The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 3 months to 22 June 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
England / London
3 months to
22 Jun 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 4 4 4
Rank change year-on-year 0 0  
Permanent jobs citing SQL 7216 8025 9876
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in London 19.77% 19.96% 21.97%
As % of the Programming Languages category 35.61% 36.34% 41.59%
Number of salaries quoted 5892 7016 8478
Median salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.54% +4.76%  
90% offered a salary of more than £35,000 £35,000 £35,000
10% offered a salary of more than £80,000 £75,000 £75,000
UK excluding London median salary £40,000 £40,000 £40,000

SQL is in the programming language skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for programming language skills.

Programming Language Skills
London
Permanent job vacancies with a requirement for programming language skills 20265 22083 23748
As % of all permanent IT job vacancies advertised in London 55.53% 54.93% 52.83%
Number of salaries quoted 16713 19471 20381
Median salary £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.34% +4.54%  
90% offered a salary of more than £40,000 £37,500 £35,000
10% offered a salary of more than £87,000 £80,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median salary £42,500 £41,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year +3.65% +2.50%  

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend in London

The job posting trend of jobs advertised in London citing SQL as a proportion of all permanent or contract IT jobs with a match in the Programming Languages category.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in London

SQL
Salary Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing SQL in London.

Salary trend for SQL in London

SQL
Salary Histogram in London

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing SQL in London over the 3 months to 22 June 2017.

Salary histogram for SQL in London

SQL
Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the London region over the 3 months to 22 June 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Last 3 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
City of London 0 1263 £57,500 +4.54% 253
Canary Wharf +4 48 £57,500 -13.20%
West End of London +3 32 £51,250 -14.58% 22
Hammersmith -8 27 £65,000 +27.45% 2
Kingston Upon Thames +2 25 £47,500 +15.15% 9
Chiswick -2 24 £62,500 +13.63%
Wimbledon -1 23 £45,000 +5.88% 2
Bromley +3 22 £57,500 +70.37% 2
Croydon -14 21 £37,500 -25.00% 1
Wembley +6 19 £45,000 -10.00% 2
Westminster +3 19 £90,000 +80.00% 1
Mayfair 0 19 £55,000 -4.34%
Twickenham +2 18 £55,000 +69.23%
Ealing +10 12 £40,000 -40.74%
Uxbridge -13 12 £40,000 -9.09%
Heathrow +6 11 £40,000 -23.80%
Greenford +4 10 £40,000 -20.00%
Hounslow -6 10 £52,500 +10.52% 1
Surbiton -1 9 £27,500 -31.25% 1
Docklands, London -1 9 £60,000 -22.58%
New Malden - 9 £32,500 - 1
Dagenham -3 6 £52,500 +16.66%
Chessington +3 5 £27,000 -32.50%
Brentford -6 5 £40,000 -11.11% 2
Isleworth +3 4 £55,000 +175.00%
Sidcup +3 3 - -
Feltham 0 3 £32,000 -32.63%
Harrow -1 3 £35,000 +12.90% 1
Ruislip +5 2 £60,000 +50.00%
Teddington +1 2 £57,500 +21.05% 1
Moorgate 0 2 £48,750 +45.52%
Paddington -1 2 £72,500 +81.25%
Enfield -2 2 £40,000 +46.78% 3
Hayes -3 2 - -
Greenwich - 2 £50,000 - 1
Romford +4 1 £41,500 -39.63% 1
Hillingdon -4 1 £34,000 -17.07%
Mitcham -8 1 £50,000 -20.00%
Morden - 1 £35,000 -
Coulsdon - 1 £45,000 -
Edgware - 1 £38,500 -
Hackney - 1 - -
West Drayton - 1 £30,000 -
SQL
England

For the 6 months to 22 June 2017, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all job ads across the London region with a requirement for SQL.

