Period
to 4 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Data Engineering skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Data Engineering over the 6 months to 4 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Data Engineering
UK
6 months to
4 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 214 309 444
Rank change year-on-year +95 +135 +89
Permanent jobs citing Data Engineering 2,113 558 911
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 1.65% 0.99% 0.67%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 1.75% 1.07% 0.72%
Number of salaries quoted 1,434 488 722
10th Percentile £42,500 £42,125 £40,774
25th Percentile £52,500 £48,750 £51,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £70,000 £60,000 £70,000
Median % change year-on-year +16.67% -14.29% +3.70%
75th Percentile £87,500 £80,313 £87,188
90th Percentile £105,000 £96,250 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £60,000 £55,000 £54,671
% change year-on-year +9.09% +0.60% -12.02%

Data Engineering is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 120,680 52,120 125,722
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 94.35% 92.86% 92.58%
Number of salaries quoted 80,891 43,708 100,921
10th Percentile £33,000 £32,500 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,000 £38,125
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% +2.39%
75th Percentile £77,500 £73,750 £71,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £90,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £49,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +2.04% +8.89% -

Data Engineering
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Data Engineering as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Data Engineering in the UK

Data Engineering
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Data Engineering.

Salary trend for Data Engineering in the UK

Data Engineering
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Data Engineering over the 6 months to 4 December 2021.

Salary histogram for Data Engineering in the UK

Data Engineering
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Data Engineering within the UK over the 6 months to 4 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +109 1,888 £70,000 +16.67% 249
London +100 1,205 £77,500 +10.71% 139
UK excluding London +52 746 £60,000 +9.09% 123
Work from Home +15 465 £65,000 +8.33% 45
South East -5 182 £61,700 +12.18% 25
North of England -17 180 £62,500 +13.64% 40
Yorkshire -1 100 £55,000 - 16
Midlands -61 100 £55,000 -0.90% 23
Scotland -6 95 £57,500 +4.55% 17
East of England -24 93 £67,500 +22.73% 10
South West -9 88 £60,000 +9.09% 6
North West -60 71 £67,500 +17.39% 21
West Midlands -46 70 £55,000 -4.35% 20
East Midlands -61 30 £55,000 +4.27% 2
North East -16 9 £70,000 +24.44% 3
Wales -52 6 £50,000 +17.30% 2
Northern Ireland -49 4 £50,000 +5.26%

For the 6 months to 4 December 2021, IT jobs citing Data Engineering also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Data Engineering.

1 1,200 (56.79%) Python
2 1,124 (53.19%) Analytics
3 1,069 (50.59%) SQL
4 922 (43.63%) Azure
5 883 (41.79%) AWS
6 806 (38.14%) Data Science
7 786 (37.20%) Agile Software Development
8 658 (31.14%) Business Intelligence
9 648 (30.67%) ETL
10 637 (30.15%) Data Warehouse
11 578 (27.35%) GCP
12 543 (25.70%) Data Pipeline
13 531 (25.13%) Data Modelling
14 496 (23.47%) Social Skills
15 479 (22.67%) DevOps
16 476 (22.53%) Machine Learning
17 462 (21.86%) Big Data
18 460 (21.77%) Power Platform
19 458 (21.68%) Visualisation
20 440 (20.82%) Java
21 438 (20.73%) Artificial Intelligence
22 413 (19.55%) Apache Spark
22 413 (19.55%) Power BI
23 387 (18.32%) Data Lake
24 341 (16.14%) Tableau
24 341 (16.14%) Microsoft
25 321 (15.19%) Degree
26 320 (15.14%) Data Visualisation
27 319 (15.10%) Software Engineering
28 318 (15.05%) Kafka

