Period
to 14 October 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 14 October 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
14 Oct 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 22 15 15
Rank change year-on-year -7 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 13,022 18,753 21,861
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 9.46% 11.48% 12.58%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.31% 28.69% 31.32%
Number of salaries quoted 11,234 16,244 19,372
UK median annual salary £47,500 £46,000 £44,750
Median salary % change year-on-year +3.26% +2.79% +5.29%
10th Percentile £28,750 £28,000 £27,000
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £68,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £42,500 £40,000
% change year-on-year - +6.25% +3.90%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 51,442 65,365 69,797
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 37.36% 40.00% 40.18%
Number of salaries quoted 42,224 54,098 57,744
UK median annual salary £54,209 £50,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +7.34% +1.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £29,750
90th Percentile £87,500 £82,500 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +2.41%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 14 October 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 14 October 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 11,945 £47,500 - 3,031
UK excluding London -3 8,319 £42,500 - 2,342
London -6 4,394 £60,000 - 915
South East -5 2,883 £45,000 - 593
North of England -4 1,727 £42,500 +6.25% 633
Midlands -2 1,217 £40,000 - 387
North West -2 1,134 £44,000 +3.53% 349
South West -8 1,057 £42,500 +6.25% 289
West Midlands -3 665 £40,000 - 188
East of England -6 637 £45,000 +5.88% 217
Scotland +10 597 £42,500 -5.56% 152
East Midlands 0 543 £40,000 - 198
Yorkshire -19 507 £40,000 - 211
Wales +2 159 £40,000 - 65
North East -18 87 £43,500 +12.32% 73
Northern Ireland -3 56 £42,500 +25.00% 10
Isle of Man +2 1 £55,000 +4.76%

For the 6 months to 14 October 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 12,055 (92.57%) HTML
2 11,155 (85.66%) JavaScript
3 5,611 (43.09%) Agile Software Development
4 5,118 (39.30%) C#
5 4,880 (37.48%) .NET
6 4,445 (34.13%) AngularJS
7 3,741 (28.73%) MVC
8 3,659 (28.10%) HTML5
9 3,254 (24.99%) jQuery
10 3,242 (24.90%) SQL
11 3,158 (24.25%) ASP.NET
12 3,096 (23.78%) React
13 2,945 (22.62%) Front End Development
14 2,879 (22.11%) SQL Server
15 2,826 (21.70%) Web Development
16 2,797 (21.48%) Git (software)
17 2,448 (18.80%) CSS3
18 2,406 (18.48%) PHP
19 2,279 (17.50%) User Experience
20 2,022 (15.53%) TDD
21 1,907 (14.64%) Java
22 1,884 (14.47%) MySQL
23 1,857 (14.26%) Azure
24 1,813 (13.92%) Node.js
25 1,742 (13.38%) Scrum
26 1,724 (13.24%) Microsoft
27 1,723 (13.23%) Sass
28 1,689 (12.97%) ASP.NET MVC
29 1,639 (12.59%) Web Services
30 1,603 (12.31%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 772 (5.93%) CMS
2 649 (4.98%) WordPress
3 312 (2.40%) Elasticsearch
4 273 (2.10%) SharePoint
5 251 (1.93%) Umbraco
6 237 (1.82%) Drupal
7 217 (1.67%) Confluence
8 214 (1.64%) Apache
8 214 (1.64%) IIS
9 169 (1.30%) Tomcat
10 115 (0.88%) nginx
11 91 (0.70%) EPiServer
12 83 (0.64%) JBoss
12 83 (0.64%) Sitecore CMS
13 66 (0.51%) Joomla!
