Period
to 21 January 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 21 January 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
21 Jan 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 16 14 14
Rank change year-on-year -2 0 +1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 16,552 21,200 22,239
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 10.98% 12.33% 12.64%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 27.72% 30.47% 32.16%
Number of salaries quoted 13,857 18,888 20,009
UK median annual salary £47,500 £44,500 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +6.74% +4.71% +2.41%
10th Percentile £28,750 £27,500 £26,750
90th Percentile £75,000 £70,000 £67,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £40,000 £39,000
% change year-on-year +6.25% +2.56% +4.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 59,706 69,572 69,142
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.60% 40.47% 39.30%
Number of salaries quoted 48,907 58,411 59,751
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £30,000 £28,750
90th Percentile £85,000 £77,500 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 21 January 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 21 January 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 15,276 £47,500 +5.56% 3,689
UK excluding London -2 10,356 £42,500 +6.25% 2,793
London -3 5,806 £60,000 +9.09% 1,109
South East -3 3,398 £45,000 +5.88% 661
North of England -2 2,293 £42,500 +6.25% 814
Midlands -4 1,409 £40,000 +14.29% 531
North West 0 1,311 £45,000 +12.50% 461
South West -1 1,284 £40,000 - 348
East of England -1 1,091 £45,000 +3.45% 228
Yorkshire -3 808 £40,000 - 288
West Midlands -6 767 £40,000 +14.29% 296
East Midlands -5 642 £38,500 +4.05% 234
Scotland +4 589 £44,750 +11.88% 111
Wales -6 197 £36,000 +2.86% 81
North East +1 173 £37,500 +7.14% 65
Northern Ireland +4 131 £40,000 +2.56% 21
Channel Islands - 5 £45,000 -
Isle of Man +10 1 £67,500 +12.50%

For the 6 months to 21 January 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 15,414 (93.12%) HTML
2 14,334 (86.60%) JavaScript
3 7,502 (45.32%) Agile Software Development
4 6,798 (41.07%) C#
5 6,678 (40.35%) .NET
6 6,194 (37.42%) AngularJS
7 5,359 (32.38%) MVC
8 5,198 (31.40%) HTML5
9 4,828 (29.17%) jQuery
10 4,603 (27.81%) SQL
11 4,500 (27.19%) ASP.NET
12 4,208 (25.42%) SQL Server
13 3,644 (22.02%) CSS3
14 3,615 (21.84%) Web Development
15 3,484 (21.05%) Git (software)
16 3,396 (20.52%) Front End Development
17 3,283 (19.83%) React
18 3,010 (18.19%) PHP
19 2,896 (17.50%) Java
20 2,583 (15.61%) ASP.NET MVC
21 2,473 (14.94%) TDD
22 2,420 (14.62%) User Experience
23 2,410 (14.56%) Scrum
24 2,347 (14.18%) Microsoft
25 2,335 (14.11%) Finance
26 2,326 (14.05%) MySQL
27 2,281 (13.78%) Software Engineering
28 2,239 (13.53%) Web Services
29 2,206 (13.33%) Node.js
30 2,124 (12.83%) Microsoft Azure

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 1,107 (6.69%) CMS
2 620 (3.75%) WordPress
3 557 (3.37%) Elasticsearch
4 534 (3.23%) Apache
5 405 (2.45%) IIS
6 403 (2.43%) SharePoint
7 337 (2.04%) Umbraco
8 305 (1.84%) Confluence
8 305 (1.84%) Tomcat
9 278 (1.68%) Drupal
10 173 (1.05%) nginx
11 159 (0.96%) Sitecore CMS
12 142 (0.86%) EPiServer
13 139 (0.84%) JBoss
14 91 (0.55%) WebSphere
15 83 (0.50%) Kentico
16 81 (0.49%) Apache Spark
17 73 (0.44%) Adobe Experience Manager
18 68 (0.41%) SharePoint 2013
