Period
to 24 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 24 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
24 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 20 15 14
Rank change year-on-year -5 -1 +1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 14,629 20,627 22,857
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 10.15% 11.87% 13.20%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 26.61% 29.28% 32.53%
Number of salaries quoted 12,390 18,172 20,219
UK median annual salary £46,000 £45,000 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +2.22% +5.88% -
10th Percentile £27,500 £27,500 £27,500
90th Percentile £75,000 £71,250 £67,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £42,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year +1.19% +5.00% +3.90%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 54,979 70,445 70,275
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 38.16% 40.53% 40.58%
Number of salaries quoted 45,201 58,840 59,458
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £28,750
90th Percentile £85,500 £80,000 £76,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +3.66%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 24 June 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 24 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 13,437 £47,500 +5.56% 1,000
UK excluding London -3 9,351 £42,500 +1.19% 781
London -3 4,919 £60,000 +9.09% 272
South East -7 3,095 £45,000 - 182
North of England -4 2,009 £42,250 +5.63% 233
Midlands -1 1,372 £40,000 - 172
North West -4 1,234 £42,500 +6.25% 146
South West -4 1,233 £40,000 - 88
East of England +1 773 £45,000 - 54
West Midlands -3 743 £40,000 - 79
Yorkshire -16 663 £40,000 - 64
East Midlands -2 621 £40,000 +2.56% 92
Scotland +10 614 £40,000 - 38
Wales +4 188 £35,000 -12.50% 12
North East -8 112 £41,250 +17.86% 23
Northern Ireland +8 91 £43,750 +9.38% 3
Channel Islands +9 2 £75,000 -
Isle of Man +1 1 £55,000 +41.03%

For the 6 months to 24 June 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 13,584 (92.86%) HTML
2 12,472 (85.26%) JavaScript
3 6,393 (43.70%) Agile Software Development
4 5,832 (39.87%) C#
5 5,574 (38.10%) .NET
6 5,023 (34.34%) AngularJS
7 4,356 (29.78%) MVC
8 4,269 (29.18%) HTML5
9 4,060 (27.75%) SQL
10 3,870 (26.45%) jQuery
11 3,772 (25.78%) ASP.NET
12 3,345 (22.87%) SQL Server
13 3,178 (21.72%) Git (software)
14 3,093 (21.14%) React
14 3,093 (21.14%) Front End Development
15 2,979 (20.36%) Web Development
16 2,909 (19.89%) PHP
17 2,874 (19.65%) CSS3
18 2,350 (16.06%) User Experience
19 2,335 (15.96%) Java
20 2,188 (14.96%) MySQL
21 2,096 (14.33%) TDD
22 2,048 (14.00%) Node.js
23 2,040 (13.94%) Software Engineering
24 2,022 (13.82%) Web Services
25 2,003 (13.69%) Scrum
26 1,997 (13.65%) Microsoft
27 1,951 (13.34%) ASP.NET MVC
28 1,899 (12.98%) Microsoft Azure
29 1,852 (12.66%) Finance

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 793 (5.42%) CMS
2 631 (4.31%) WordPress
3 441 (3.01%) Apache
4 415 (2.84%) Elasticsearch
5 349 (2.39%) SharePoint
6 314 (2.15%) IIS
7 287 (1.96%) Umbraco
8 266 (1.82%) Drupal
9 259 (1.77%) Confluence
10 193 (1.32%) Tomcat
11 154 (1.05%) nginx
12 110 (0.75%) JBoss
13 99 (0.68%) Sitecore CMS
14 74 (0.51%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 58 (0.40%) Joomla!
