Period
to 14 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 14 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
14 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 89 96 96
Rank change year-on-year +7 0 +33
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 2,870 3,527 4,923
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.45% 3.12% 3.30%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.73% 3.38% 3.58%
Number of salaries quoted 1,926 2,836 3,863
10th Percentile £40,000 £38,375 £35,000
25th Percentile £47,500 £47,500 £47,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,750 £65,000 £65,000
Median % change year-on-year -3.46% - +4.00%
75th Percentile £82,500 £90,000 £85,000
90th Percentile £95,000 £115,000 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £54,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% -2.78% -1.82%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 77,007 104,259 137,511
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 92.48% 92.17% 92.30%
Number of salaries quoted 59,280 83,736 109,325
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £30,000
25th Percentile £41,250 £40,000 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £70,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,750 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +2.63% +5.56% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 14 April 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 14 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +10 2,655 £65,000 -2.45% 474
London +3 1,510 £72,000 -7.10% 240
UK excluding London +29 1,241 £55,000 +4.76% 251
Work from Home -17 521 £60,000 -35.14% 100
South East +10 322 £55,000 - 64
South West +41 320 £52,500 +5.00% 42
North of England +33 232 £60,000 +14.29% 56
North West +29 165 £57,500 +9.52% 33
East of England +25 131 £55,000 - 47
Scotland +17 113 £57,500 +12.20% 11
Midlands +12 100 £57,500 +6.98% 25
West Midlands +7 66 £50,000 -9.09% 18
Yorkshire -3 53 £68,750 +25.00% 12
East Midlands +9 34 £60,000 +26.32% 7
North East +6 14 £65,000 +18.18% 11
Isle of Man - 12 - - 1
Northern Ireland +3 7 £42,500 -29.17% 1
Wales +23 4 £49,000 +16.67% 5

For the 6 months to 14 April 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 1,539 (53.62%) Python
2 1,221 (42.54%) Artificial Intelligence
3 1,088 (37.91%) Data Science
4 1,003 (34.95%) Agile Software Development
5 892 (31.08%) AWS
6 890 (31.01%) Analytics
7 773 (26.93%) Azure
8 755 (26.31%) SQL
9 681 (23.73%) DevOps
10 646 (22.51%) Docker
11 596 (20.77%) Software Engineering
12 583 (20.31%) Finance
13 566 (19.72%) Big Data
14 557 (19.41%) Degree
15 535 (18.64%) Java
16 519 (18.08%) Kubernetes
17 506 (17.63%) JavaScript
18 450 (15.68%) GCP
19 429 (14.95%) Algorithms
20 421 (14.67%) Computer Science
21 405 (14.11%) Mathematics
22 402 (14.01%) Microservices
23 396 (13.80%) Problem-Solving
24 389 (13.55%) Scrum
25 377 (13.14%) Linux
26 337 (11.74%) Business Intelligence
27 317 (11.05%) C#
28 285 (9.93%) Microsoft
29 283 (9.86%) Data Analytics
30 282 (9.83%) React

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 252 (8.78%) Apache Spark
2 180 (6.27%) Confluence
3 119 (4.15%) Elasticsearch