1 5086 (36.99%) Finance
2 5049 (36.72%) SQL Server
3 4421 (32.15%) Agile Software Development
4 3754 (27.30%) C#
5 3743 (27.22%) .NET
6 3314 (24.10%) Microsoft
7 3161 (22.99%) Java
8 2916 (21.21%) JavaScript
9 2340 (17.02%) Degree
10 2315 (16.84%) Oracle
11 2278 (16.57%) HTML
12 2226 (16.19%) Business Intelligence
13 2224 (16.17%) T-SQL
14 2184 (15.88%) Windows
15 2056 (14.95%) Linux
16 1972 (14.34%) Python
17 1910 (13.89%) Banking
18 1846 (13.42%) CSS
19 1844 (13.41%) Analytics
20 1724 (12.54%) SQL Server Integration Services
21 1711 (12.44%) Analytical Skills
22 1706 (12.41%) MVC
23 1659 (12.06%) SQL Server Reporting Services
24 1655 (12.04%) ASP.NET
25 1548 (11.26%) TDD
26 1533 (11.15%) Data Warehouse
27 1483 (10.78%) Computer Science
28 1432 (10.41%) Scrum
29 1407 (10.23%) XML
30 1339 (9.74%) ETL

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 582 (4.23%) SharePoint
2 540 (3.93%) IIS
3 404 (2.94%) Tomcat
4 403 (2.93%) SAS
5 387 (2.81%) Apache
6 352 (2.56%) Apache Spark
7 291 (2.12%) CMS
8 287 (2.09%) JBoss
9 269 (1.96%) WebSphere
10 265 (1.93%) Elasticsearch
10 265 (1.93%) MS Exchange
11 257 (1.87%) Confluence
12 166 (1.21%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 143 (1.04%) WebLogic
14 142 (1.03%) Exchange Server 2010
15 131 (0.95%) Exchange Server 2013
16 109 (0.79%) Sitecore CMS
17 95 (0.69%) Apache Solr
18 94 (0.68%) BizTalk Server
19 89 (0.65%) Umbraco
Applications
1 1005 (7.31%) Microsoft Excel
2 356 (2.59%) Microsoft Office
3 152 (1.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 129 (0.94%) SPSS
5 116 (0.84%) MS Visio
6 70 (0.51%) Spreadsheet
7 57 (0.41%) Microsoft Project
8 23 (0.17%) Stata
9 17 (0.12%) Photoshop
10 13 (0.095%) EViews
11 7 (0.051%) SPSS Modeler
12 5 (0.036%) InfoPath
13 4 (0.029%) Gephi
14 3 (0.022%) Acrobat
14 3 (0.022%) GIMP
14 3 (0.022%) Weka
15 2 (0.015%) EngageOne
15 2 (0.015%) InDesign
15 2 (0.015%) MicroStation
16 1 (0.007%) Revit
Business Applications
1 271 (1.97%) Dynamics CRM
2 100 (0.73%) Dynamics AX
3 95 (0.69%) Markit EDM
4 64 (0.47%) Actimize
5 61 (0.44%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 58 (0.42%) Oracle EBS
7 43 (0.31%) Adobe Campaign
7 43 (0.31%) Oracle EBS R12
7 43 (0.31%) thinkFolio
8 37 (0.27%) ION MarketView
9 33 (0.24%) Dynamics NAV
10 31 (0.23%) SAP Hybris
10 31 (0.23%) Unit4 Business World
11 28 (0.20%) Oracle Retail
12 27 (0.20%) Raiser's Edge
13 26 (0.19%) Eloqua
13 26 (0.19%) Magento
13 26 (0.19%) RMDS
14 25 (0.18%) Salesforce.com CRM
15 24 (0.17%) Oracle Financials
Cloud Services
1 1242 (9.03%) Amazon AWS
2 1161 (8.44%) Microsoft Azure
3 338 (2.46%) SaaS
4 258 (1.88%) Office 365
5 197 (1.43%) GitHub
6 147 (1.07%) Cloud Computing
7 136 (0.99%) Google Cloud Platform
8 127 (0.92%) Google Analytics
9 115 (0.84%) PaaS
10 111 (0.81%) Amazon EC2
11 85 (0.62%) IaaS
