Period
to 3 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 3 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Java
UK
6 months to
3 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 12 10 8
Rank change year-on-year -2 -2 +1
Permanent jobs citing Java 10,595 16,944 23,503
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 14.00% 13.87% 15.74%
As % of the Programming Languages category 24.75% 25.66% 28.63%
Number of salaries quoted 10,300 14,985 20,147
Median annual salary £65,000 £62,500 £60,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.00% +4.17% +9.09%
10th Percentile £41,250 £36,250 £32,500
90th Percentile £100,000 £105,000 £92,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +10.00% - +3.09%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 42,816 66,037 82,088
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 56.57% 54.05% 54.96%
Number of salaries quoted 35,482 54,938 68,660
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,000 £31,250
90th Percentile £90,000 £88,750 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Java.

Salary trend for Java in the UK

Java
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 3 March 2021.

Salary histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 3 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 9,564 £65,000 - 1,992
London -2 5,203 £75,000 - 989
UK excluding London 0 4,934 £55,000 +10.00% 1,148
Work from Home -3 1,951 £62,500 -3.85% 484
South East +2 1,359 £57,500 +4.55% 275
North of England -2 1,125 £55,000 +10.00% 304
South West +6 870 £51,500 +3.00% 140
Midlands -4 532 £50,000 - 159
Yorkshire +1 529 £55,000 +10.00% 122
Scotland +2 526 £52,000 +4.00% 112
North West -6 443 £55,000 +4.76% 143
West Midlands +5 335 £52,500 +6.36% 107
East of England +1 327 £60,000 +14.29% 116
East Midlands -13 193 £50,000 -4.76% 50
North East +25 153 £50,000 +19.47% 39
Northern Ireland +5 103 £45,000 - 24
Wales -4 99 £45,000 +5.88% 18
Isle of Man - 1 £42,500 -

For the 6 months to 3 March 2021, IT jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 5,121 (48.33%) Agile Software Development
2 3,660 (34.54%) Python
3 3,361 (31.72%) JavaScript
4 3,124 (29.49%) AWS
5 2,792 (26.35%) Software Engineering
6 2,731 (25.78%) SQL
7 2,505 (23.64%) DevOps
8 2,418 (22.82%) Microservices
9 2,392 (22.58%) Docker
10 2,308 (21.78%) Spring
11 2,189 (20.66%) Finance
12 1,969 (18.58%) C#
13 1,929 (18.21%) Kubernetes
14 1,888 (17.82%) TDD
15 1,666 (15.72%) Azure
16 1,645 (15.53%) Test Automation
17 1,630 (15.38%) Scrum
18 1,430 (13.50%) Jenkins
19 1,357 (12.81%) Linux
20 1,291 (12.18%) React
21 1,279 (12.07%) AngularJS
22 1,272 (12.01%) HTML
23 1,271 (12.00%) Spring Boot
24 1,249 (11.79%) Git (software)
25 1,163 (10.98%) Degree
26 1,158 (10.93%) C++
27 1,127 (10.64%) Web Services
28 1,119 (10.56%) CSS
29 1,118 (10.55%) OO
30 1,070 (10.10%) Node.js

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 408 (3.85%) Elasticsearch
2 381 (3.60%) Confluence
3 379 (3.58%) Apache Spark
4 315 (2.97%) Apache
5 213 (2.01%) Tomcat
6 115 (1.09%) JBoss
7 111 (1.05%) WebSphere
8 88 (0.83%) CMS
9 83 (0.78%) SAS
10 78 (0.74%) nginx
11 77 (0.73%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 63 (0.59%) WebLogic
13 58 (0.55%) Red Hat Fuse
