Period
to 20 February 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 February 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
20 Feb 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 102 145 301
Rank change year-on-year +43 +156 +158
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 4,713 4,173 1,961
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 3.11% 2.36% 1.12%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.39% 2.57% 1.23%
Number of salaries quoted 3,811 3,545 1,694
UK median annual salary £65,000 £60,000 £60,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +8.33% - -
10th Percentile £36,250 £35,000 £33,750
90th Percentile £100,000 £96,250 £95,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% -4.76%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 138,888 162,355 159,565
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 91.75% 91.84% 91.31%
Number of salaries quoted 109,515 131,738 131,606
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
10th Percentile £30,000 £28,750 £27,750
90th Percentile £85,000 £80,000 £78,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 20 February 2019.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 20 February 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +43 4,451 £65,000 +4.00% 751
London +34 2,813 £72,500 +7.41% 406
UK excluding London +27 1,772 £55,000 +4.76% 382
South East +69 590 £55,000 - 106
East of England +8 391 £60,000 +9.09% 110
South West +55 288 £50,000 - 41
North of England +1 224 £50,000 -4.76% 51
Midlands +11 135 £42,500 - 37
North West -57 121 £45,000 -10.00% 42
Scotland -41 101 £45,000 -10.00% 18
Yorkshire +93 80 £55,000 - 7
East Midlands +21 68 £40,000 -17.95% 20
West Midlands +8 67 £43,750 +2.94% 17
Wales +30 35 £55,000 +29.41% 14
North East +35 23 £49,337 -38.33% 2
Northern Ireland -12 11 £42,500 +4.29% 6

For the 6 months to 20 February 2019, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 2,599 (55.15%) Python
2 2,171 (46.06%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,646 (34.92%) Data Science
4 1,504 (31.91%) Java
5 1,436 (30.47%) Analytics
6 1,344 (28.52%) Agile Software Development
7 1,317 (27.94%) Big Data
8 1,295 (27.48%) SQL
9 1,199 (25.44%) Software Engineering
10 1,025 (21.75%) Amazon AWS
11 999 (21.20%) Algorithms
12 935 (19.84%) C++
13 914 (19.39%) Degree
14 876 (18.59%) Finance
15 869 (18.44%) Mathematics
16 784 (16.63%) R
17 777 (16.49%) Apache Spark
18 770 (16.34%) Computer Science
19 738 (15.66%) C#
20 726 (15.40%) Microsoft Azure
21 721 (15.30%) Hadoop
22 717 (15.21%) Linux
23 713 (15.13%) JavaScript
24 682 (14.47%) Deep Learning
25 647 (13.73%) DevOps
26 588 (12.48%) PhD
27 584 (12.39%) Visualisation
28 535 (11.35%) Natural Language Processing
29 532 (11.29%) Docker
30 524 (11.12%) Analytical Skills

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 777 (16.49%) Apache Spark
2 243 (5.16%) Apache
3 200 (4.24%) Elasticsearch
4 150 (3.18%) SAS
5 116 (2.46%) Apache Pig
6 44 (0.93%) CMS
7 38 (0.81%) Tomcat
8 36 (0.76%) Apache Solr
9 29 (0.62%) SharePoint
10 28 (0.59%) Confluence
11 25 (0.53%) Jupyter
12 21 (0.45%) Hyperledger
13 19 (0.40%) GlassFish
14 18 (0.38%) Apache Airflow
15 14 (0.30%) MS Exchange
