint
11 20 (0.56%) ArcGIS
11 20 (0.56%) Luigi
12 19 (0.53%) nginx
12 19 (0.53%) WebSphere
13 16 (0.44%) CMS
14 15 (0.42%) Cloud Foundry
15 14 (0.39%) Apache Pig
16 12 (0.33%) Adobe Experience Manager
17 8 (0.22%) IPython
Applications
1 44 (1.22%) Microsoft Excel
2 41 (1.14%) Chatbot
3 40 (1.11%) SPSS
4 16 (0.44%) Microsoft Office
5 6 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 5 (0.14%) Figma
6 5 (0.14%) S-PLUS
7 4 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
8 3 (0.083%) Adobe Illustrator
8 3 (0.083%) Gephi
8 3 (0.083%) Photoshop
9 2 (0.056%) Acrobat
9 2 (0.056%) EViews
9 2 (0.056%) InDesign
9 2 (0.056%) InVision
9 2 (0.056%) Simulink
9 2 (0.056%) Sketch
9 2 (0.056%) Stata
10 1 (0.028%) MS Visio
10 1 (0.028%) Weka
Business Applications
1 57 (1.59%) PolarLake
2 56 (1.56%) Eagle PACE
2 56 (1.56%) Markit EDM
3 8 (0.22%) FastStats
4 7 (0.19%) Distributed Ledger
5 6 (0.17%) SAP ERP
6 5 (0.14%) SAP CRM
6 5 (0.14%) SAP IS-U
6 5 (0.14%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 4 (0.11%) Dynamics CRM
7 4 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
7 4 (0.11%) Tesseract
8 2 (0.056%) Elite 3E
8 2 (0.056%) Maximo
8 2 (0.056%) SAP BPC
9 1 (0.028%) Oracle EBS R12
9 1 (0.028%) Oracle Payables
9 1 (0.028%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
9 1 (0.028%) Salesforce.com CRM
Cloud Services
1 1,134 (31.54%) AWS
2 805 (22.39%) Azure
3 438 (12.18%) GCP
4 230 (6.40%) SaaS
5 188 (5.23%) Power Platform
6 129 (3.59%) Serverless
7 110 (3.06%) Cloud Computing
8 75 (2.09%) Amazon S3
9 73 (2.03%) Amazon ECS
10 69 (1.92%) Azure Machine Learning
11 64 (1.78%) AWS Lambda
12 56 (1.56%) PaaS
12 56 (1.56%) Slack
13 52 (1.45%) GitHub
14 49 (1.36%) Amazon SageMaker
15 47 (1.31%) Amazon SQS
15 47 (1.31%) AWS CloudFormation
15 47 (1.31%) Azure Data Factory
16 44 (1.22%) Dropbox
17 40 (1.11%) Amazon Kinesis
Communications & Networking
1 68 (1.89%) Internet
2 21 (0.58%) Firewall
3 15 (0.42%) Software-Defined Networking
4 13 (0.36%) HTTP
4 13 (0.36%) TCP/IP
5 10 (0.28%) DMZ
5 10 (0.28%) DNS
6 7 (0.19%) MQTT
6 7 (0.19%) Network Security
6 7 (0.19%) Wireshark
7 5 (0.14%) Skype
8 4 (0.11%) Ethernet
8 4 (0.11%) SSL
8 4 (0.11%) VPN
8 4 (0.11%) Wireless
9 3 (0.083%) Broadband
9 3 (0.083%) Intrusion Detection
9 3 (0.083%) MPLS
9 3 (0.083%) Reverse Proxy
9 3 (0.083%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 814 (22.64%) Big Data
2 406 (11.29%) Hadoop
3 397 (11.04%) NoSQL
4 321 (8.93%) SQL Server
5 264 (7.34%) MongoDB
6 234 (6.51%) MySQL
7 221 (6.15%) PostgreSQL
8 203 (5.65%) Data Warehouse
9 185 (5.14%) Power BI
10 183 (5.09%) Redis
11 163 (4.53%) Relational Database
12 136 (3.78%) Data Lake
13 128 (3.56%) SQL Server Analysis Services
14 127 (3.53%) Amazon Redshift
15 123 (3.42%) Apache Cassandra
16 121 (3.36%) Apache Hive
17 112 (3.11%) Data Mining
18 94 (2.61%) Microsoft Analysis Services
19 76 (2.11%) SQL Server Integration Services
20 74 (2.06%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 291 (8.09%) Git (software)
2 174 (4.84%) Jenkins
3 143 (3.98%) JIRA
4 76 (2.11%) Selenium
5 73 (2.03%) TeamCity
6 71 (1.97%) Octopus Deploy
7 61 (1.70%) Maven
8 59 (1.64%) MSBuild
9 40 (1.11%) JUnit
10 35 (0.97%) Team Foundation Server
11 29 (0.81%) Cucumber