19 61 (0.37%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 594 (3.59%) Photoshop
2 320 (1.93%) Adobe Illustrator
3 184 (1.11%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 153 (0.92%) Microsoft Office
5 141 (0.85%) InVision
6 130 (0.79%) Chatbot
7 103 (0.62%) Microsoft Excel
8 49 (0.30%) Adobe After Effects
9 37 (0.22%) InDesign
10 25 (0.15%) OmniGraffle
11 20 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
12 19 (0.11%) AutoCAD
12 19 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 19 (0.11%) MS Visio
13 16 (0.097%) Acrobat
14 15 (0.091%) Fireworks
15 14 (0.085%) GIMP
15 14 (0.085%) InfoPath
16 12 (0.072%) Flinto
16 12 (0.072%) Weka
Business Applications
1 294 (1.78%) Magento
2 139 (0.84%) Dynamics CRM
3 46 (0.28%) Payment Gateway
3 46 (0.28%) Shopify
4 30 (0.18%) Eloqua
5 25 (0.15%) SAP Hybris
6 23 (0.14%) Actimize
7 19 (0.11%) Dynamics AX
8 12 (0.072%) Oracle BPM
9 11 (0.066%) WebTrends
10 10 (0.060%) osCommerce
11 9 (0.054%) NetSuite
11 9 (0.054%) Odoo
11 9 (0.054%) SAP Business One
12 8 (0.048%) Adobe Campaign
13 7 (0.042%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
13 7 (0.042%) SAP CO
13 7 (0.042%) SAP FI
13 7 (0.042%) SAP FI/CO
13 7 (0.042%) SAP IS-U
Cloud Services
1 2,124 (12.83%) Microsoft Azure
2 1,613 (9.75%) Amazon AWS
3 582 (3.52%) SaaS
4 484 (2.92%) GitHub
5 408 (2.46%) npm
6 182 (1.10%) Serverless
7 162 (0.98%) Office 365
8 158 (0.95%) Google Cloud Platform
9 144 (0.87%) Google Analytics
10 114 (0.69%) Amazon EC2
11 113 (0.68%) Amazon S3
12 102 (0.62%) PaaS
13 98 (0.59%) AWS Lambda
14 70 (0.42%) Google Play
15 63 (0.38%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 60 (0.36%) IaaS
17 58 (0.35%) Cloud Computing
18 56 (0.34%) AWS CloudFormation
19 51 (0.31%) Amazon CloudWatch
19 51 (0.31%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 332 (2.01%) HTTP
2 263 (1.59%) Internet
3 134 (0.81%) Intranet
4 71 (0.43%) TCP/IP
5 68 (0.41%) SSL
6 60 (0.36%) DNS
7 42 (0.25%) SMS
8 34 (0.21%) Firewall
9 33 (0.20%) SSH
10 30 (0.18%) HTTPS
10 30 (0.18%) Network Security
11 28 (0.17%) Skype
12 26 (0.16%) Extranet
13 23 (0.14%) FTP
14 22 (0.13%) RIP
15 21 (0.13%) Broadband
15 21 (0.13%) VoIP
16 14 (0.085%) Wireless
17 13 (0.079%) Wi-Fi
18 10 (0.060%) Bluetooth
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4,208 (25.42%) SQL Server
2 2,326 (14.05%) MySQL
3 991 (5.99%) NoSQL
4 952 (5.75%) MongoDB
5 751 (4.54%) Relational Database
6 668 (4.04%) PostgreSQL
7 296 (1.79%) Big Data
8 288 (1.74%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 275 (1.66%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 274 (1.66%) Redis
11 215 (1.30%) SQL Server 2016
12 198 (1.20%) SQL Server 2012
13 194 (1.17%) SQL Server 2008
14 191 (1.15%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 187 (1.13%) RDBMS
16 132 (0.80%) RavenDB
17 103 (0.62%) MariaDB
18 102 (0.62%) Oracle Database
19 98 (0.59%) Power BI
20 97 (0.59%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 3,484 (21.05%) Git (software)
2 978 (5.91%) Visual Studio
3 833 (5.03%) Jenkins
4 825 (4.98%) JIRA
5 793 (4.79%) webpack
6 753 (4.55%) gulp
7 739 (4.46%) Team Foundation Server
8 670 (4.05%) Subversion
9 579 (3.50%) Selenium
10 518 (3.13%) Grunt
11 372 (2.25%) Maven
12 365 (2.21%) NUnit
13 330 (1.99%) Jasmine
14 313 (1.89%) TeamCity
15 285 (1.72%) JUnit
16 213 (1.29%) Octopus Deploy
17 207 (1.25%) Mocha