4 102 (3.55%) Apache Airflow
5 67 (2.33%) Apache
6 62 (2.16%) SAS
7 28 (0.98%) Jupyter
8 27 (0.94%) CMS
9 21 (0.73%) SharePoint
10 17 (0.59%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 12 (0.42%) Oracle Workflow
12 10 (0.35%) Apache Pig
13 8 (0.28%) WordPress
14 7 (0.24%) Tornado
15 5 (0.17%) Headless CMS
15 5 (0.17%) Luigi
15 5 (0.17%) MS Exchange
16 4 (0.14%) ArcGIS
16 4 (0.14%) nginx
16 4 (0.14%) OpenStack
Applications
1 37 (1.29%) Chatbot
2 30 (1.05%) Simulink
3 29 (1.01%) Microsoft Excel
4 28 (0.98%) Stateflow
5 14 (0.49%) SPSS
6 10 (0.35%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 9 (0.31%) Photoshop
8 8 (0.28%) InVision
8 8 (0.28%) Sketch
9 6 (0.21%) Adobe Illustrator
9 6 (0.21%) Gephi
10 5 (0.17%) Adobe XD
10 5 (0.17%) Figma
10 5 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
11 3 (0.10%) GIMP
11 3 (0.10%) Inkscape
12 2 (0.070%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 2 (0.070%) MS Visio
12 2 (0.070%) SPSS Modeler
12 2 (0.070%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 14 (0.49%) Payment Gateway
2 13 (0.45%) Loan IQ
2 13 (0.45%) Shopify
3 9 (0.31%) FINCAD Analytics
4 6 (0.21%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
Cloud Services
1 892 (31.08%) AWS
2 773 (26.93%) Azure
3 450 (15.68%) GCP
4 182 (6.34%) SaaS
5 148 (5.16%) Power Platform
6 135 (4.70%) Serverless
7 93 (3.24%) GitHub
8 80 (2.79%) Amazon S3
9 66 (2.30%) Cloud Computing
10 65 (2.26%) PaaS
11 63 (2.20%) AWS CloudFormation
12 53 (1.85%) Azure Data Factory
13 51 (1.78%) AWS Lambda
14 49 (1.71%) Azure Machine Learning
15 45 (1.57%) Amazon SageMaker
16 41 (1.43%) Amazon EKS
17 37 (1.29%) Amazon EC2
18 33 (1.15%) Azure Functions
19 21 (0.73%) Azure Active Directory
20 20 (0.70%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 123 (4.29%) Firewall
2 69 (2.40%) IPv4
3 68 (2.37%) Internet
4 65 (2.26%) VPN
5 56 (1.95%) VLAN
6 55 (1.92%) OSPF
7 37 (1.29%) HTTP
8 21 (0.73%) TCP/IP
9 13 (0.45%) DNS
10 10 (0.35%) Network Security
11 7 (0.24%) Ethernet
12 6 (0.21%) Intrusion Detection
12 6 (0.21%) MPLS
12 6 (0.21%) SSL
13 5 (0.17%) NAS
14 4 (0.14%) Broadband
15 3 (0.10%) MQTT
16 2 (0.070%) DHCP
16 2 (0.070%) NFC
16 2 (0.070%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 566 (19.72%) Big Data
2 190 (6.62%) NoSQL
3 179 (6.24%) Data Warehouse
4 159 (5.54%) SQL Server
5 145 (5.05%) PostgreSQL
6 141 (4.91%) Power BI
7 137 (4.77%) Data Mining
8 136 (4.74%) Hadoop
8 136 (4.74%) Tableau
9 120 (4.18%) Data Lake
10 106 (3.69%) Relational Database
11 97 (3.38%) MongoDB
12 74 (2.58%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 69 (2.40%) Amazon Redshift
14 61 (2.13%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 56 (1.95%) MySQL
16 52 (1.81%) Redis
16 52 (1.81%) SQL Server Analysis Services
17 49 (1.71%) BigQuery
18 41 (1.43%) Apache Cassandra
Development Applications
1 270 (9.41%) Git (software)
2 222 (7.74%) JIRA
3 164 (5.71%) Jenkins
4 62 (2.16%) Subversion
5 55 (1.92%) Selenium
6 50 (1.74%) Bitbucket
7 42 (1.46%) Cucumber
8 32 (1.11%) Cypress.io
9 23 (0.80%) GitLab
10 21 (0.73%) CircleCI
11 19 (0.66%) IntelliJ
12 18 (0.63%) Atlassian Bamboo
12 18 (0.63%) Rational DOORS
12 18 (0.63%) webpack
