Period
to 18 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Machine Learning skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Machine Learning over the 6 months to 18 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Machine Learning
UK
6 months to
18 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 88 98 109
Rank change year-on-year +10 +11 +62
Permanent jobs citing Machine Learning 2,201 3,948 4,495
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.51% 3.15% 2.97%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.81% 3.42% 3.22%
Number of salaries quoted 2,014 3,459 3,830
Median annual salary £62,500 £65,000 £65,000
Median salary % change year-on-year -3.85% - +8.33%
10th Percentile £38,750 £38,750 £37,500
90th Percentile £95,000 £120,000 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £53,500 £52,500 £55,000
% change year-on-year +1.90% -4.55% +4.76%

Machine Learning is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 57,835 115,507 139,683
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 92.31% 92.11% 92.23%
Number of salaries quoted 46,689 92,510 111,615
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
10th Percentile £32,500 £30,000 £29,763
90th Percentile £90,000 £87,500 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £49,000 £45,591 £45,000
% change year-on-year +7.48% +1.31% -

Machine Learning
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Machine Learning as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Machine Learning.

Salary trend for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Machine Learning over the 6 months to 18 January 2021.

Salary histogram for Machine Learning in the UK

Machine Learning
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Machine Learning within the UK over the 6 months to 18 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 2,016 £62,500 -7.41% 470
London +7 1,162 £72,500 -9.38% 231
UK excluding London +40 969 £53,500 +1.90% 241
Work from Home -12 355 £60,000 -29.41% 71
South East +15 234 £55,000 - 62
North of England +38 211 £50,000 -4.76% 58
South West +10 178 £52,500 +5.00% 24
North West +43 128 £52,500 - 34
Scotland +37 122 £56,000 +12.00% 5
East of England +85 111 £55,000 -8.33% 61
Midlands +44 88 £47,500 -7.32% 26
West Midlands +45 65 £45,000 -18.18% 17
Yorkshire +17 46 £50,000 -9.09% 18
North East +24 37 £40,000 -0.73% 7
East Midlands +24 23 £60,000 +20.00% 9
Wales +22 12 £45,000 +12.50% 4
Northern Ireland +21 6 £42,500 -34.62% 1
Isle of Man - 6 - -
Channel Islands +6 1 £40,000 -

For the 6 months to 18 January 2021, IT jobs citing Machine Learning also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Machine Learning.

1 1,266 (57.52%) Python
2 955 (43.39%) Artificial Intelligence
3 770 (34.98%) Data Science
4 717 (32.58%) Agile Software Development
5 670 (30.44%) Analytics
6 621 (28.21%) SQL
7 573 (26.03%) AWS
8 543 (24.67%) Azure
9 486 (22.08%) Java
10 474 (21.54%) Finance
11 449 (20.40%) DevOps
12 415 (18.86%) Docker
13 408 (18.54%) Degree
14 404 (18.36%) Big Data
15 396 (17.99%) JavaScript
16 377 (17.13%) Kubernetes
17 369 (16.77%) Software Engineering
18 337 (15.31%) Algorithms
19 313 (14.22%) Computer Science
20 306 (13.90%) GCP
21 302 (13.72%) Mathematics
22 284 (12.90%) Problem-Solving
23 274 (12.45%) Microservices
24 267 (12.13%) C#
25 258 (11.72%) Linux
26 234 (10.63%) R
27 233 (10.59%) Natural Language Processing
28 226 (10.27%) Data Analytics
29 220 (10.00%) Business Intelligence
30 216 (9.81%) Visualisation