14 55 (0.52%) Cloud Foundry
15 53 (0.50%) Mule
16 46 (0.43%) Apache Airflow
17 39 (0.37%) Apache Solr
18 35 (0.33%) Adobe Experience Manager
19 31 (0.29%) IIS
20 29 (0.27%) OpenStack
Applications
1 58 (0.55%) Microsoft Office
2 42 (0.40%) Sketch
3 32 (0.30%) Adobe XD
4 29 (0.27%) InVision
5 25 (0.24%) Figma
5 25 (0.24%) Microsoft Excel
6 17 (0.16%) Spreadsheet
7 8 (0.076%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 8 (0.076%) MS Visio
7 8 (0.076%) SPSS
8 7 (0.066%) Simulink
9 6 (0.057%) Adobe Illustrator
9 6 (0.057%) Photoshop
10 4 (0.038%) Zeplin
11 2 (0.019%) Chatbot
12 1 (0.009%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 1 (0.009%) EngageOne
12 1 (0.009%) Microsoft Project
12 1 (0.009%) PrintSoft PReS
12 1 (0.009%) Quicktime
Business Applications
1 30 (0.28%) Payment Gateway
2 15 (0.14%) Shopify
3 14 (0.13%) Dynamics CRM
3 14 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
3 14 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
4 13 (0.12%) Oracle EBS
5 12 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
6 11 (0.10%) Oracle Applications
6 11 (0.10%) R3 Corda
7 10 (0.094%) SAP CRM
8 8 (0.076%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
9 7 (0.066%) Remedy ITSM
10 6 (0.057%) Magento
10 6 (0.057%) PeopleSoft HCM
10 6 (0.057%) SAP GTS
11 5 (0.047%) Distributed Ledger
11 5 (0.047%) FINCAD Analytics
11 5 (0.047%) NetSuite
12 4 (0.038%) SAP Business One
12 4 (0.038%) Temenos T24
Cloud Services
1 3,124 (29.49%) AWS
2 1,666 (15.72%) Azure
3 1,060 (10.00%) GCP
4 612 (5.78%) SaaS
5 468 (4.42%) Serverless
6 296 (2.79%) AWS Lambda
7 276 (2.61%) Amazon EC2
8 219 (2.07%) PaaS
9 216 (2.04%) GitHub
10 204 (1.93%) AWS CloudFormation
11 172 (1.62%) Amazon S3
12 156 (1.47%) Amazon ECS
13 148 (1.40%) IaaS
14 142 (1.34%) Cloud Computing
15 139 (1.31%) OpenShift
16 110 (1.04%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 82 (0.77%) Power Platform
18 78 (0.74%) Boomi
19 77 (0.73%) Datadog
20 76 (0.72%) Amazon Kinesis
Communications & Networking
1 186 (1.76%) HTTP
2 124 (1.17%) Internet
3 81 (0.76%) TCP/IP
4 65 (0.61%) Firewall
5 52 (0.49%) DNS
6 29 (0.27%) HTTPS
7 24 (0.23%) FTP
8 21 (0.20%) Wireless
9 20 (0.19%) Bluetooth
9 20 (0.19%) SMTP
10 19 (0.18%) AMQP
10 19 (0.18%) SSL
10 19 (0.18%) VPN
11 15 (0.14%) Network Security
12 14 (0.13%) IMAP
12 14 (0.13%) SSH
13 10 (0.094%) DAB
13 10 (0.094%) DSL
13 10 (0.094%) SNMP
13 10 (0.094%) Unified Communications
Database & Business Intelligence
1 865 (8.16%) NoSQL
2 837 (7.90%) PostgreSQL
3 688 (6.49%) MySQL
4 672 (6.34%) Big Data
5 583 (5.50%) SQL Server
6 577 (5.45%) Relational Database
7 570 (5.38%) MongoDB
8 402 (3.79%) Hadoop
9 254 (2.40%) Redis
10 219 (2.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 201 (1.90%) Apache Cassandra
12 155 (1.46%) Data Warehouse
13 132 (1.25%) RDBMS
14 121 (1.14%) Amazon Redshift
15 120 (1.13%) Blockchain
16 110 (1.04%) Apache Hive
17 104 (0.98%) Oracle Database
18 102 (0.96%) BigQuery
19 87 (0.82%) Amazon RDS
20 79 (0.75%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 1,430 (13.50%) Jenkins
2 1,249 (11.79%) Git (software)
3 813 (7.67%) Selenium
4 770 (7.27%) JIRA
5 596 (5.63%) Cucumber
6 578 (5.46%) Maven
7 437 (4.12%) JUnit
8 264 (2.49%) Gradle
9 248 (2.34%) WebDriver