13 17 (0.59%) Pylint
13 17 (0.59%) Sourcetree
14 14 (0.49%) Maven
15 13 (0.45%) Appium
16 11 (0.38%) Protractor
16 11 (0.38%) Rational Rhapsody
General
1 583 (20.31%) Finance
2 224 (7.80%) Banking
3 153 (5.33%) Retail
4 144 (5.02%) Law
5 137 (4.77%) Marketing
6 127 (4.43%) Legal
7 114 (3.97%) Games
8 88 (3.07%) Telecoms
9 67 (2.33%) Investment Banking
10 57 (1.99%) Public Sector
11 50 (1.74%) Electronics
12 48 (1.67%) Manufacturing
13 40 (1.39%) Front Office
14 30 (1.05%) Pharmaceutical
15 28 (0.98%) Advertising
16 23 (0.80%) Military
17 16 (0.56%) Aerospace
17 16 (0.56%) Financial Institution
18 11 (0.38%) Automotive
18 11 (0.38%) Avionics
Job Titles
1 750 (26.13%) Developer
2 362 (12.61%) Data Scientist
3 246 (8.57%) Data Engineer
4 244 (8.50%) Software Engineer
5 195 (6.79%) Architect
6 170 (5.92%) Machine Learning Engineer
7 160 (5.57%) Senior Developer
8 148 (5.16%) Python Engineer
9 143 (4.98%) DevOps Engineer
10 123 (4.29%) Graduate
11 110 (3.83%) Analyst
12 108 (3.76%) Python Developer
13 96 (3.34%) Solutions Architect
14 92 (3.21%) Senior Software Engineer
15 90 (3.14%) Java Developer
16 88 (3.07%) Full Stack Developer
17 87 (3.03%) Senior Data Scientist
18 82 (2.86%) Software Developer
19 74 (2.58%) C# Developer
20 70 (2.44%) JavaScript Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 282 (9.83%) React
2 251 (8.75%) .NET
3 240 (8.36%) Natural Language Processing
4 214 (7.46%) Node.js
5 190 (6.62%) Web Services
6 187 (6.52%) AngularJS
7 179 (6.24%) Kafka
8 167 (5.82%) TensorFlow
9 149 (5.19%) CSS
10 145 (5.05%) HTML
11 122 (4.25%) NumPy
12 119 (4.15%) RESTful
13 118 (4.11%) REST
14 108 (3.76%) Pandas
15 103 (3.59%) scikit-learn
16 100 (3.48%) Vue.js
17 99 (3.45%) PyTorch
18 94 (3.28%) .NET Core
19 82 (2.86%) Spring
20 72 (2.51%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 429 (14.95%) Algorithms
2 273 (9.51%) Analytical Skills
3 150 (5.23%) User Experience
4 113 (3.94%) Greenfield Project
5 97 (3.38%) Data Structures
6 94 (3.28%) Hedge funds
7 90 (3.14%) Mobile App
8 89 (3.10%) Cloud Native
9 78 (2.72%) Public Cloud
10 75 (2.61%) Cyberattack
10 75 (2.61%) Equities
11 61 (2.13%) Linux Command Line
12 57 (1.99%) Robotics
13 54 (1.88%) Social Network
14 50 (1.74%) Hybrid Cloud
15 48 (1.67%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
16 33 (1.15%) Derivative
17 32 (1.11%) NHS
18 31 (1.08%) Fixed Income
19 30 (1.05%) Internet of Things
Operating Systems
1 377 (13.14%) Linux
2 85 (2.96%) CentOS
3 84 (2.93%) Windows
4 62 (2.16%) Android
5 54 (1.88%) Ubuntu
6 52 (1.81%) Unix
7 51 (1.78%) Windows Server
8 45 (1.57%) Windows Server 2016
9 38 (1.32%) Apple iOS
10 37 (1.29%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 7 (0.24%) Mac OS
12 3 (0.10%) Fedora
13 2 (0.070%) Alpine Linux
13 2 (0.070%) VMS
14 1 (0.035%) Debian
14 1 (0.035%) Embedded Linux
14 1 (0.035%) Robot Operating System
14 1 (0.035%) VxWorks
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,221 (42.54%) Artificial Intelligence
2 1,088 (37.91%) Data Science
3 1,003 (34.95%) Agile Software Development
4 890 (31.01%) Analytics
5 681 (23.73%) DevOps
6 596 (20.77%) Software Engineering
7 421 (14.67%) Computer Science
8 405 (14.11%) Mathematics