Machine Learning
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 201 (9.13%) Apache Spark
2 54 (2.45%) Elasticsearch
3 53 (2.41%) Confluence
4 49 (2.23%) Apache Airflow
5 41 (1.86%) Apache
6 40 (1.82%) SAS
7 19 (0.86%) Jupyter
8 14 (0.64%) SharePoint
9 13 (0.59%) Tornado
10 11 (0.50%) CMS
11 7 (0.32%) Apache Pig
11 7 (0.32%) ArcGIS
12 5 (0.23%) MQSeries
12 5 (0.23%) Oracle Workflow
12 5 (0.23%) WordPress
13 4 (0.18%) MS Exchange
13 4 (0.18%) nginx
13 4 (0.18%) OpenStack
14 3 (0.14%) IBM Domino
14 3 (0.14%) Luigi
Applications
1 41 (1.86%) Chatbot
2 16 (0.73%) SPSS
3 15 (0.68%) Microsoft Excel
4 12 (0.55%) Simulink
5 10 (0.45%) Stateflow
6 4 (0.18%) Adobe XD
7 3 (0.14%) SPSS Modeler
8 2 (0.091%) Adobe Illustrator
8 2 (0.091%) InVision
8 2 (0.091%) Microsoft Office
8 2 (0.091%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 2 (0.091%) Photoshop
8 2 (0.091%) Sketch
9 1 (0.045%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 1 (0.045%) Figma
9 1 (0.045%) GNU Octave
9 1 (0.045%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 20 (0.91%) Loan IQ
2 9 (0.41%) Odoo
3 7 (0.32%) FINCAD Analytics
3 7 (0.32%) Payment Gateway
3 7 (0.32%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
4 6 (0.27%) Shopify
5 5 (0.23%) Dynamics CRM
6 1 (0.045%) Oracle Applications
6 1 (0.045%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 573 (26.03%) AWS
2 543 (24.67%) Azure
3 306 (13.90%) GCP
4 162 (7.36%) SaaS
5 108 (4.91%) Power Platform
6 75 (3.41%) Serverless
7 54 (2.45%) AWS CloudFormation
8 50 (2.27%) Amazon S3
9 41 (1.86%) GitHub
10 33 (1.50%) AWS Lambda
11 32 (1.45%) Amazon EKS
11 32 (1.45%) Azure Data Factory
11 32 (1.45%) PaaS
12 31 (1.41%) Amazon SageMaker
13 28 (1.27%) Amazon EC2
13 28 (1.27%) Azure Machine Learning
14 26 (1.18%) Cloud Computing
15 25 (1.14%) Azure Active Directory
16 23 (1.04%) IaaS
17 20 (0.91%) iPaaS
Communications & Networking
1 51 (2.32%) Internet
2 37 (1.68%) Firewall
3 27 (1.23%) HTTP
4 20 (0.91%) TCP/IP
5 16 (0.73%) VPN
6 12 (0.55%) IPv4
6 12 (0.55%) OSPF
6 12 (0.55%) VLAN
7 8 (0.36%) NAS
8 7 (0.32%) DNS
9 5 (0.23%) Parlay
10 4 (0.18%) 5G
10 4 (0.18%) Broadband
11 3 (0.14%) DHCP
11 3 (0.14%) Network Security
12 2 (0.091%) Cisco Firepower
12 2 (0.091%) SAN
13 1 (0.045%) RFID
13 1 (0.045%) SMS
13 1 (0.045%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 404 (18.36%) Big Data
2 174 (7.91%) NoSQL
3 133 (6.04%) Hadoop
4 128 (5.82%) Data Warehouse
5 122 (5.54%) SQL Server
6 119 (5.41%) Tableau
7 110 (5.00%) Data Lake
7 110 (5.00%) PostgreSQL
8 105 (4.77%) Power BI
9 100 (4.54%) MongoDB
10 86 (3.91%) Data Mining
11 73 (3.32%) Relational Database
12 62 (2.82%) Amazon Redshift
13 52 (2.36%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 47 (2.14%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 45 (2.04%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 44 (2.00%) BigQuery
17 38 (1.73%) Apache Cassandra
18 34 (1.54%) MySQL
19 31 (1.41%) Redis
Development Applications
1 174 (7.91%) Git (software)
2 91 (4.13%) Jenkins
3 86 (3.91%) JIRA
4 49 (2.23%) Selenium
5 40 (1.82%) Cucumber
6 20 (0.91%) IntelliJ
6 20 (0.91%) Maven
7 16 (0.73%) Appium
7 16 (0.73%) Bitbucket
8 15 (0.68%) CircleCI
8 15 (0.68%) Cypress.io
8 15 (0.68%) webpack
9 13 (0.59%) SpecFlow