11 29 (0.81%) webpack
12 25 (0.70%) CircleCI
13 24 (0.67%) Atlassian Bamboo
13 24 (0.67%) GitLab
14 22 (0.61%) Vagrant
14 22 (0.61%) Visual Studio
14 22 (0.61%) Visual Studio Team System
14 22 (0.61%) WebDriver
15 17 (0.47%) gulp
General
1 773 (21.50%) Finance
2 262 (7.29%) Front Office
3 230 (6.40%) Banking
4 218 (6.06%) Marketing
5 174 (4.84%) Retail
6 107 (2.98%) Back Office
7 97 (2.70%) Law
8 70 (1.95%) Legal
9 65 (1.81%) Games
10 48 (1.33%) Advertising
10 48 (1.33%) Public Sector
11 46 (1.28%) Investment Banking
11 46 (1.28%) Telecoms
12 43 (1.20%) Aerospace
13 33 (0.92%) Electronics
14 32 (0.89%) Manufacturing
15 31 (0.86%) Pharmaceutical
16 29 (0.81%) Automotive
17 26 (0.72%) Billing
18 25 (0.70%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 995 (27.67%) Developer
2 511 (14.21%) Data Scientist
3 337 (9.37%) Software Engineer
4 282 (7.84%) Data Engineer
5 269 (7.48%) Architect
6 221 (6.15%) Analyst
7 201 (5.59%) Java Developer
8 190 (5.28%) .NET Developer
9 188 (5.23%) Senior Developer
10 165 (4.59%) Senior Data Scientist
11 141 (3.92%) Machine Learning Engineer
12 129 (3.59%) Python Engineer
13 128 (3.56%) Software Developer
14 117 (3.25%) C# Developer
15 105 (2.92%) Python Developer
16 101 (2.81%) Full Stack Developer
17 98 (2.73%) Data Architect
17 98 (2.73%) Solutions Architect
18 91 (2.53%) Senior Software Engineer
19 81 (2.25%) Data Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 510 (14.18%) .NET
2 453 (12.60%) React
3 402 (11.18%) Natural Language Processing
4 377 (10.48%) Web Services
5 360 (10.01%) AngularJS
6 289 (8.04%) HTML
6 289 (8.04%) Node.js
7 269 (7.48%) CSS
8 251 (6.98%) TensorFlow
9 233 (6.48%) Kafka
10 227 (6.31%) ASP.NET
11 222 (6.17%) .NET Core
12 202 (5.62%) scikit-learn
13 163 (4.53%) Spring
14 157 (4.37%) Pandas
15 123 (3.42%) RESTful
16 115 (3.20%) PyTorch
17 111 (3.09%) NumPy
18 105 (2.92%) Keras
19 103 (2.86%) REST
Miscellaneous
1 517 (14.38%) Algorithms
2 446 (12.40%) Analytical Skills
3 223 (6.20%) User Experience
4 220 (6.12%) Greenfield Project
5 186 (5.17%) Hedge funds
6 138 (3.84%) Equities
7 131 (3.64%) Fixed Income
8 129 (3.59%) Derivative
9 103 (2.86%) Reference Data
10 94 (2.61%) Cloud Native
11 86 (2.39%) Blog
12 77 (2.14%) Data Structures
13 66 (1.84%) Robotics
14 64 (1.78%) Mobile App
15 56 (1.56%) Management Information System
16 42 (1.17%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 41 (1.14%) Enterprise Software
18 39 (1.08%) Self-Motivation
19 34 (0.95%) AS400
20 31 (0.86%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 324 (9.01%) Linux
2 127 (3.53%) Windows
3 65 (1.81%) Unix
4 31 (0.86%) Android
5 29 (0.81%) Apple iOS
6 17 (0.47%) CentOS
7 11 (0.31%) Ubuntu
8 9 (0.25%) Windows 7
9 7 (0.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 7 (0.19%) VMS
10 5 (0.14%) Mac OS
11 3 (0.083%) Debian
11 3 (0.083%) Mac OS X
12 2 (0.056%) Solaris
13 1 (0.028%) AIX
13 1 (0.028%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,657 (46.08%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,313 (36.51%) Data Science
3 1,155 (32.12%) Agile Software Development
4 1,119 (31.12%) Analytics
5 820 (22.80%) Software Engineering
6 594 (16.52%) Computer Science
7 565 (15.71%) DevOps