16 54 (0.37%) Apache Spark
16 54 (0.37%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 54 (0.37%) WebSphere
17 53 (0.36%) Kentico
18 50 (0.34%) EPiServer
Applications
1 467 (3.19%) Photoshop
2 351 (2.40%) Sketch
3 267 (1.83%) Adobe Illustrator
4 164 (1.12%) InVision
5 134 (0.92%) Microsoft Office
6 123 (0.84%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 105 (0.72%) Adobe XD
8 70 (0.48%) Microsoft Excel
9 63 (0.43%) Chatbot
10 55 (0.38%) Zeplin
11 38 (0.26%) Marvel
12 33 (0.23%) Adobe After Effects
13 32 (0.22%) InDesign
14 29 (0.20%) Microsoft PowerPoint
15 21 (0.14%) Figma
15 21 (0.14%) MS Visio
16 19 (0.13%) InfoPath
17 17 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
17 17 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
18 15 (0.10%) Fireworks
Business Applications
1 387 (2.65%) Magento
2 143 (0.98%) Dynamics CRM
3 78 (0.53%) Payment Gateway
4 57 (0.39%) Shopify
5 47 (0.32%) Dynamics AX
6 25 (0.17%) NetSuite
7 15 (0.10%) Dynamics NAV
8 14 (0.096%) SAP Hybris
9 11 (0.075%) WebTrends
10 10 (0.068%) nopCommerce
11 8 (0.055%) SAP Business One
12 7 (0.048%) Remedy ITSM
13 5 (0.034%) Adobe Campaign
13 5 (0.034%) JDE OneWorld
13 5 (0.034%) SAP CO
13 5 (0.034%) SAP FI
13 5 (0.034%) SAP FI/CO
14 4 (0.027%) Eloqua
14 4 (0.027%) OPENHousing
14 4 (0.027%) SAP IS-U
Cloud Services
1 1,899 (12.98%) Microsoft Azure
2 1,673 (11.44%) Amazon AWS
3 681 (4.66%) SaaS
4 433 (2.96%) GitHub
5 340 (2.32%) npm
6 309 (2.11%) Google Cloud Platform
7 291 (1.99%) Serverless
8 187 (1.28%) AWS Lambda
9 172 (1.18%) PaaS
10 157 (1.07%) Google Analytics
11 146 (1.00%) Amazon S3
12 135 (0.92%) Office 365
13 134 (0.92%) Power Platform
14 119 (0.81%) Cloud Computing
15 108 (0.74%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 106 (0.72%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 105 (0.72%) Amazon EC2
18 97 (0.66%) Dynamics 365
19 80 (0.55%) Amazon Kinesis
20 64 (0.44%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 217 (1.48%) Internet
2 188 (1.29%) HTTP
3 89 (0.61%) Intranet
4 51 (0.35%) Broadband
5 50 (0.34%) DNS
6 41 (0.28%) TCP/IP
7 38 (0.26%) SSH
8 30 (0.21%) SSL
9 24 (0.16%) Skype
10 20 (0.14%) Firewall
10 20 (0.14%) SMS
11 18 (0.12%) FTP
12 17 (0.12%) HTTPS
13 15 (0.10%) Extranet
14 14 (0.096%) Network Security
14 14 (0.096%) VPN
15 13 (0.089%) RIP
15 13 (0.089%) WebEx
16 11 (0.075%) MQTT
17 10 (0.068%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 3,345 (22.87%) SQL Server
2 2,188 (14.96%) MySQL
3 765 (5.23%) NoSQL
4 658 (4.50%) Relational Database
5 610 (4.17%) MongoDB
6 457 (3.12%) PostgreSQL
7 313 (2.14%) Big Data
8 292 (2.00%) Redis
8 292 (2.00%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 272 (1.86%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 219 (1.50%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 168 (1.15%) SQL Server 2008
12 152 (1.04%) RDBMS
13 127 (0.87%) SQL Server 2012
14 117 (0.80%) Power BI
15 114 (0.78%) SQL Server 2016
16 79 (0.54%) MariaDB
17 78 (0.53%) Oracle Database
18 77 (0.53%) Hadoop
19 74 (0.51%) Neo4j
Development Applications
1 3,178 (21.72%) Git (software)
2 774 (5.29%) JIRA
3 761 (5.20%) Visual Studio
4 684 (4.68%) webpack
5 589 (4.03%) Jenkins
6 543 (3.71%) gulp
7 535 (3.66%) Subversion
8 526 (3.60%) Team Foundation Server
9 401 (2.74%) Grunt
10 397 (2.71%) Selenium
11 344 (2.35%) Jasmine
12 301 (2.06%) Maven
13 223 (1.52%) NUnit