9 13 (0.59%) TeamCity
10 12 (0.55%) Mocha
11 11 (0.50%) Rational DOORS
11 11 (0.50%) Team Foundation Server
12 10 (0.45%) GitLab
12 10 (0.45%) Subversion
13 9 (0.41%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 474 (21.54%) Finance
2 200 (9.09%) Banking
3 127 (5.77%) Retail
4 98 (4.45%) Law
5 94 (4.27%) Marketing
6 81 (3.68%) Games
7 70 (3.18%) Investment Banking
8 54 (2.45%) Legal
9 52 (2.36%) Front Office
10 44 (2.00%) Telecoms
11 34 (1.54%) Advertising
12 33 (1.50%) Public Sector
13 24 (1.09%) Aerospace
14 22 (1.00%) Manufacturing
15 21 (0.95%) Electronics
16 14 (0.64%) Military
17 12 (0.55%) Pharmaceutical
18 11 (0.50%) Local Government
19 10 (0.45%) Automotive
20 9 (0.41%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 667 (30.30%) Developer
2 309 (14.04%) Data Scientist
3 197 (8.95%) Data Engineer
4 161 (7.31%) Architect
5 154 (7.00%) Software Engineer
6 151 (6.86%) Machine Learning Engineer
7 145 (6.59%) Senior Developer
8 138 (6.27%) Python Developer
9 125 (5.68%) DevOps Engineer
10 115 (5.22%) Python Engineer
11 106 (4.82%) Graduate
12 95 (4.32%) Java Developer
13 91 (4.13%) Solutions Architect
14 89 (4.04%) Senior Data Scientist
15 87 (3.95%) Analyst
16 83 (3.77%) Software Developer
17 80 (3.63%) Full Stack Developer
18 70 (3.18%) Graduate Developer
19 50 (2.27%) React Developer
20 47 (2.14%) Senior Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 233 (10.59%) Natural Language Processing
2 198 (9.00%) TensorFlow
3 180 (8.18%) .NET
4 160 (7.27%) Node.js
5 154 (7.00%) React
6 131 (5.95%) HTML
7 124 (5.63%) Kafka
8 117 (5.32%) CSS
9 106 (4.82%) Web Services
10 103 (4.68%) AngularJS
11 100 (4.54%) PyTorch
12 91 (4.13%) Pandas
13 89 (4.04%) NumPy
14 88 (4.00%) scikit-learn
15 86 (3.91%) RESTful
16 74 (3.36%) REST
17 69 (3.13%) .NET Core
18 65 (2.95%) Spring
19 63 (2.86%) Spring Boot
20 55 (2.50%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 337 (15.31%) Algorithms
2 209 (9.50%) Analytical Skills
3 118 (5.36%) Greenfield Project
4 117 (5.32%) Mobile App
5 84 (3.82%) Hedge funds
6 81 (3.68%) Equities
7 67 (3.04%) Cloud Native
8 66 (3.00%) Data Structures
9 63 (2.86%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 58 (2.64%) User Experience
11 54 (2.45%) Social Network
12 49 (2.23%) Fixed Income
13 48 (2.18%) Derivative
14 41 (1.86%) Linux Command Line
15 37 (1.68%) Management Information System
16 30 (1.36%) Robotics
17 26 (1.18%) Life Science
18 25 (1.14%) Internet of Things
19 24 (1.09%) NHS
19 24 (1.09%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 258 (11.72%) Linux
2 64 (2.91%) Android
3 40 (1.82%) Apple iOS
4 35 (1.59%) Windows
5 30 (1.36%) Unix
6 27 (1.23%) CentOS
7 23 (1.04%) Ubuntu
8 15 (0.68%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 11 (0.50%) Windows Server
10 7 (0.32%) Windows Server 2016
11 5 (0.23%) Fedora
12 4 (0.18%) Mac OS
13 3 (0.14%) VxWorks
14 2 (0.091%) Embedded Linux
14 2 (0.091%) VMS
15 1 (0.045%) AIX
15 1 (0.045%) Mac OS X
15 1 (0.045%) Solaris
15 1 (0.045%) Windows 10
15 1 (0.045%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 955 (43.39%) Artificial Intelligence
2 770 (34.98%) Data Science
3 717 (32.58%) Agile Software Development
4 670 (30.44%) Analytics
5 449 (20.40%) DevOps