12 60 (0.44%) Adobe Analytics
13 53 (0.39%) Amazon S3
14 45 (0.33%) AWS CloudFormation
14 45 (0.33%) Azure Active Directory
15 41 (0.30%) AWS Lambda
16 33 (0.24%) Amazon EMR
17 32 (0.23%) Azure Machine Learning
18 29 (0.21%) Amazon Kinesis
18 29 (0.21%) Dynamics 365
Communications & Networking
1 369 (2.68%) Firewall
2 303 (2.20%) DNS
3 279 (2.03%) TCP/IP
4 249 (1.81%) SAN
5 240 (1.75%) Internet
6 210 (1.53%) DHCP
7 177 (1.29%) WAN
8 160 (1.16%) HTTP
8 160 (1.16%) LAN
9 143 (1.04%) VPN
10 97 (0.71%) FTP
11 90 (0.65%) Network Security
12 88 (0.64%) Intranet
13 80 (0.58%) VLAN
14 66 (0.48%) NAS
14 66 (0.48%) VoIP
15 62 (0.45%) SSL
15 62 (0.45%) Wireless
16 60 (0.44%) iSCSI
17 51 (0.37%) SNMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 5049 (36.72%) SQL Server
2 1724 (12.54%) SQL Server Integration Services
3 1659 (12.06%) SQL Server Reporting Services
4 1533 (11.15%) Data Warehouse
5 1131 (8.22%) Relational Database
6 1059 (7.70%) NoSQL
7 987 (7.18%) MySQL
8 975 (7.09%) SQL Server Analysis Services
9 912 (6.63%) Big Data
10 606 (4.41%) MongoDB
11 604 (4.39%) SQL Server 2008
12 598 (4.35%) SQL Server 2012
13 584 (4.25%) Hadoop
14 502 (3.65%) Power BI
15 444 (3.23%) Oracle Database
16 442 (3.21%) RDBMS
17 417 (3.03%) QlikView
18 401 (2.92%) PostgreSQL
19 358 (2.60%) SQL Server 2014
20 302 (2.20%) BusinessObjects
Development Applications
1 1092 (7.94%) Git (software)
2 799 (5.81%) JIRA
3 737 (5.36%) Jenkins
4 534 (3.88%) Selenium
5 532 (3.87%) Visual Studio
6 523 (3.80%) Subversion
7 509 (3.70%) Team Foundation Server
8 473 (3.44%) Maven
9 434 (3.16%) JUnit
10 406 (2.95%) TeamCity
11 256 (1.86%) Cucumber
12 231 (1.68%) NUnit
13 178 (1.29%) Eclipse
14 177 (1.29%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 164 (1.19%) Octopus Deploy
16 161 (1.17%) WebDriver
17 143 (1.04%) Ant
18 141 (1.03%) Jasmine
19 129 (0.94%) SpecFlow
20 118 (0.86%) Hudson
General
1 5086 (36.99%) Finance
2 1910 (13.89%) Banking
3 780 (5.67%) Investment Banking
4 750 (5.45%) Retail
5 747 (5.43%) Marketing
6 587 (4.27%) Front Office
7 381 (2.77%) Financial Institution
8 375 (2.73%) Legal
9 310 (2.25%) Advertising
10 287 (2.09%) Games
11 262 (1.91%) Back Office
12 252 (1.83%) Telecoms
13 235 (1.71%) Law
14 232 (1.69%) Retail Banking
15 186 (1.35%) Publishing
16 114 (0.83%) Manufacturing
17 86 (0.63%) Electronics
18 65 (0.47%) Corporate Banking
19 55 (0.40%) Pharmaceutical
20 53 (0.39%) Billing
Job Titles
1 5958 (43.33%) Developer
2 2775 (20.18%) Analyst
3 1616 (11.75%) C# Developer
4 1334 (9.70%) .NET Developer
5 1305 (9.49%) SQL Developer
6 1113 (8.09%) Senior Developer
7 1018 (7.40%) Java Developer
8 838 (6.09%) C# .NET Developer
9 744 (5.41%) Applications Support
10 705 (5.13%) Support Analyst
11 617 (4.49%) SQL Analyst
12 569 (4.14%) Business Intelligence Developer