14 61 (0.47%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 49 (0.38%) Kentico
16 45 (0.35%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 40 (0.31%) Apache Spark
18 37 (0.28%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 404 (3.10%) Photoshop
2 286 (2.20%) Sketch
3 224 (1.72%) Adobe Illustrator
4 152 (1.17%) InVision
5 150 (1.15%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 113 (0.87%) Microsoft Office
7 95 (0.73%) Adobe XD
8 78 (0.60%) Microsoft Excel
9 51 (0.39%) Zeplin
10 39 (0.30%) InDesign
11 29 (0.22%) Figma
12 28 (0.22%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 26 (0.20%) MS Visio
14 23 (0.18%) OmniGraffle
15 19 (0.15%) Marvel
16 18 (0.14%) Chatbot
17 17 (0.13%) Acrobat
18 16 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
19 15 (0.12%) Adobe After Effects
19 15 (0.12%) InfoPath
Business Applications
1 290 (2.23%) Magento
2 116 (0.89%) Dynamics CRM
3 77 (0.59%) Payment Gateway
4 49 (0.38%) Shopify
5 24 (0.18%) Dynamics AX
6 22 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
7 20 (0.15%) NetSuite
8 16 (0.12%) WebTrends
9 15 (0.12%) Dynamics NAV
10 11 (0.084%) OpenCart
11 10 (0.077%) Adobe Campaign
12 9 (0.069%) SDL Web 8
13 7 (0.054%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 7 (0.054%) SAP S/4HANA
14 4 (0.031%) Distributed Ledger
14 4 (0.031%) Unica
15 3 (0.023%) GoldMine
15 3 (0.023%) JDE OneWorld
15 3 (0.023%) SAP Business One
15 3 (0.023%) StreamServe
Cloud Services
1 1,857 (14.26%) Azure
2 1,497 (11.50%) AWS
3 639 (4.91%) SaaS
4 392 (3.01%) GitHub
5 379 (2.91%) npm
6 332 (2.55%) Serverless
7 289 (2.22%) GCP
8 184 (1.41%) AWS Lambda
9 141 (1.08%) Office 365
10 134 (1.03%) PaaS
11 118 (0.91%) Power Platform
12 116 (0.89%) Google Analytics
13 115 (0.88%) Amazon S3
14 106 (0.81%) Amazon EC2
15 77 (0.59%) Yarn
16 72 (0.55%) Adobe Creative Cloud
17 71 (0.55%) Cloud Computing
18 70 (0.54%) Amazon ECS
19 60 (0.46%) Amazon CloudWatch
20 53 (0.41%) Amazon Kinesis
Communications & Networking
1 234 (1.80%) Internet
2 203 (1.56%) HTTP
3 67 (0.51%) Intranet
4 44 (0.34%) TCP/IP
5 30 (0.23%) DNS
6 23 (0.18%) Firewall
7 22 (0.17%) SSL
8 20 (0.15%) Network Security
8 20 (0.15%) SSH
8 20 (0.15%) VPN
9 16 (0.12%) WebEx
10 14 (0.11%) VoIP
11 13 (0.100%) HTTPS
11 13 (0.100%) Skype
12 12 (0.092%) Remote Desktop
13 10 (0.077%) DAB
14 9 (0.069%) Extranet
15 8 (0.061%) Broadband
15 8 (0.061%) FTP
16 7 (0.054%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,879 (22.11%) SQL Server
2 1,884 (14.47%) MySQL
3 595 (4.57%) NoSQL
4 500 (3.84%) MongoDB
5 481 (3.69%) Relational Database
6 359 (2.76%) PostgreSQL
7 229 (1.76%) Big Data
8 222 (1.70%) Redis
9 195 (1.50%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 187 (1.44%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 159 (1.22%) SQL Server 2012
12 139 (1.07%) RDBMS
13 138 (1.06%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 110 (0.84%) SQL Server 2016
15 95 (0.73%) Power BI
16 93 (0.71%) SQL Server 2008
17 83 (0.64%) MariaDB
18 70 (0.54%) Azure SQL Database
19 66 (0.51%) GIS
20 63 (0.48%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 2,797 (21.48%) Git (software)
2 717 (5.51%) webpack
3 682 (5.24%) Visual Studio
4 669 (5.14%) JIRA
5 539 (4.14%) Jenkins
6 465 (3.57%) gulp
7 385 (2.96%) Team Foundation Server
8 378 (2.90%) Selenium
9 373 (2.86%) Subversion