10 235 (2.22%) GitLab
11 201 (1.90%) Subversion
12 199 (1.88%) JMeter
13 180 (1.70%) Appium
14 153 (1.44%) Mockito
15 145 (1.37%) IntelliJ
16 144 (1.36%) Bitbucket
17 133 (1.26%) Artifactory
18 132 (1.25%) Atlassian Bamboo
19 130 (1.23%) Postman
20 125 (1.18%) Eclipse
General
1 2,189 (20.66%) Finance
2 884 (8.34%) Banking
3 497 (4.69%) Front Office
4 426 (4.02%) Public Sector
5 335 (3.16%) Games
6 283 (2.67%) Retail
7 236 (2.23%) Marketing
8 206 (1.94%) Investment Banking
9 164 (1.55%) Telecoms
10 134 (1.26%) Law
11 127 (1.20%) Electronics
12 122 (1.15%) Manufacturing
13 101 (0.95%) Multimedia
14 92 (0.87%) Advertising
15 83 (0.78%) Back Office
16 75 (0.71%) Financial Institution
17 63 (0.59%) Legal
18 53 (0.50%) Publishing
19 42 (0.40%) Billing
19 42 (0.40%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 5,084 (47.98%) Developer
2 2,814 (26.56%) Java Developer
3 1,544 (14.57%) Software Engineer
4 1,141 (10.77%) Senior Developer
5 940 (8.87%) Java Engineer
6 717 (6.77%) Senior Java Developer
7 524 (4.95%) Architect
8 516 (4.87%) Software Developer
9 498 (4.70%) Full Stack Developer
10 486 (4.59%) Java Software Engineer
11 430 (4.06%) Lead Developer
12 425 (4.01%) DevOps Engineer
13 361 (3.41%) Senior Software Engineer
14 344 (3.25%) Tester
15 321 (3.03%) Python Developer
16 320 (3.02%) Python Engineer
17 283 (2.67%) Data Engineer
18 264 (2.49%) AWS Engineer
19 260 (2.45%) Analyst
20 257 (2.43%) JavaScript Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,308 (21.78%) Spring
2 1,291 (12.18%) React
3 1,279 (12.07%) AngularJS
4 1,272 (12.01%) HTML
5 1,271 (12.00%) Spring Boot
6 1,127 (10.64%) Web Services
7 1,119 (10.56%) CSS
8 1,070 (10.10%) Node.js
9 1,059 (10.00%) Kafka
10 948 (8.95%) REST
11 878 (8.29%) RESTful
12 852 (8.04%) .NET
13 606 (5.72%) Hibernate
14 564 (5.32%) HTML5
15 439 (4.14%) Vue.js
16 381 (3.60%) JSON
17 373 (3.52%) SOAP
18 357 (3.37%) XML
19 330 (3.11%) J2EE
20 315 (2.97%) CSS3
Miscellaneous
1 635 (5.99%) Analytical Skills
2 567 (5.35%) Greenfield Project
3 469 (4.43%) Data Structures
4 464 (4.38%) Algorithms
5 451 (4.26%) Mobile App
6 403 (3.80%) Fixed Income
7 365 (3.45%) User Experience
8 359 (3.39%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 320 (3.02%) Derivative
10 305 (2.88%) Equities
11 292 (2.76%) Hedge funds
12 283 (2.67%) Enterprise Software
13 237 (2.24%) Self-Motivation
14 211 (1.99%) Cloud Native
15 135 (1.27%) Virtual Team
16 117 (1.10%) Public Cloud
17 115 (1.09%) Management Information System
18 95 (0.90%) NHS
19 90 (0.85%) Linux Command Line
20 88 (0.83%) Data Centre
Operating Systems
1 1,357 (12.81%) Linux
2 556 (5.25%) Android
3 470 (4.44%) Windows
4 440 (4.15%) Unix
5 305 (2.88%) Apple iOS
6 118 (1.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 96 (0.91%) CentOS
8 57 (0.54%) Ubuntu
9 42 (0.40%) Windows Server
10 17 (0.16%) Solaris
11 11 (0.10%) CoreOS
11 11 (0.10%) Embedded Linux
11 11 (0.10%) Mac OS
11 11 (0.10%) zOS
12 7 (0.066%) AIX
12 7 (0.066%) VMS
13 5 (0.047%) Debian
13 5 (0.047%) Windows Server 2016
14 4 (0.038%) Mac OS X
15 3 (0.028%) VxWorks
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,121 (48.33%) Agile Software Development
2 2,792 (26.35%) Software Engineering
3 2,505 (23.64%) DevOps