13 547 (3.98%) Consultant
14 506 (3.68%) Business Analyst
14 506 (3.68%) DBA
15 445 (3.24%) Architect
16 409 (2.97%) Junior
17 401 (2.92%) SQL DBA
18 393 (2.86%) Data Analyst
19 385 (2.80%) Applications Support Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3743 (27.22%) .NET
2 2278 (16.57%) HTML
3 1846 (13.42%) CSS
4 1655 (12.04%) ASP.NET
5 1407 (10.23%) XML
6 1296 (9.42%) AngularJS
7 1225 (8.91%) Web Services
8 906 (6.59%) jQuery
9 857 (6.23%) ASP.NET MVC
10 852 (6.20%) .NET Framework
11 766 (5.57%) Spring
12 720 (5.24%) HTML5
13 713 (5.19%) WCF
14 668 (4.86%) ASP.NET Web API
15 634 (4.61%) REST
16 572 (4.16%) WPF
17 552 (4.01%) Hibernate
18 491 (3.57%) Entity Framework
19 474 (3.45%) RESTful
20 438 (3.19%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 1711 (12.44%) Analytical Skills
2 1483 (10.78%) Computer Science
3 632 (4.60%) Fintech
4 564 (4.10%) Greenfield Project
5 451 (3.28%) Fixed Income
6 431 (3.13%) Hedge funds
7 421 (3.06%) Management Information System
8 365 (2.65%) Equities
9 347 (2.52%) User Experience
10 321 (2.33%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 306 (2.23%) Derivative
12 303 (2.20%) Enterprise Software
13 300 (2.18%) Clustering
14 299 (2.17%) Algorithms
15 250 (1.82%) Mobile App
16 240 (1.75%) Data Structures
17 195 (1.42%) Replication
18 168 (1.22%) Credit Risk
19 163 (1.19%) Client/Server
20 156 (1.13%) Data Centre
Operating Systems
1 2184 (15.88%) Windows
2 2056 (14.95%) Linux
3 1231 (8.95%) Unix
4 801 (5.83%) Windows Server
5 392 (2.85%) Windows Server 2012
6 387 (2.81%) Windows Server 2008
7 241 (1.75%) Android
8 178 (1.29%) Windows 7
9 159 (1.16%) Apple iOS
10 125 (0.91%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 108 (0.79%) Windows 10
11 108 (0.79%) Windows Server 2003
12 95 (0.69%) Solaris
13 73 (0.53%) CentOS
14 53 (0.39%) Windows 8
15 36 (0.26%) Mac OS X
16 32 (0.23%) Ubuntu
17 24 (0.17%) Windows XP
18 21 (0.15%) Debian
18 21 (0.15%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 4421 (32.15%) Agile Software Development
2 2226 (16.19%) Business Intelligence
3 1844 (13.41%) Analytics
4 1706 (12.41%) MVC
5 1548 (11.26%) TDD
6 1432 (10.41%) Scrum
7 1339 (9.74%) ETL
8 1052 (7.65%) Test Automation
9 1040 (7.56%) Continuous Integration
10 1011 (7.35%) SDLC
11 1008 (7.33%) DevOps
12 989 (7.19%) OO
13 977 (7.10%) Software Engineering
14 804 (5.85%) Data Modelling
15 759 (5.52%) BDD
16 712 (5.18%) Visualisation
17 700 (5.09%) ITIL
18 683 (4.97%) CRM
19 678 (4.93%) E-Commerce
20 666 (4.84%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 3754 (27.30%) C#
2 3161 (22.99%) Java
3 2916 (21.21%) JavaScript
4 2224 (16.17%) T-SQL
5 1972 (14.34%) Python
6 749 (5.45%) PL/SQL
7 722 (5.25%) PowerShell
8 667 (4.85%) C++
9 571 (4.15%) R
10 514 (3.74%) VBA
11 496 (3.61%) PHP
12 476 (3.46%) Perl
13 444 (3.23%) Shell Script