18 201 (1.21%) Bitbucket
19 198 (1.20%) Eclipse
20 190 (1.15%) Cucumber
General
1 2,335 (14.11%) Finance
2 1,084 (6.55%) Marketing
3 816 (4.93%) Retail
4 544 (3.29%) Banking
5 405 (2.45%) Advertising
6 352 (2.13%) Games
7 284 (1.72%) Manufacturing
8 244 (1.47%) Telecoms
9 151 (0.91%) Automotive
10 145 (0.88%) Electronics
11 137 (0.83%) Publishing
12 133 (0.80%) Investment Banking
13 117 (0.71%) Legal
14 105 (0.63%) Back Office
14 105 (0.63%) Law
15 68 (0.41%) Front Office
16 51 (0.31%) Financial Institution
17 48 (0.29%) Pharmaceutical
18 38 (0.23%) Multimedia
19 31 (0.19%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 12,939 (78.17%) Developer
2 3,207 (19.38%) .NET Developer
3 2,578 (15.58%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 2,211 (13.36%) C# Developer
5 2,080 (12.57%) Senior Developer
6 1,664 (10.05%) Web Developer
7 1,571 (9.49%) Software Developer
8 1,546 (9.34%) C# .NET Developer
9 1,496 (9.04%) JavaScript Developer
10 1,410 (8.52%) Full Stack Developer
11 1,389 (8.39%) PHP Developer
12 1,035 (6.25%) Software Engineer
13 1,028 (6.21%) Java Developer
14 849 (5.13%) ASP.NET Developer
15 763 (4.61%) Junior
16 707 (4.27%) C# ASP.NET Developer
17 677 (4.09%) HTML Developer
18 672 (4.06%) Lead Developer
19 644 (3.89%) Junior Developer
20 627 (3.79%) React Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 15,414 (93.12%) HTML
2 6,678 (40.35%) .NET
3 6,194 (37.42%) AngularJS
4 5,198 (31.40%) HTML5
5 4,828 (29.17%) jQuery
6 4,500 (27.19%) ASP.NET
7 3,644 (22.02%) CSS3
8 3,283 (19.83%) React
9 2,583 (15.61%) ASP.NET MVC
10 2,239 (13.53%) Web Services
11 2,206 (13.33%) Node.js
12 2,044 (12.35%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 2,004 (12.11%) Sass
14 1,854 (11.20%) ASP.NET Web API
15 1,782 (10.77%) RESTful
16 1,682 (10.16%) .NET Framework
17 1,664 (10.05%) XML
18 1,582 (9.56%) REST
19 1,280 (7.73%) Vue.js
20 1,266 (7.65%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,420 (14.62%) User Experience
2 1,150 (6.95%) Greenfield Project
3 812 (4.91%) Mobile App
4 756 (4.57%) Fintech
5 725 (4.38%) Analytical Skills
6 556 (3.36%) Self-Motivation
7 497 (3.00%) Enterprise Software
8 171 (1.03%) Algorithms
9 167 (1.01%) Social Media
10 143 (0.86%) Data Structures
11 137 (0.83%) Graphic Design
12 121 (0.73%) N-Tier
13 111 (0.67%) Linux Command Line
14 101 (0.61%) Management Information System
15 95 (0.57%) Blog
15 95 (0.57%) Tandem
16 86 (0.52%) Virtual Team
17 78 (0.47%) W3C
18 75 (0.45%) Digital Media
18 75 (0.45%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 1,392 (8.41%) Linux
2 939 (5.67%) Windows
3 615 (3.72%) Android
4 524 (3.17%) Apple iOS
5 243 (1.47%) Unix
6 136 (0.82%) Windows Server
7 86 (0.52%) Ubuntu
8 52 (0.31%) CentOS
9 41 (0.25%) Mac OS
10 36 (0.22%) Debian
11 35 (0.21%) Windows 10
12 29 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
13 23 (0.14%) openSUSE
13 23 (0.14%) Windows Phone
14 22 (0.13%) Mac OS X
15 20 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16 16 (0.097%) Windows Phone 8
17 12 (0.072%) Solaris
18 9 (0.054%) VMS
19 7 (0.042%) Windows Embedded Compact
Processes & Methodologies
1 7,502 (45.32%) Agile Software Development
2 5,359 (32.38%) MVC
3 3,615 (21.84%) Web Development
4 3,396 (20.52%) Front End Development
5 2,473 (14.94%) TDD
6 2,410 (14.56%) Scrum
7 2,281 (13.78%) Software Engineering
8 1,798 (10.86%) OO
9 1,444 (8.72%) Problem-Solving