16 12 (0.25%) Ethereum
17 8 (0.17%) IIS
17 8 (0.17%) Luigi
18 7 (0.15%) DNN
19 6 (0.13%) OpenStack
Applications
1 71 (1.51%) Microsoft Excel
2 70 (1.49%) Chatbot
3 47 (1.00%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 36 (0.76%) Microsoft Office
5 30 (0.64%) SPSS
6 28 (0.59%) GNU Octave
7 19 (0.40%) Adobe Illustrator
8 18 (0.38%) Photoshop
9 12 (0.25%) Snapchat
9 12 (0.25%) Stata
10 10 (0.21%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 6 (0.13%) MS Visio
12 4 (0.085%) Simulink
13 3 (0.064%) S-PLUS
13 3 (0.064%) Weka
14 2 (0.042%) CPLEX
14 2 (0.042%) Microsoft Project
14 2 (0.042%) Spreadsheet
15 1 (0.021%) Adobe After Effects
15 1 (0.021%) RoboHelp
Business Applications
1 29 (0.62%) Distributed Ledger
2 10 (0.21%) Summit
3 8 (0.17%) Dynamics AX
3 8 (0.17%) Dynamics CRM
4 5 (0.11%) Dynamics NAV
5 4 (0.085%) NetSuite
5 4 (0.085%) SAP S/4HANA
6 3 (0.064%) Payment Gateway
7 2 (0.042%) FastStats
7 2 (0.042%) Magento
7 2 (0.042%) SAP MDG
7 2 (0.042%) SAP MDM
8 1 (0.021%) BigMachines
8 1 (0.021%) HFM
8 1 (0.021%) PolarLake
8 1 (0.021%) SAP IBP
8 1 (0.021%) WebTrends
8 1 (0.021%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 1,025 (21.75%) Amazon AWS
2 726 (15.40%) Microsoft Azure
3 429 (9.10%) Google Cloud Platform
4 162 (3.44%) Serverless
5 123 (2.61%) SaaS
6 114 (2.42%) GitHub
7 110 (2.33%) Cloud Computing
8 102 (2.16%) AWS Lambda
9 81 (1.72%) Amazon S3
10 79 (1.68%) PaaS
11 67 (1.42%) Amazon EC2
11 67 (1.42%) Amazon SQS
11 67 (1.42%) Azure Machine Learning
12 50 (1.06%) AWS CloudFormation
13 33 (0.70%) Amazon EMR
14 32 (0.68%) Data Lake Analytics
15 31 (0.66%) Google Analytics
16 28 (0.59%) Amazon Kinesis
16 28 (0.59%) Azure Data Factory
16 28 (0.59%) Office 365
Communications & Networking
1 57 (1.21%) Internet
2 48 (1.02%) HTTP
3 26 (0.55%) Firewall
4 19 (0.40%) WebEx
5 16 (0.34%) Skype
6 14 (0.30%) VPN
7 11 (0.23%) Broadband
8 10 (0.21%) SAN
8 10 (0.21%) WAN
9 8 (0.17%) Network Security
10 7 (0.15%) MQTT
10 7 (0.15%) PPP
11 6 (0.13%) BGP
11 6 (0.13%) MPLS
12 5 (0.11%) DNS
12 5 (0.11%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
12 5 (0.11%) Software-Defined Networking
12 5 (0.11%) Wi-Fi
13 4 (0.085%) TCP/IP
13 4 (0.085%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,317 (27.94%) Big Data
2 721 (15.30%) Hadoop
3 508 (10.78%) NoSQL
4 312 (6.62%) Apache Hive
5 284 (6.03%) Data Warehouse
6 256 (5.43%) Data Mining
7 240 (5.09%) SQL Server
8 230 (4.88%) MongoDB
9 225 (4.77%) Apache Cassandra
10 213 (4.52%) Relational Database
11 188 (3.99%) HBase
12 186 (3.95%) PostgreSQL
13 168 (3.56%) Power BI
14 164 (3.48%) MySQL
15 153 (3.25%) Blockchain
16 142 (3.01%) Data Lake
17 132 (2.80%) QlikView
18 105 (2.23%) Amazon Redshift
19 90 (1.91%) Sqoop
20 85 (1.80%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 436 (9.25%) Git (software)
2 219 (4.65%) Jenkins
3 130 (2.76%) Maven
4 98 (2.08%) Selenium
5 87 (1.85%) JIRA
6 80 (1.70%) Eclipse
7 75 (1.59%) Visual Studio
8 74 (1.57%) Gradle
9 67 (1.42%) Subversion
10 58 (1.23%) Eclipse RCP
11 51 (1.08%) JUnit
12 41 (0.87%) Ant
13 37 (0.79%) SoapUI
14 34 (0.72%) JMeter
14 34 (0.72%) TeamCity
15 31 (0.66%) git-flow
16 28 (0.59%) Cucumber
17 27 (0.57%) Octopus Deploy
17 27 (0.57%) webpack