14 407 (2.96%) Scala
15 364 (2.65%) Ruby
16 340 (2.47%) Bash Shell
17 279 (2.03%) C
18 277 (2.01%) VB
19 226 (1.64%) VB.NET
20 185 (1.35%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 2340 (17.02%) Degree
2 616 (4.48%) Computer Science Degree
3 191 (1.39%) PhD
4 186 (1.35%) Microsoft Certification
5 162 (1.18%) Numerate Degree
6 132 (0.96%) ISEB
7 128 (0.93%) Security Cleared
8 110 (0.80%) Master's Degree
9 95 (0.69%) ISTQB
10 78 (0.57%) PMI Certification
11 62 (0.45%) ITIL Certification
12 57 (0.41%) PMP
13 56 (0.41%) MCSE
14 48 (0.35%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
15 47 (0.34%) Cisco Certification
16 45 (0.33%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
17 40 (0.29%) CISSP
18 39 (0.28%) DV Cleared
19 37 (0.27%) CISM
20 36 (0.26%) CCNA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 875 (6.36%) QA
2 382 (2.78%) Data Quality
3 170 (1.24%) SLA
4 117 (0.85%) MiFID
5 64 (0.47%) PCI DSS
6 44 (0.32%) PMO
7 39 (0.28%) EMIR
8 37 (0.27%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 27 (0.20%) SEPA
10 25 (0.18%) Solvency II
11 24 (0.17%) Basel III
12 20 (0.15%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 19 (0.14%) Dodd-Frank
13 19 (0.14%) ISO 20022
14 14 (0.10%) GDPR
14 14 (0.10%) IFRS
15 13 (0.095%) IFRS 9
15 13 (0.095%) ISO/IEC 20000
16 11 (0.080%) GCP
17 10 (0.073%) COBIT
System Software
1 622 (4.52%) Active Directory
2 369 (2.68%) Docker
3 332 (2.41%) VMware Infrastructure
4 214 (1.56%) Hyper-V
5 118 (0.86%) XenApp
6 108 (0.79%) VMware ESXi
7 104 (0.76%) vSphere
8 63 (0.46%) Virtual Machines
9 43 (0.31%) HDFS
10 38 (0.28%) XenDesktop
11 35 (0.25%) Terminal Services
12 27 (0.20%) Virtual Servers
13 26 (0.19%) DFS Replication
14 24 (0.17%) NFS
15 23 (0.17%) Apache Flume
15 23 (0.17%) Oracle RAC
16 19 (0.14%) Microsoft Virtual Server
17 17 (0.12%) XenServer
18 13 (0.095%) vCloud
19 11 (0.080%) Forefront TMG
Systems Management
1 272 (1.98%) Puppet
2 264 (1.92%) Ansible
3 239 (1.74%) Opscode Chef
4 152 (1.11%) SCCM
5 121 (0.88%) Nagios
6 117 (0.85%) Control-M
7 110 (0.80%) Kubernetes
8 77 (0.56%) Opsview
9 70 (0.51%) SCOM
10 55 (0.40%) Kibana
11 48 (0.35%) Microsoft Clustering
12 46 (0.33%) Backup Exec
13 42 (0.31%) Terraform
14 34 (0.25%) HP Quality Center
15 33 (0.24%) Failover Clustering
15 33 (0.24%) ITRS Geneos
16 32 (0.23%) NetBackup
16 32 (0.23%) WSUS
17 30 (0.22%) vCenter Server
18 29 (0.21%) Docker Swarm
Vendors
1 3314 (24.10%) Microsoft
2 2315 (16.84%) Oracle
3 846 (6.15%) Tableau
4 623 (4.53%) VMware
5 384 (2.79%) Google
6 373 (2.71%) Sybase
7 313 (2.28%) SAP
8 275 (2.00%) Cisco
9 271 (1.97%) Citrix
10 230 (1.67%) IBM
11 225 (1.64%) HP
12 219 (1.59%) Salesforce.com
13 216 (1.57%) Red Hat
14 196 (1.43%) Splunk
15 189 (1.37%) Bloomberg
16 165 (1.20%) Adobe
17 164 (1.19%) Informatica