10 1,426 (8.62%) E-Commerce
11 1,349 (8.15%) Continuous Integration
12 1,270 (7.67%) Test Automation
13 1,236 (7.47%) Unit Testing
14 1,168 (7.06%) Microservices
15 1,072 (6.48%) Mentoring
16 1,068 (6.45%) Computer Science
17 1,032 (6.23%) SDLC
18 1,008 (6.09%) DevOps
19 999 (6.04%) OOP
20 987 (5.96%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 14,334 (86.60%) JavaScript
2 6,798 (41.07%) C#
3 4,603 (27.81%) SQL
4 3,010 (18.19%) PHP
5 2,896 (17.50%) Java
6 1,302 (7.87%) Python
7 1,002 (6.05%) ES6
8 999 (6.04%) TypeScript
9 942 (5.69%) T-SQL
10 509 (3.08%) C++
11 482 (2.91%) VB.NET
12 459 (2.77%) Ruby
13 296 (1.79%) Java 8
14 279 (1.69%) PL/SQL
15 259 (1.56%) C
16 172 (1.04%) PowerShell
17 142 (0.86%) VB
18 138 (0.83%) Bash Shell
19 129 (0.78%) Scala
20 119 (0.72%) PHP 7
Qualifications
1 1,763 (10.65%) Degree
2 652 (3.94%) Computer Science Degree
3 214 (1.29%) Security Cleared
4 146 (0.88%) SC Cleared
5 112 (0.68%) Microsoft Certification
6 57 (0.34%) Master's Degree
7 53 (0.32%) PhD
8 30 (0.18%) DBS Check
9 26 (0.16%) Numerate Degree
10 25 (0.15%) DV Cleared
10 25 (0.15%) HND
11 19 (0.11%) ISTQB
11 19 (0.11%) SAFe Agilist
12 14 (0.085%) ISEB
13 12 (0.072%) AWS Certification
14 11 (0.066%) Cisco Certification
15 9 (0.054%) CCNA
15 9 (0.054%) CISSP
15 9 (0.054%) MCSD
16 7 (0.042%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 686 (4.14%) QA
2 101 (0.61%) GDPR
3 62 (0.37%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 47 (0.28%) ISO 9001
5 35 (0.21%) WCAG
6 32 (0.19%) PCI DSS
6 32 (0.19%) SLA
7 21 (0.13%) Data Quality
8 20 (0.12%) WAI
9 13 (0.079%) ISO 14001
10 12 (0.072%) PMO
11 10 (0.060%) Disclosure Scotland
11 10 (0.060%) GAMP
12 5 (0.030%) MiFID
13 4 (0.024%) DICOM
13 4 (0.024%) JSP 440
14 3 (0.018%) Actionable Recommendations
15 2 (0.012%) HL7
15 2 (0.012%) Web Application Security Consortium
16 1 (0.006%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 862 (5.21%) Docker
2 100 (0.60%) Active Directory
3 39 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
4 31 (0.19%) Firmware
4 31 (0.19%) VMware Infrastructure
5 27 (0.16%) Varnish
6 17 (0.10%) HDFS
7 13 (0.079%) vSphere
8 12 (0.072%) Hyper-V
9 9 (0.054%) VirtualBox
10 7 (0.042%) LXC
11 4 (0.024%) Apache Flume
11 4 (0.024%) iptables
11 4 (0.024%) KVM
11 4 (0.024%) Samba
11 4 (0.024%) VMware ESXi
12 3 (0.018%) Apache ZooKeeper
12 3 (0.018%) GridGain
13 1 (0.006%) vCloud
13 1 (0.006%) zsh
Systems Management
1 264 (1.59%) Kubernetes
2 143 (0.86%) Opscode Chef
3 132 (0.80%) Ansible
4 106 (0.64%) Puppet
5 93 (0.56%) Terraform
6 42 (0.25%) Kibana
7 28 (0.17%) Salt
8 25 (0.15%) logstash
9 23 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
10 19 (0.11%) HP Quality Center
11 15 (0.091%) Docker Swarm
11 15 (0.091%) HAProxy
12 13 (0.079%) Consul
13 12 (0.072%) Control-M
14 11 (0.066%) Microsoft Intune
14 11 (0.066%) SCOM
15 9 (0.054%) Capistrano
16 7 (0.042%) Graphite
16 7 (0.042%) Mesos
16 7 (0.042%) Nagios
Vendors
1 2,347 (14.18%) Microsoft
2 858 (5.18%) Oracle
3 604 (3.65%) Adobe
4 476 (2.88%) Google
5 269 (1.63%) Zend
6 220 (1.33%) Sitecore
7 205 (1.24%) Xamarin
8 202 (1.22%) SAP
9 150 (0.91%) Salesforce.com
10 112 (0.68%) IBM
11 96 (0.58%) Tableau
12 95 (0.57%) Facebook
13 84 (0.51%) ServiceNow
14 79 (0.48%) Nintex
15 77 (0.47%) Atlassian
16 61 (0.37%) Telerik
16 61 (0.37%) Twitter
17 55 (0.33%) VMware
18 53 (0.32%) Splunk
19 43 (0.26%) hybris