18 25 (0.53%) Bitbucket
General
1 876 (18.59%) Finance
2 363 (7.70%) Banking
3 279 (5.92%) Retail
4 273 (5.79%) Law
5 258 (5.47%) Marketing
6 185 (3.93%) Military
7 153 (3.25%) Games
8 80 (1.70%) Telecoms
9 78 (1.65%) Publishing
10 73 (1.55%) Investment Banking
11 70 (1.49%) Manufacturing
11 70 (1.49%) Pharmaceutical
12 63 (1.34%) Electronics
13 58 (1.23%) Advertising
14 49 (1.04%) Legal
15 35 (0.74%) Financial Institution
16 28 (0.59%) Retail Banking
17 26 (0.55%) Automotive
18 19 (0.40%) Retail Finance
19 18 (0.38%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 1,200 (25.46%) Developer
2 776 (16.47%) Data Scientist
3 468 (9.93%) Software Engineer
4 356 (7.55%) Data Engineer
5 310 (6.58%) Architect
6 286 (6.07%) Machine Learning Engineer
7 266 (5.64%) Python Developer
8 262 (5.56%) Senior Developer
9 241 (5.11%) Java Developer
10 226 (4.80%) Analyst
11 216 (4.58%) Python Engineer
12 211 (4.48%) Consultant
13 196 (4.16%) Senior Data Scientist
14 179 (3.80%) Software Developer
15 151 (3.20%) Machine Learning Developer
16 149 (3.16%) Junior
17 135 (2.86%) Big Data Engineer
18 133 (2.82%) Senior Software Engineer
19 130 (2.76%) Graduate
20 128 (2.72%) Full Stack Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 535 (11.35%) Natural Language Processing
2 409 (8.68%) TensorFlow
3 395 (8.38%) HTML
4 351 (7.45%) .NET
5 350 (7.43%) CSS
6 344 (7.30%) Kafka
7 341 (7.24%) React
8 317 (6.73%) AngularJS
9 291 (6.17%) Node.js
10 210 (4.46%) Spring
11 205 (4.35%) scikit-learn
12 191 (4.05%) Web Services
13 182 (3.86%) Pandas
14 177 (3.76%) RESTful
15 169 (3.59%) REST
16 162 (3.44%) JSON
17 151 (3.20%) NumPy
18 138 (2.93%) Django
19 128 (2.72%) Keras
20 115 (2.44%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 999 (21.20%) Algorithms
2 524 (11.12%) Analytical Skills
3 320 (6.79%) Fintech
4 209 (4.43%) Robotics
5 197 (4.18%) Data Structures
6 192 (4.07%) Greenfield Project
7 152 (3.23%) User Experience
8 89 (1.89%) Self-Motivation
9 79 (1.68%) Mobile App
10 70 (1.49%) Social Media
11 69 (1.46%) Hedge funds
12 65 (1.38%) Management Information System
13 60 (1.27%) Virtual Team
14 50 (1.06%) Cloud Native
15 49 (1.04%) Enterprise Software
16 38 (0.81%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 34 (0.72%) Life Science
18 33 (0.70%) Equities
19 31 (0.66%) Hybrid Cloud
19 31 (0.66%) Internet of Things
Operating Systems
1 717 (15.21%) Linux
2 203 (4.31%) Windows
3 176 (3.73%) Unix
4 115 (2.44%) Android
5 79 (1.68%) Apple iOS
6 19 (0.40%) Embedded Linux
6 19 (0.40%) Ubuntu
7 16 (0.34%) CentOS
8 11 (0.23%) Robot Operating System
9 10 (0.21%) Windows Server
10 9 (0.19%) Mac OS
11 5 (0.11%) Debian
12 3 (0.064%) CoreOS
12 3 (0.064%) Fedora
12 3 (0.064%) Mac OS X
13 2 (0.042%) DC/OS
14 1 (0.021%) Kali Linux
14 1 (0.021%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 1 (0.021%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,171 (46.06%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,646 (34.92%) Data Science
3 1,436 (30.47%) Analytics
4 1,344 (28.52%) Agile Software Development
5 1,199 (25.44%) Software Engineering
6 869 (18.44%) Mathematics
7 770 (16.34%) Computer Science
8 682 (14.47%) Deep Learning
9 647 (13.73%) DevOps
10 584 (12.39%) Visualisation