Data Engineering
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 413 (19.55%) Apache Spark
2 169 (8.00%) Apache Airflow
3 120 (5.68%) Apache
4 63 (2.98%) Elasticsearch
5 46 (2.18%) SAS
6 41 (1.94%) Confluence
7 36 (1.70%) Apache Solr
8 19 (0.90%) Luigi
9 17 (0.80%) Jupyter
10 13 (0.62%) Gunicorn
11 12 (0.57%) Apache Pig
12 10 (0.47%) SharePoint
13 8 (0.38%) OpenStack
14 6 (0.28%) Ethereum
15 4 (0.19%) CMS
16 3 (0.14%) Headless CMS
16 3 (0.14%) Hyperledger
16 3 (0.14%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 1 (0.047%) Apache Pulsar
17 1 (0.047%) Apache Synapse
Applications
1 50 (2.37%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (0.43%) Microsoft Office
3 5 (0.24%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 4 (0.19%) Chatbot
4 4 (0.19%) MS Visio
5 1 (0.047%) Microsoft Project
5 1 (0.047%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 24 (1.14%) FastStats
2 8 (0.38%) Adobe Campaign
2 8 (0.38%) Unica
3 4 (0.19%) Unit4 Business World
4 3 (0.14%) Dynamics CRM
4 3 (0.14%) JDE OneWorld
5 2 (0.095%) Sentinel
6 1 (0.047%) ProductWriter
6 1 (0.047%) SAP MDG
6 1 (0.047%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 922 (43.63%) Azure
2 883 (41.79%) AWS
3 578 (27.35%) GCP
4 460 (21.77%) Power Platform
5 244 (11.55%) Azure Data Factory
6 223 (10.55%) Snowflake
7 198 (9.37%) Serverless
8 122 (5.77%) Azure Synapse Analytics
9 107 (5.06%) Amazon S3
10 104 (4.92%) SaaS
11 100 (4.73%) AWS Lambda
12 78 (3.69%) Amazon EMR
13 77 (3.64%) Amazon Kinesis
14 70 (3.31%) GitHub
15 61 (2.89%) PaaS
16 46 (2.18%) Azure Machine Learning
17 44 (2.08%) Amazon EC2
18 42 (1.99%) Cloud Computing
19 41 (1.94%) AWS CloudFormation
19 41 (1.94%) Google Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 29 (1.37%) Broadband
2 27 (1.28%) Internet
3 12 (0.57%) SSH
4 11 (0.52%) Extranet
4 11 (0.52%) FTP
5 8 (0.38%) InfiniBand
6 7 (0.33%) TCP/IP
6 7 (0.33%) tcpdump
7 5 (0.24%) HTTP
8 4 (0.19%) Intrusion Detection
8 4 (0.19%) SSL
9 3 (0.14%) Network Security
9 3 (0.14%) VPN
10 2 (0.095%) DNS
10 2 (0.095%) IPsec
11 1 (0.047%) Firewall
Database & Business Intelligence
1 637 (30.15%) Data Warehouse
2 462 (21.86%) Big Data
3 413 (19.55%) Power BI
4 387 (18.32%) Data Lake
5 341 (16.14%) Tableau
6 288 (13.63%) SQL Server
7 245 (11.59%) Hadoop
8 210 (9.94%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 192 (9.09%) PostgreSQL
10 184 (8.71%) NoSQL
11 150 (7.10%) Amazon Redshift
12 139 (6.58%) BigQuery
13 122 (5.77%) Looker
14 120 (5.68%) SQL Server Analysis Services
15 115 (5.44%) MySQL
16 113 (5.35%) Relational Database
17 104 (4.92%) SQL Server Reporting Services
18 94 (4.45%) Azure SQL Database
19 89 (4.21%) Amazon Athena
19 89 (4.21%) MongoDB
Development Applications
1 221 (10.46%) Git (software)
2 129 (6.11%) Jenkins
3 121 (5.73%) JIRA
4 25 (1.18%) GitLab
5 22 (1.04%) CircleCI
6 19 (0.90%) Oracle APEX
6 19 (0.90%) RStudio
7 17 (0.80%) Octopus Deploy
8 14 (0.66%) IBM UrbanCode
8 14 (0.66%) Visual Studio
9 13 (0.62%) Atlassian Bamboo
9 13 (0.62%) Team Foundation Server
9 13 (0.62%) Travis CI
9 13 (0.62%) Vagrant