9 402 (14.01%) Microservices
10 396 (13.80%) Problem-Solving
11 389 (13.55%) Scrum
12 337 (11.74%) Business Intelligence
13 283 (9.86%) Data Analytics
14 280 (9.76%) Visualisation
15 258 (8.99%) Mentoring
16 227 (7.91%) Data Engineering
17 221 (7.70%) Infrastructure as Code
18 220 (7.67%) ETL
19 219 (7.63%) Statistics
20 213 (7.42%) TDD
Programming Languages
1 1,539 (53.62%) Python
2 755 (26.31%) SQL
3 535 (18.64%) Java
4 506 (17.63%) JavaScript
5 317 (11.05%) C#
6 236 (8.22%) R
7 210 (7.32%) C++
8 164 (5.71%) Bash Shell
9 148 (5.16%) TypeScript
10 141 (4.91%) Go
11 136 (4.74%) Scala
12 125 (4.36%) C
13 93 (3.24%) PowerShell
14 72 (2.51%) MATLAB
15 40 (1.39%) PHP
16 38 (1.32%) Ruby
16 38 (1.32%) Shell Script
17 33 (1.15%) Java 8
17 33 (1.15%) Perl
18 25 (0.87%) Data Analysis Expressions (DAX)
Qualifications
1 557 (19.41%) Degree
2 236 (8.22%) PhD
3 108 (3.76%) Computer Science Degree
4 99 (3.45%) Security Cleared
5 59 (2.06%) Master's Degree
6 48 (1.67%) DV Cleared
7 42 (1.46%) SC Cleared
8 35 (1.22%) Numerate Degree
9 29 (1.01%) GIAC
10 23 (0.80%) RHCE
11 18 (0.63%) AWS Certification
12 8 (0.28%) CCNA
12 8 (0.28%) Cisco Certification
12 8 (0.28%) Microsoft Certification
12 8 (0.28%) MPhil
13 7 (0.24%) CISSP
13 7 (0.24%) PMI Certification
14 6 (0.21%) Linux+ Certification
14 6 (0.21%) Network+ Certification
14 6 (0.21%) SSCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 89 (3.10%) QA
2 29 (1.01%) NIST
3 28 (0.98%) Data Quality
4 27 (0.94%) GDPR
5 24 (0.84%) MiFID
6 22 (0.77%) Dodd-Frank
6 22 (0.77%) EMIR
7 10 (0.35%) CDISC
8 6 (0.21%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 6 (0.21%) NCSC
9 5 (0.17%) NIST 800
10 4 (0.14%) DICOM
10 4 (0.14%) PSD2
11 3 (0.10%) WCAG
12 2 (0.070%) Good Clinical Practice
13 1 (0.035%) HIPAA
13 1 (0.035%) HL7
13 1 (0.035%) ISO 13485
13 1 (0.035%) ISO 9001
13 1 (0.035%) WAI
System Software
1 646 (22.51%) Docker
2 72 (2.51%) VMware Infrastructure
3 62 (2.16%) VMware ESXi
4 43 (1.50%) Active Directory
5 7 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
6 6 (0.21%) Apache Flume
6 6 (0.21%) Firmware
7 5 (0.17%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 3 (0.10%) oVirt
8 3 (0.10%) Slurm Workload Manager
9 2 (0.070%) VirtualBox
10 1 (0.035%) Ceph
10 1 (0.035%) HDFS
10 1 (0.035%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 519 (18.08%) Kubernetes
2 276 (9.62%) Terraform
3 227 (7.91%) Ansible
4 137 (4.77%) Puppet
5 52 (1.81%) Grafana
5 52 (1.81%) Prometheus
6 37 (1.29%) Opscode Chef
7 27 (0.94%) Istio
8 21 (0.73%) Fortio
8 21 (0.73%) Kiali
9 10 (0.35%) Kibana
10 8 (0.28%) Oozie
11 6 (0.21%) Kubeflow
12 5 (0.17%) Consul
12 5 (0.17%) Packer
12 5 (0.17%) systemd
13 4 (0.14%) Argo
13 4 (0.14%) Marathon
13 4 (0.14%) Mesos
14 3 (0.10%) Observium
Vendors
1 285 (9.93%) Microsoft
2 240 (8.36%) Google
3 118 (4.11%) Databricks
4 80 (2.79%) Oracle
5 78 (2.72%) VMware
6 67 (2.33%) Red Hat
7 59 (2.06%) SAP
8 40 (1.39%) Twitter
9 30 (1.05%) Salesforce.com
10 26 (0.91%) Splunk
11 23 (0.80%) Cloudera
12 20 (0.70%) Sun
12 20 (0.70%) Yahoo!
13 19 (0.66%) Apple
13 19 (0.66%) Xamarin
14 17 (0.59%) IBM
15 15 (0.52%) Facebook
16 14 (0.49%) Atlassian
17 13 (0.45%) Alteryx
17 13 (0.45%) Elastic Path