11 517 (10.97%) Statistics
12 497 (10.55%) Business Intelligence
13 439 (9.31%) Data Analysis
14 424 (9.00%) Data Analytics
15 415 (8.81%) Problem-Solving
16 399 (8.47%) Neural Network
17 366 (7.77%) ETL
18 359 (7.62%) Microservices
19 340 (7.21%) Data Visualisation
20 335 (7.11%) Data Modelling
Programming Languages
1 2,599 (55.15%) Python
2 1,504 (31.91%) Java
3 1,295 (27.48%) SQL
4 935 (19.84%) C++
5 784 (16.63%) R
6 738 (15.66%) C#
7 713 (15.13%) JavaScript
8 482 (10.23%) C
9 463 (9.82%) Scala
10 281 (5.96%) MATLAB
11 179 (3.80%) Go
12 148 (3.14%) Java 8
13 109 (2.31%) Bash Shell
14 99 (2.10%) Ruby
15 93 (1.97%) PHP
16 89 (1.89%) TypeScript
17 82 (1.74%) ES6
18 75 (1.59%) Shell Script
19 66 (1.40%) T-SQL
20 50 (1.06%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 914 (19.39%) Degree
2 588 (12.48%) PhD
3 212 (4.50%) Computer Science Degree
4 91 (1.93%) Master's Degree
4 91 (1.93%) Numerate Degree
5 75 (1.59%) MPhil
6 70 (1.49%) Security Cleared
7 45 (0.95%) SC Cleared
8 36 (0.76%) Microsoft Certification
9 32 (0.68%) DV Cleared
10 26 (0.55%) BPSS Clearance
11 23 (0.49%) Postgraduate
12 14 (0.30%) TOGAF Certification
13 11 (0.23%) MBA
14 9 (0.19%) CISSP
15 8 (0.17%) AWS Certification
15 8 (0.17%) MCSA
15 8 (0.17%) PMI Certification
15 8 (0.17%) PMP
16 7 (0.15%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 162 (3.44%) QA
2 126 (2.67%) Data Quality
3 38 (0.81%) GDPR
4 11 (0.23%) PMO
5 10 (0.21%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 10 (0.21%) PCI DSS
6 7 (0.15%) Actionable Recommendations
7 6 (0.13%) Solvency II
8 5 (0.11%) IFRS
8 5 (0.11%) MiFID
8 5 (0.11%) SLA
9 4 (0.085%) COBIT
10 2 (0.042%) GPG13
10 2 (0.042%) ISO 9001
11 1 (0.021%) Basel III
11 1 (0.021%) EMIR
11 1 (0.021%) SEPA
System Software
1 532 (11.29%) Docker
2 89 (1.89%) HDFS
3 57 (1.21%) Apache Flume
4 44 (0.93%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 35 (0.74%) Active Directory
6 24 (0.51%) Virtual Machines
7 19 (0.40%) VirtualBox
8 18 (0.38%) VMware Infrastructure
9 9 (0.19%) VMware ESXi
9 9 (0.19%) Xen
10 7 (0.15%) Oracle RAC
11 5 (0.11%) Lustre
12 3 (0.064%) etcd
12 3 (0.064%) Firmware
12 3 (0.064%) GlusterFS
12 3 (0.064%) Snort
13 2 (0.042%) XenApp
13 2 (0.042%) XenDesktop
14 1 (0.021%) LXC
14 1 (0.021%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 331 (7.02%) Kubernetes
2 131 (2.78%) Terraform
3 125 (2.65%) Ansible
4 103 (2.19%) Oozie
5 89 (1.89%) Opscode Chef
6 83 (1.76%) Puppet
7 29 (0.62%) Docker Swarm
7 29 (0.62%) Nagios
8 25 (0.53%) Prometheus
9 24 (0.51%) Mesos
10 21 (0.45%) Hadoop YARN
11 20 (0.42%) Consul
12 18 (0.38%) Ambari
12 18 (0.38%) Packer
13 10 (0.21%) Kibana
13 10 (0.21%) vCenter Server
14 9 (0.19%) Graphite
14 9 (0.19%) logstash
15 8 (0.17%) Salt
16 7 (0.15%) CFEngine
Vendors
1 366 (7.77%) Google
2 284 (6.03%) Microsoft
3 274 (5.81%) Tableau
4 164 (3.48%) Oracle
5 149 (3.16%) Cloudera
6 75 (1.59%) IBM
7 73 (1.55%) SAP
8 72 (1.53%) Hortonworks
9 67 (1.42%) Splunk
10 32 (0.68%) Blue Prism
10 32 (0.68%) Databricks
11 31 (0.66%) Adobe
11 31 (0.66%) Informatica
12 28 (0.59%) Cisco
12 28 (0.59%) Talend
13 26 (0.55%) Cognizant
14 25 (0.53%) Alteryx
15 19 (0.40%) Facebook
15 19 (0.40%) UiPath
15 19 (0.40%) VMware