10 11 (0.52%) Spinnaker
10 11 (0.52%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
11 10 (0.47%) Gradle
12 9 (0.43%) Selenium
12 9 (0.43%) TeamCity
13 8 (0.38%) JMeter
General
1 496 (23.47%) Social Skills
2 307 (14.53%) Finance
3 227 (10.74%) Analytical Skills
4 121 (5.73%) Marketing
5 104 (4.92%) Retail
6 92 (4.35%) Banking
7 68 (3.22%) Law
8 62 (2.93%) Presentation Skills
9 60 (2.84%) Advertising
10 46 (2.18%) Public Sector
11 45 (2.13%) Organisational Skills
11 45 (2.13%) Pharmaceutical
12 38 (1.80%) Inclusion and Diversity
13 35 (1.66%) Legal
14 26 (1.23%) Manufacturing
14 26 (1.23%) Telecoms
15 21 (0.99%) Influencing Skills
16 18 (0.85%) Games
17 13 (0.62%) Retail Banking
18 11 (0.52%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 865 (40.94%) Data Engineer
2 229 (10.84%) Developer
3 197 (9.32%) Architect
4 157 (7.43%) Senior Data Engineer
5 132 (6.25%) Data Architect
6 118 (5.58%) Analyst
7 87 (4.12%) Data Manager
8 84 (3.98%) Consultant
9 81 (3.83%) Azure Engineer
10 79 (3.74%) Data Analyst
10 79 (3.74%) Data Scientist
11 64 (3.03%) AWS Engineer
12 58 (2.74%) Python Engineer
13 56 (2.65%) Business Intelligence Developer
14 52 (2.46%) Senior Developer
15 51 (2.41%) Software Engineer
16 49 (2.32%) Solutions Architect
17 47 (2.22%) SQL Developer
18 46 (2.18%) Head of Engineering
19 45 (2.13%) Machine Learning Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 318 (15.05%) Kafka
2 128 (6.06%) React
3 97 (4.59%) Node.js
4 93 (4.40%) REST
5 89 (4.21%) PySpark
6 84 (3.98%) AngularJS
7 71 (3.36%) HTML
8 64 (3.03%) CSS
9 63 (2.98%) .NET
10 58 (2.74%) Pandas
11 56 (2.65%) TensorFlow
12 54 (2.56%) Apache Beam
13 53 (2.51%) Spring
14 50 (2.37%) MDX
15 47 (2.22%) Flask
16 46 (2.18%) JSON
17 45 (2.13%) NumPy
18 42 (1.99%) Django
19 41 (1.94%) GraphQL
20 37 (1.75%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 145 (6.86%) Algorithms
2 120 (5.68%) Data Structures
3 78 (3.69%) Social Media
4 77 (3.64%) Cloud Native
5 68 (3.22%) Greenfield Project
6 57 (2.70%) Self-Motivation
7 54 (2.56%) Life Science
7 54 (2.56%) Management Information System
8 51 (2.41%) Public Cloud
9 45 (2.13%) User Experience
10 43 (2.04%) Robotics
11 39 (1.85%) Virtual Team
12 36 (1.70%) Acoustics
13 30 (1.42%) Data Centre
14 25 (1.18%) Linux Command Line
14 25 (1.18%) Marketing Technology
15 24 (1.14%) Legacy Systems
16 22 (1.04%) Renewable Energy
16 22 (1.04%) Taxonomies
17 20 (0.95%) Blog
Operating Systems
1 134 (6.34%) Linux
2 46 (2.18%) Unix
3 28 (1.33%) Windows
4 12 (0.57%) Apple iOS
5 9 (0.43%) Mesosphere
6 8 (0.38%) Android
7 4 (0.19%) watchOS
8 2 (0.095%) Windows Server
9 1 (0.047%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,124 (53.19%) Analytics
2 806 (38.14%) Data Science
3 786 (37.20%) Agile Software Development
4 658 (31.14%) Business Intelligence
5 648 (30.67%) ETL
6 543 (25.70%) Data Pipeline
7 531 (25.13%) Data Modelling
8 479 (22.67%) DevOps
9 476 (22.53%) Machine Learning
10 458 (21.68%) Visualisation
11 438 (20.73%) Artificial Intelligence
12 320 (15.14%) Data Visualisation
13 319 (15.10%) Software Engineering