10 349 (2.68%) Grunt
11 308 (2.37%) Jasmine
12 240 (1.84%) TeamCity
13 223 (1.71%) Bitbucket
14 211 (1.62%) Maven
15 193 (1.48%) NUnit
16 166 (1.27%) Visual Studio Team System
17 160 (1.23%) JUnit
18 147 (1.13%) Karma Test Runner
19 143 (1.10%) Mocha
20 126 (0.97%) GitLab
General
1 1,529 (11.74%) Finance
2 872 (6.70%) Marketing
3 707 (5.43%) Retail
4 304 (2.33%) Banking
5 255 (1.96%) Public Sector
6 247 (1.90%) Advertising
7 234 (1.80%) Games
8 210 (1.61%) Manufacturing
9 145 (1.11%) Telecoms
10 118 (0.91%) Law
11 108 (0.83%) Automotive
12 102 (0.78%) Electronics
13 99 (0.76%) Legal
14 92 (0.71%) Publishing
15 62 (0.48%) Investment Banking
16 48 (0.37%) Multimedia
17 45 (0.35%) Pharmaceutical
18 42 (0.32%) Financial Institution
19 36 (0.28%) Back Office
20 34 (0.26%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 10,221 (78.49%) Developer
2 2,227 (17.10%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 2,210 (16.97%) .NET Developer
4 1,786 (13.72%) Senior Developer
5 1,550 (11.90%) C# Developer
6 1,292 (9.92%) Software Developer
7 1,225 (9.41%) PHP Developer
8 1,111 (8.53%) Web Developer
9 1,076 (8.26%) Full Stack Developer
10 1,071 (8.22%) C# .NET Developer
11 1,051 (8.07%) JavaScript Developer
12 773 (5.94%) React Developer
13 722 (5.54%) Software Engineer
14 635 (4.88%) Java Developer
15 597 (4.58%) Junior
16 519 (3.99%) Junior Developer
17 474 (3.64%) Angular Developer
18 470 (3.61%) Designer
19 468 (3.59%) ASP.NET Developer
20 437 (3.36%) C# ASP.NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 12,055 (92.57%) HTML
2 4,880 (37.48%) .NET
3 4,445 (34.13%) AngularJS
4 3,659 (28.10%) HTML5
5 3,254 (24.99%) jQuery
6 3,158 (24.25%) ASP.NET
7 3,096 (23.78%) React
8 2,448 (18.80%) CSS3
9 1,813 (13.92%) Node.js
10 1,723 (13.23%) Sass
11 1,689 (12.97%) ASP.NET MVC
12 1,639 (12.59%) Web Services
13 1,531 (11.76%) REST
14 1,307 (10.04%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 1,266 (9.72%) .NET Framework
16 1,218 (9.35%) ASP.NET Web API
17 1,187 (9.12%) Vue.js
18 1,112 (8.54%) RESTful
19 1,031 (7.92%) XML
20 976 (7.50%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 2,279 (17.50%) User Experience
2 901 (6.92%) Greenfield Project
3 747 (5.74%) Mobile App
4 574 (4.41%) Analytical Skills
5 365 (2.80%) Self-Motivation
6 348 (2.67%) Enterprise Software
7 191 (1.47%) Algorithms
8 148 (1.14%) Data Structures
9 120 (0.92%) Social Media
10 111 (0.85%) Management Information System
11 91 (0.70%) Graphic Design
12 89 (0.68%) Hedge funds
13 85 (0.65%) Tandem
14 74 (0.57%) Virtual Team
15 73 (0.56%) Cloud Native
16 67 (0.51%) Robotics
17 59 (0.45%) N-Tier
17 59 (0.45%) W3C
18 56 (0.43%) Blog
19 53 (0.41%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 967 (7.43%) Linux
2 559 (4.29%) Windows
3 414 (3.18%) Android
4 395 (3.03%) Apple iOS
5 115 (0.88%) Unix
6 104 (0.80%) Windows Server
7 57 (0.44%) Debian
8 51 (0.39%) Ubuntu
9 50 (0.38%) Mac OS
10 40 (0.31%) CentOS
11 29 (0.22%) Windows Server 2012
12 24 (0.18%) Windows 10
13 23 (0.18%) Mac OS X
14 21 (0.16%) Windows 7
15 19 (0.15%) AIX
16 17 (0.13%) Windows Server 2003
16 17 (0.13%) Windows XP
17 14 (0.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17 14 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
18 13 (0.100%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,611 (43.09%) Agile Software Development