14 212 (1.45%) TeamCity
15 211 (1.44%) Mocha
16 208 (1.42%) Visual Studio Team System
17 180 (1.23%) Bitbucket
18 165 (1.13%) JUnit
19 161 (1.10%) Cucumber
20 141 (0.96%) Karma Test Runner
General
1 1,852 (12.66%) Finance
2 1,044 (7.14%) Marketing
3 815 (5.57%) Retail
4 380 (2.60%) Banking
5 304 (2.08%) Games
6 256 (1.75%) Advertising
7 224 (1.53%) Telecoms
8 211 (1.44%) Manufacturing
9 116 (0.79%) Publishing
10 102 (0.70%) Automotive
11 100 (0.68%) Electronics
12 97 (0.66%) Law
12 97 (0.66%) Legal
13 69 (0.47%) Investment Banking
14 68 (0.46%) Financial Institution
15 63 (0.43%) Pharmaceutical
16 62 (0.42%) Front Office
17 56 (0.38%) Back Office
18 29 (0.20%) Billing
19 23 (0.16%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 11,479 (78.47%) Developer
2 2,637 (18.03%) .NET Developer
3 2,253 (15.40%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 1,887 (12.90%) Senior Developer
5 1,845 (12.61%) C# Developer
6 1,448 (9.90%) Software Developer
7 1,375 (9.40%) PHP Developer
8 1,323 (9.04%) C# .NET Developer
9 1,246 (8.52%) Full Stack Developer
10 1,242 (8.49%) Web Developer
11 1,162 (7.94%) JavaScript Developer
12 906 (6.19%) Software Engineer
13 799 (5.46%) Java Developer
14 794 (5.43%) Junior
15 686 (4.69%) React Developer
16 646 (4.42%) Junior Developer
17 611 (4.18%) ASP.NET Developer
18 556 (3.80%) Designer
19 537 (3.67%) C# ASP.NET Developer
20 518 (3.54%) Angular Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 13,584 (92.86%) HTML
2 5,574 (38.10%) .NET
3 5,023 (34.34%) AngularJS
4 4,269 (29.18%) HTML5
5 3,870 (26.45%) jQuery
6 3,772 (25.78%) ASP.NET
7 3,093 (21.14%) React
8 2,874 (19.65%) CSS3
9 2,048 (14.00%) Node.js
10 2,022 (13.82%) Web Services
11 1,951 (13.34%) ASP.NET MVC
12 1,819 (12.43%) Sass
13 1,512 (10.34%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 1,488 (10.17%) REST
15 1,437 (9.82%) .NET Framework
16 1,401 (9.58%) RESTful
17 1,393 (9.52%) ASP.NET Web API
18 1,295 (8.85%) XML
19 1,127 (7.70%) Vue.js
20 1,057 (7.23%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,350 (16.06%) User Experience
2 965 (6.60%) Greenfield Project
3 740 (5.06%) Mobile App
4 584 (3.99%) Analytical Skills
5 438 (2.99%) Enterprise Software
6 364 (2.49%) Self-Motivation
7 205 (1.40%) Algorithms
8 184 (1.26%) Data Structures
9 163 (1.11%) Social Media
10 101 (0.69%) Management Information System
11 94 (0.64%) Graphic Design
12 89 (0.61%) Blog
13 88 (0.60%) N-Tier
14 86 (0.59%) Robotics
15 80 (0.55%) Tandem
16 75 (0.51%) Cloud Native
16 75 (0.51%) Life Science
17 74 (0.51%) Linux Command Line
18 72 (0.49%) Hedge funds
19 63 (0.43%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
Operating Systems
1 1,206 (8.24%) Linux
2 705 (4.82%) Windows
3 456 (3.12%) Android
4 418 (2.86%) Apple iOS
5 168 (1.15%) Unix
6 145 (0.99%) Windows Server
7 73 (0.50%) Ubuntu
8 71 (0.49%) Debian
9 41 (0.28%) CentOS
10 39 (0.27%) Mac OS
11 23 (0.16%) Windows 10
12 22 (0.15%) Windows Server 2012
13 21 (0.14%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 18 (0.12%) Mac OS X
15 13 (0.089%) AIX
15 13 (0.089%) Windows 7
16 11 (0.075%) openSUSE
17 10 (0.068%) Fedora
18 9 (0.062%) Windows XP
19 8 (0.055%) Windows 2000
Processes & Methodologies
1 6,393 (43.70%) Agile Software Development
2 4,356 (29.78%) MVC
3 3,093 (21.14%) Front End Development
4 2,979 (20.36%) Web Development
5 2,096 (14.33%) TDD