6 369 (16.77%) Software Engineering
7 313 (14.22%) Computer Science
8 302 (13.72%) Mathematics
9 284 (12.90%) Problem-Solving
10 274 (12.45%) Microservices
11 226 (10.27%) Data Analytics
12 220 (10.00%) Business Intelligence
13 216 (9.81%) Visualisation
14 212 (9.63%) Deep Learning
15 207 (9.40%) Scrum
16 178 (8.09%) Statistics
17 169 (7.68%) ETL
17 169 (7.68%) TDD
18 148 (6.72%) Data Modelling
19 138 (6.27%) Test Automation
Programming Languages
1 1,266 (57.52%) Python
2 621 (28.21%) SQL
3 486 (22.08%) Java
4 396 (17.99%) JavaScript
5 267 (12.13%) C#
6 234 (10.63%) R
7 179 (8.13%) C++
8 138 (6.27%) Scala
9 110 (5.00%) Go
10 88 (4.00%) C
11 81 (3.68%) Bash Shell
12 69 (3.13%) TypeScript
13 44 (2.00%) MATLAB
14 30 (1.36%) PHP
14 30 (1.36%) PowerShell
14 30 (1.36%) Shell Script
15 25 (1.14%) Ruby
16 22 (1.00%) Java 8
17 21 (0.95%) Perl
17 21 (0.95%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 408 (18.54%) Degree
2 202 (9.18%) PhD
3 66 (3.00%) Computer Science Degree
4 64 (2.91%) Security Cleared
5 48 (2.18%) Master's Degree
6 37 (1.68%) Numerate Degree
7 30 (1.36%) DV Cleared
8 24 (1.09%) SC Cleared
9 17 (0.77%) AWS Certification
10 10 (0.45%) Postgraduate
11 8 (0.36%) MPhil
12 7 (0.32%) GIAC
12 7 (0.32%) PMI Certification
13 6 (0.27%) RHCE
14 5 (0.23%) CISSP
14 5 (0.23%) Tableau Certification
15 4 (0.18%) CISM
16 3 (0.14%) BC Cleared
16 3 (0.14%) CCNA
16 3 (0.14%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 67 (3.04%) QA
2 33 (1.50%) MiFID
2 33 (1.50%) NIST
3 32 (1.45%) Dodd-Frank
3 32 (1.45%) EMIR
4 20 (0.91%) Data Quality
5 11 (0.50%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 6 (0.27%) NCSC
6 6 (0.27%) NIST 800
7 4 (0.18%) GDPR
8 3 (0.14%) ISO 13485
9 2 (0.091%) DICOM
9 2 (0.091%) HIPAA
9 2 (0.091%) IEC 62304
9 2 (0.091%) ISO 9001
9 2 (0.091%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
10 1 (0.045%) CDISC
10 1 (0.045%) GAMP
10 1 (0.045%) Good Clinical Practice
10 1 (0.045%) PMO
System Software
1 415 (18.86%) Docker
2 40 (1.82%) Active Directory
3 17 (0.77%) VMware Infrastructure
4 14 (0.64%) VMware ESXi
5 7 (0.32%) Firmware
6 6 (0.27%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 6 (0.27%) Virtual Machines
7 5 (0.23%) oVirt
7 5 (0.23%) Slurm Workload Manager
8 2 (0.091%) Apache Flume
9 1 (0.045%) Gluster
9 1 (0.045%) GlusterFS
9 1 (0.045%) HDFS
9 1 (0.045%) NFS
Systems Management
1 377 (17.13%) Kubernetes
2 190 (8.63%) Terraform
3 127 (5.77%) Ansible
4 73 (3.32%) Puppet
5 36 (1.64%) Opscode Chef
6 26 (1.18%) Grafana
6 26 (1.18%) Prometheus
7 24 (1.09%) Fortio
7 24 (1.09%) Istio
7 24 (1.09%) Kiali
8 9 (0.41%) Mesos
9 8 (0.36%) Marathon
10 6 (0.27%) Nagios
11 5 (0.23%) Observium
11 5 (0.23%) Red Hat Spacewalk
11 5 (0.23%) ZABBIX
12 3 (0.14%) Kibana
12 3 (0.14%) WebSphere Cast Iron
13 2 (0.091%) BMC PATROL
13 2 (0.091%) Microsoft Intune
Vendors
1 198 (9.00%) Microsoft
2 165 (7.50%) Google
3 102 (4.63%) Databricks
4 32 (1.45%) Oracle
4 32 (1.45%) Red Hat
5 23 (1.04%) VMware
6 22 (1.00%) Sparx
7 21 (0.95%) Xamarin
8 20 (0.91%) Apple
8 20 (0.91%) Murex
9 19 (0.86%) SAP
10 15 (0.68%) Cloudera
11 14 (0.64%) Sun
12 13 (0.59%) IBM
12 13 (0.59%) Salesforce.com
13 12 (0.55%) Alteryx
13 12 (0.55%) Facebook
14 11 (0.50%) Splunk
15 10 (0.45%) Kofax
16 9 (0.41%) Twitter