8 486 (13.52%) Microservices
9 403 (11.21%) Data Analytics
9 403 (11.21%) Mathematics
10 398 (11.07%) Deep Learning
11 376 (10.46%) Visualisation
12 374 (10.40%) Business Intelligence
13 352 (9.79%) Mentoring
14 341 (9.48%) Scrum
15 335 (9.32%) Statistics
16 321 (8.93%) Problem-Solving
17 285 (7.93%) Data Analysis
18 281 (7.81%) Data Modelling
19 250 (6.95%) TDD
Programming Languages
1 1,801 (50.08%) Python
2 1,077 (29.95%) SQL
3 933 (25.95%) Java
4 761 (21.16%) JavaScript
5 653 (18.16%) C#
6 562 (15.63%) R
7 355 (9.87%) C++
8 314 (8.73%) Scala
9 171 (4.76%) TypeScript
10 166 (4.62%) C
11 137 (3.81%) Go
12 111 (3.09%) MATLAB
13 98 (2.73%) F#
14 90 (2.50%) Java 8
15 88 (2.45%) Bash Shell
16 66 (1.84%) PHP
17 59 (1.64%) Ruby
18 57 (1.59%) T-SQL
19 52 (1.45%) PowerShell
20 46 (1.28%) Perl
Qualifications
1 745 (20.72%) Degree
2 274 (7.62%) PhD
3 184 (5.12%) Security Cleared
4 180 (5.01%) Computer Science Degree
5 113 (3.14%) DV Cleared
6 95 (2.64%) SC Cleared
7 70 (1.95%) Master's Degree
8 57 (1.59%) Numerate Degree
9 19 (0.53%) MBA
10 12 (0.33%) TOGAF Certification
11 11 (0.31%) AWS Certification
11 11 (0.31%) ISTQB
12 10 (0.28%) Postgraduate
13 7 (0.19%) ISEB
13 7 (0.19%) ITIL Certification
14 6 (0.17%) CISSP
14 6 (0.17%) Microsoft Certification
15 3 (0.083%) CCNA
15 3 (0.083%) Cisco Certification
15 3 (0.083%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 122 (3.39%) QA
2 104 (2.89%) Data Quality
3 22 (0.61%) GDPR
4 19 (0.53%) Actionable Recommendations
5 13 (0.36%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 13 (0.36%) NIST
5 13 (0.36%) SLA
6 5 (0.14%) PMO
7 3 (0.083%) NCSC
7 3 (0.083%) NIST 800
7 3 (0.083%) PCI DSS
8 2 (0.056%) HL7
8 2 (0.056%) IEC 62304
9 1 (0.028%) COBIT
9 1 (0.028%) DICOM
9 1 (0.028%) EMIR
9 1 (0.028%) MiFID
9 1 (0.028%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 1 (0.028%) SEPA
System Software
1 590 (16.41%) Docker
2 38 (1.06%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 24 (0.67%) HDFS
4 18 (0.50%) Apache Flume
4 18 (0.50%) VMware Infrastructure
5 17 (0.47%) VirtualBox
6 13 (0.36%) Active Directory
7 11 (0.31%) Firmware
8 9 (0.25%) Microsoft App-V
9 7 (0.19%) Hyper-V
10 4 (0.11%) IAG
10 4 (0.11%) vSphere
11 1 (0.028%) Btrfs
11 1 (0.028%) Corosync
11 1 (0.028%) DRBD
11 1 (0.028%) NFS
11 1 (0.028%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 381 (10.60%) Kubernetes
2 231 (6.42%) Terraform
3 155 (4.31%) Ansible
4 85 (2.36%) Puppet
5 53 (1.47%) Opscode Chef
6 35 (0.97%) Docker Swarm
7 28 (0.78%) Istio
7 28 (0.78%) Oozie
8 27 (0.75%) Salt
9 25 (0.70%) Kibana
10 21 (0.58%) Prometheus
11 20 (0.56%) Kubeflow
12 17 (0.47%) Grafana
13 15 (0.42%) Hadoop YARN
14 11 (0.31%) Packer
15 10 (0.28%) Mesos
16 9 (0.25%) linkerd
16 9 (0.25%) SCCM
17 5 (0.14%) Rancher
18 4 (0.11%) Nagios
Vendors
1 261 (7.26%) Microsoft
2 246 (6.84%) Google
3 157 (4.37%) Tableau
4 122 (3.39%) Oracle
5 100 (2.78%) Bloomberg
6 66 (1.84%) Databricks
7 57 (1.59%) Reuters
7 57 (1.59%) Splunk
8 44 (1.22%) CrowdStrike
9 34 (0.95%) Cloudera
10 29 (0.81%) IBM
11 28 (0.78%) Facebook
11 28 (0.78%) Hortonworks
12 25 (0.70%) Informatica
12 25 (0.70%) SAP
12 25 (0.70%) UiPath
13 24 (0.67%) Alteryx
14 21 (0.58%) Teradata
14 21 (0.58%) VMware
14 21 (0.58%) Xamarin