6 2,040 (13.94%) Software Engineering
7 2,003 (13.69%) Scrum
8 1,710 (11.69%) OO
9 1,331 (9.10%) Problem-Solving
10 1,249 (8.54%) Unit Testing
11 1,235 (8.44%) DevOps
12 1,196 (8.18%) Continuous Integration
13 1,145 (7.83%) E-Commerce
14 1,119 (7.65%) OOP
15 1,071 (7.32%) Test Automation
16 1,011 (6.91%) Computer Science
17 980 (6.70%) Mentoring
18 976 (6.67%) Microservices
19 912 (6.23%) SDLC
20 832 (5.69%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 12,472 (85.26%) JavaScript
2 5,832 (39.87%) C#
3 4,060 (27.75%) SQL
4 2,909 (19.89%) PHP
5 2,335 (15.96%) Java
6 1,171 (8.00%) Python
7 1,027 (7.02%) ES6
8 1,020 (6.97%) TypeScript
9 754 (5.15%) T-SQL
10 412 (2.82%) C++
11 358 (2.45%) VB.NET
12 344 (2.35%) Ruby
13 275 (1.88%) Java 8
14 238 (1.63%) C
15 187 (1.28%) PL/SQL
16 184 (1.26%) PowerShell
17 126 (0.86%) Bash Shell
17 126 (0.86%) PHP 7
18 121 (0.83%) Scala
19 103 (0.70%) ES7
Qualifications
1 1,509 (10.32%) Degree
2 493 (3.37%) Computer Science Degree
3 235 (1.61%) Security Cleared
4 155 (1.06%) SC Cleared
5 124 (0.85%) Microsoft Certification
6 50 (0.34%) HND
7 43 (0.29%) Numerate Degree
8 42 (0.29%) Master's Degree
9 36 (0.25%) DV Cleared
10 25 (0.17%) ISTQB
11 21 (0.14%) PhD
12 20 (0.14%) ISEB
13 19 (0.13%) MCP
14 14 (0.096%) MCSD
14 14 (0.096%) MCSE
15 13 (0.089%) DBS Check
16 10 (0.068%) Postgraduate
17 8 (0.055%) PMI Certification
18 7 (0.048%) CIPD
18 7 (0.048%) CISSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 585 (4.00%) QA
2 73 (0.50%) WAI
3 62 (0.42%) GDPR
4 36 (0.25%) SLA
5 20 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 19 (0.13%) WCAG
7 11 (0.075%) PCI DSS
8 10 (0.068%) MiFID
9 7 (0.048%) Data Quality
9 7 (0.048%) PMO
10 5 (0.034%) HL7
10 5 (0.034%) ISO 9001
11 4 (0.027%) GAMP
12 3 (0.021%) Cyber Essentials
12 3 (0.021%) ISO 14001
13 2 (0.014%) Actionable Recommendations
14 1 (0.007%) Dublin Core
14 1 (0.007%) ISO/IEC 20000
14 1 (0.007%) PSD2
System Software
1 939 (6.42%) Docker
2 102 (0.70%) Active Directory
3 37 (0.25%) Varnish
4 30 (0.21%) Firmware
5 20 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
6 11 (0.075%) Forefront TMG
7 10 (0.068%) vSphere
8 9 (0.062%) Hyper-V
9 8 (0.055%) Virtual Machines
10 5 (0.034%) HDFS
10 5 (0.034%) KVM
11 3 (0.021%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 3 (0.021%) vCloud
12 2 (0.014%) GridGain
12 2 (0.014%) zsh
13 1 (0.007%) VirtualBox
13 1 (0.007%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 341 (2.33%) Kubernetes
2 123 (0.84%) Ansible
3 120 (0.82%) Opscode Chef
4 84 (0.57%) Terraform
5 66 (0.45%) Kibana
6 56 (0.38%) logstash
6 56 (0.38%) Puppet
7 18 (0.12%) Grafana
8 13 (0.089%) Data Guard
8 13 (0.089%) HP Quality Center
9 12 (0.082%) Consul
10 11 (0.075%) Prometheus
10 11 (0.075%) Salt
10 11 (0.075%) SCCM
11 10 (0.068%) Single Sign-On
11 10 (0.068%) TeamSite
12 9 (0.062%) Docker Swarm
12 9 (0.062%) Microsoft Intune
12 9 (0.062%) SCOM
13 8 (0.055%) Plesk
Vendors
1 1,997 (13.65%) Microsoft
2 622 (4.25%) Oracle
3 595 (4.07%) Adobe
4 568 (3.88%) Google
5 237 (1.62%) Zend
6 145 (0.99%) SAP
7 142 (0.97%) Xamarin
8 139 (0.95%) Sitecore
9 127 (0.87%) Salesforce.com
10 107 (0.73%) Splunk
11 100 (0.68%) ServiceNow
12 92 (0.63%) Atlassian
13 63 (0.43%) Nintex
14 56 (0.38%) Tableau
15 54 (0.37%) IBM
16 51 (0.35%) Facebook
17 49 (0.33%) VMware
18 48 (0.33%) WooCommerce
18 48 (0.33%) WorldPay
19 45 (0.31%) Twitter