14 281 (13.30%) Computer Science
15 273 (12.92%) Data Architecture
16 258 (12.21%) Data Management
17 247 (11.69%) Data Analytics
18 235 (11.12%) Problem-Solving
19 204 (9.65%) Mentoring
20 189 (8.94%) Data Analysis
Programming Languages
1 1,200 (56.79%) Python
2 1,069 (50.59%) SQL
3 440 (20.82%) Java
4 203 (9.61%) JavaScript
4 203 (9.61%) Scala
5 161 (7.62%) C#
6 158 (7.48%) R
7 95 (4.50%) T-SQL
8 91 (4.31%) PowerShell
9 60 (2.84%) C
10 58 (2.74%) Bash Shell
10 58 (2.74%) Go
11 56 (2.65%) Data Analysis Expressions (DAX)
12 55 (2.60%) C++
13 40 (1.89%) Ruby
14 36 (1.70%) TypeScript
15 29 (1.37%) Objective-C
16 27 (1.28%) PL/SQL
17 22 (1.04%) MATLAB
18 18 (0.85%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 321 (15.19%) Degree
2 109 (5.16%) Computer Science Degree
3 60 (2.84%) Security Cleared
4 57 (2.70%) Microsoft Certification
5 44 (2.08%) TOGAF Certification
6 42 (1.99%) SC Cleared
7 35 (1.66%) PhD
8 27 (1.28%) Master's Degree
9 8 (0.38%) AWS Certification
10 7 (0.33%) BPSS Clearance
11 6 (0.28%) Six Sigma Black Belt
12 4 (0.19%) Cisco Certification
12 4 (0.19%) DV Cleared
12 4 (0.19%) ISTQB
12 4 (0.19%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 4 (0.19%) Numerate Degree
12 4 (0.19%) Tableau Certification
13 3 (0.14%) MCSA
13 3 (0.14%) PMI Certification
13 3 (0.14%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 228 (10.79%) Data Quality
2 81 (3.83%) QA
3 58 (2.74%) Accessibility
4 54 (2.56%) GDPR
5 24 (1.14%) GxP
6 13 (0.62%) CDISC
6 13 (0.62%) GRC
7 11 (0.52%) HL7
8 10 (0.47%) SLA
9 5 (0.24%) PMO
10 4 (0.19%) PCI DSS
11 2 (0.095%) COBIT
11 2 (0.095%) HIPAA
12 1 (0.047%) AIFMD
12 1 (0.047%) DICOM
12 1 (0.047%) MiFID
12 1 (0.047%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 255 (12.07%) Docker
2 12 (0.57%) VirtualBox
3 9 (0.43%) HDFS
4 8 (0.38%) Slurm Workload Manager
5 5 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
6 3 (0.14%) Apache Flume
6 3 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
7 2 (0.095%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 1 (0.047%) Active Directory
8 1 (0.047%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 298 (14.10%) Kubernetes
2 177 (8.38%) Terraform
3 62 (2.93%) Ansible
4 28 (1.33%) Puppet
5 25 (1.18%) Opscode Chef
6 20 (0.95%) Kubeflow
7 13 (0.62%) Docker Swarm
8 12 (0.57%) Prometheus
9 11 (0.52%) Kibana
10 10 (0.47%) Consul
11 9 (0.43%) Automic
11 9 (0.43%) logstash
12 5 (0.24%) Oozie
13 4 (0.19%) Istio
14 3 (0.14%) Hadoop YARN
15 2 (0.095%) Grafana
15 2 (0.095%) Rundeck
15 2 (0.095%) Salt
16 1 (0.047%) Failover Clustering
16 1 (0.047%) Packer
Vendors
1 341 (16.14%) Microsoft
2 311 (14.72%) Databricks
2 311 (14.72%) Google
3 120 (5.68%) Oracle
4 102 (4.83%) Salesforce.com
5 62 (2.93%) Informatica
6 56 (2.65%) MuleSoft
7 48 (2.27%) Talend
8 46 (2.18%) IBM
9 44 (2.08%) Adobe
9 44 (2.08%) Alteryx
10 35 (1.66%) Twitter
11 34 (1.61%) Cloudera
12 32 (1.51%) Teradata
13 25 (1.18%) StreamSets
14 24 (1.14%) Apteco
14 24 (1.14%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
15 23 (1.09%) Hortonworks
16 20 (0.95%) SAP
17 19 (0.90%) Facebook