2 3,741 (28.73%) MVC
3 2,945 (22.62%) Front End Development
4 2,826 (21.70%) Web Development
5 2,022 (15.53%) TDD
6 1,742 (13.38%) Scrum
7 1,603 (12.31%) Software Engineering
8 1,440 (11.06%) OO
9 1,359 (10.44%) DevOps
10 1,241 (9.53%) Problem-Solving
11 1,118 (8.59%) Unit Testing
12 1,050 (8.06%) Computer Science
13 1,048 (8.05%) E-Commerce
14 991 (7.61%) Continuous Integration
15 971 (7.46%) OOP
16 912 (7.00%) Test Automation
17 895 (6.87%) SDLC
18 874 (6.71%) Mentoring
19 860 (6.60%) Microservices
20 830 (6.37%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 11,155 (85.66%) JavaScript
2 5,118 (39.30%) C#
3 3,242 (24.90%) SQL
4 2,406 (18.48%) PHP
5 1,907 (14.64%) Java
6 1,226 (9.41%) TypeScript
7 964 (7.40%) Python
8 907 (6.97%) ES6
9 640 (4.91%) T-SQL
10 403 (3.09%) VB.NET
11 297 (2.28%) Ruby
12 287 (2.20%) Java 8
13 204 (1.57%) C++
14 169 (1.30%) C
15 164 (1.26%) PowerShell
16 124 (0.95%) PHP 7
17 123 (0.94%) Scala
18 121 (0.93%) PL/SQL
19 103 (0.79%) ES7
20 89 (0.68%) PHP 5
Qualifications
1 1,447 (11.11%) Degree
2 531 (4.08%) Computer Science Degree
3 151 (1.16%) Security Cleared
4 113 (0.87%) Microsoft Certification
5 79 (0.61%) SC Cleared
6 45 (0.35%) MCP
7 30 (0.23%) DV Cleared
7 30 (0.23%) Master's Degree
8 29 (0.22%) Numerate Degree
9 25 (0.19%) HND
10 21 (0.16%) ISEB
11 20 (0.15%) ISTQB
12 16 (0.12%) MCSD
13 15 (0.12%) DBS Check
13 15 (0.12%) MCAD
13 15 (0.12%) MCPD
13 15 (0.12%) MCTS
13 15 (0.12%) Postgraduate
14 10 (0.077%) MCSE
15 8 (0.061%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 493 (3.79%) QA
2 58 (0.45%) GDPR
3 42 (0.32%) WAI
4 39 (0.30%) SLA
5 26 (0.20%) WCAG
6 20 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 16 (0.12%) PCI DSS
8 11 (0.084%) PMO
9 7 (0.054%) Cyber Essentials
10 4 (0.031%) Data Quality
10 4 (0.031%) ISO/IEC 20000
11 2 (0.015%) ISO 9001
12 1 (0.008%) ISO 14001
12 1 (0.008%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 911 (7.00%) Docker
2 80 (0.61%) Active Directory
3 21 (0.16%) Forefront TMG
4 20 (0.15%) VMware Infrastructure
5 11 (0.084%) Firmware
6 10 (0.077%) vCloud
7 8 (0.061%) Hyper-V
7 8 (0.061%) Virtual Machines
8 7 (0.054%) Varnish
9 4 (0.031%) KVM
10 2 (0.015%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 1 (0.008%) GridGain
11 1 (0.008%) Shibboleth
11 1 (0.008%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 351 (2.70%) Kubernetes
2 136 (1.04%) Ansible
3 109 (0.84%) Opscode Chef
4 98 (0.75%) Terraform
5 41 (0.31%) Kibana
6 33 (0.25%) logstash
7 27 (0.21%) Puppet
8 25 (0.19%) SCCM
9 20 (0.15%) Single Sign-On
10 16 (0.12%) HP Quality Center
11 14 (0.11%) TeamSite
12 12 (0.092%) Ganglia
13 11 (0.084%) Matomo
14 10 (0.077%) Docker Swarm
14 10 (0.077%) Grafana
15 9 (0.069%) Consul
16 8 (0.061%) HAProxy
17 6 (0.046%) Marathon
17 6 (0.046%) Mesos
18 5 (0.038%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 1,724 (13.24%) Microsoft
2 608 (4.67%) Adobe
3 553 (4.25%) Oracle
4 452 (3.47%) Google
5 258 (1.98%) Zend
6 158 (1.21%) Salesforce.com
7 153 (1.17%) Xamarin
8 135 (1.04%) SAP
9 121 (0.93%) Sitecore
10 119 (0.91%) Atlassian
11 90 (0.69%) Splunk
12 61 (0.47%) IBM
13 55 (0.42%) Facebook
14 52 (0.40%) ServiceNow
15 50 (0.38%) Cypress Semiconductor
16 48 (0.37%) Nintex
17 42 (0.32%) WorldPay
18 39 (0.30%) Red Hat
18 39 (0.30%) Tableau
18 39 (0.30%) WooCommerce