18 162 (1.18%) Cognos
19 147 (1.07%) TIBCO
20 142 (1.03%) Sitecore
North West London
Davanti Solutions
Salary: From £55,000 to £60,000 per annum
Posted: 17 hours ago
London
ReThink Recruitment
Salary: £65000.00 - £70000.00 per annum + benefits
Posted: 13 hours ago
London
Harvey Nash plc
Salary: £25182 - £31897.20 per annum
Posted: 20 hours ago
Central London / West End
Client Server
Salary: £50k to £75k + bonus + benefits
Posted: 18 hours ago
London
Pearson Frank
Posted: 14 hours ago
City, London
Venturi
Salary: £55000 - £65000.00 per annum + full benefits
Posted: 14 hours ago
City, London
Franklin Bates
Salary: From £20,000 to £25,000 per annum
Posted: 13 hours ago
London
Digitech Resourcing Ltd
Salary: From £45,000 to £55,000 per annum + Package
Posted: 12 hours ago
Enfield, Middlesex
onezeero.
Salary: £45000 - £60000 per annum
Posted: 13 hours ago
City, London
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Salary: £55000 per annum + To £55k plus excellent bens
Posted: 13 hours ago
City, London
Runpath
Posted: 18 hours ago
South East London
Client Server
Salary: £35k to £50k + benefits
Posted: 23 hours ago
North London
Ashdown IT
Salary: £40000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
South West London
Ashdown IT
Salary: £60000 - £70000 per annum + bonus + private health
Posted: 14 hours ago
City, London
Runpath
Posted: 17 hours ago
Enfield, Middlesex
onezeero.
Salary: £45000 - £60000 per annum
Posted: 14 hours ago
City, London
Harvey Nash plc
Salary: £50000 - £60000 per annum
Posted: 12 hours ago
London
Harvey Nash plc
Salary: £70000 - £75000 per annum
Posted: 20 hours ago
London
Sphere Digital Recruitment Ltd
Salary: From £30,000 to £30,000 per annum
Posted: 15 hours ago
London
ISL
Salary: £25000 - £26000 per annum + benefits
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Deerfoot IT Resources Ltd
Salary: £40000 - £50000 per annum
Posted: 21 hours ago
City, London
Reflex Computer Recruitment
Salary: £50000 - £55000 per annum + Bens
Posted: 13 hours ago
City, London
onezeero.
Salary: £37000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: 21 hours ago
North West London
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 45-50K (Flexible) + Excellent Benefits
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Aglow Talent Ltd
Salary: From £50,000 to £90,000 per annum + bonus and excellent benefits
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Premier Media
Salary: £0.00 per annum
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £75000 per annum + Bonus
Posted: 11 hours ago
City, London
Deerfoot IT Resources Ltd
Salary: £40000 - £55000 per annum
Posted: 8 hours ago
London
ISL
Salary: £35000 - £36000 per annum + benefits
Posted: Yesterday
London
Montash
Salary: £90000 - £100000 per annum + 50-60% Bonus
Posted: Yesterday