4 2,418 (22.82%) Microservices
5 1,888 (17.82%) TDD
6 1,645 (15.53%) Test Automation
7 1,630 (15.38%) Scrum
8 1,118 (10.55%) OO
9 1,062 (10.02%) BDD
10 986 (9.31%) Continuous Integration
11 967 (9.13%) Fintech
12 926 (8.74%) Computer Science
13 919 (8.67%) Problem-Solving
14 828 (7.82%) Mentoring
15 815 (7.69%) Analytics
16 694 (6.55%) SDLC
17 627 (5.92%) Open Source
18 544 (5.13%) OOP
19 542 (5.12%) Machine Learning
20 511 (4.82%) Multithreading
Programming Languages
1 3,660 (34.54%) Python
2 3,361 (31.72%) JavaScript
3 2,731 (25.78%) SQL
4 1,969 (18.58%) C#
5 1,158 (10.93%) C++
6 991 (9.35%) Java 8
7 823 (7.77%) Go
8 789 (7.45%) Kotlin
9 772 (7.29%) TypeScript
10 763 (7.20%) Scala
11 492 (4.64%) Ruby
12 469 (4.43%) PHP
13 464 (4.38%) C
14 345 (3.26%) Bash Shell
15 218 (2.06%) Perl
15 218 (2.06%) PowerShell
16 197 (1.86%) Groovy
17 185 (1.75%) R
18 182 (1.72%) PL/SQL
19 162 (1.53%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 1,163 (10.98%) Degree
2 646 (6.10%) Security Cleared
3 508 (4.79%) SC Cleared
4 400 (3.78%) Computer Science Degree
5 129 (1.22%) ISTQB
6 119 (1.12%) DV Cleared
7 110 (1.04%) Numerate Degree
8 105 (0.99%) Oracle Certification
9 95 (0.90%) OCP
10 91 (0.86%) CIW
10 91 (0.86%) OCA
11 80 (0.76%) Master's Degree
12 76 (0.72%) ISEB
13 64 (0.60%) PhD
14 32 (0.30%) BPSS Clearance
15 30 (0.28%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
16 28 (0.26%) Microsoft Certification
17 22 (0.21%) Sun Certification
18 19 (0.18%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
19 17 (0.16%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 771 (7.28%) QA
2 51 (0.48%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 49 (0.46%) NIST
4 46 (0.43%) SLA
5 42 (0.40%) GDPR
6 41 (0.39%) Data Quality
7 23 (0.22%) WCAG
8 17 (0.16%) MiFID
8 17 (0.16%) NCSC
9 16 (0.15%) PCI DSS
10 12 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
10 12 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27005
11 11 (0.10%) EMIR
12 10 (0.094%) Dodd-Frank
13 8 (0.076%) ISO 9001
13 8 (0.076%) PMO
14 6 (0.057%) COBIT
14 6 (0.057%) Good Clinical Practice
15 5 (0.047%) ISO 13485
16 3 (0.028%) 21 CFR Part 11
System Software
1 2,392 (22.58%) Docker
2 75 (0.71%) Active Directory
3 69 (0.65%) VMware Infrastructure
4 44 (0.42%) HDFS
5 28 (0.26%) Virtual Machines
6 25 (0.24%) Firmware
7 22 (0.21%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 18 (0.17%) KVM
9 13 (0.12%) BitLocker
10 11 (0.10%) Hyper-V
11 9 (0.085%) Postfix
12 7 (0.066%) vSphere
13 6 (0.057%) Xen
14 4 (0.038%) LXC
15 3 (0.028%) Apache Flume
15 3 (0.028%) GPFS
15 3 (0.028%) NDS
15 3 (0.028%) NetIQ eDirectory
15 3 (0.028%) NFS
15 3 (0.028%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 1,929 (18.21%) Kubernetes
2 865 (8.16%) Terraform
3 740 (6.98%) Ansible
4 347 (3.28%) Puppet
5 273 (2.58%) Opscode Chef
6 150 (1.42%) Prometheus
7 146 (1.38%) Grafana
8 59 (0.56%) ZABBIX
9 43 (0.41%) Packer
10 37 (0.35%) Docker Swarm
10 37 (0.35%) Istio
11 35 (0.33%) Graphite
12 34 (0.32%) Kibana
13 33 (0.31%) Nagios
14 31 (0.29%) HP Quality Center
15 25 (0.24%) Consul
16 24 (0.23%) Single Sign-On
17 23 (0.22%) Fortio
17 23 (0.22%) Kiali
18 17 (0.16%) Norton AntiVirus
Vendors
1 914 (8.63%) Oracle
2 602 (5.68%) Microsoft
3 547 (5.16%) Google
4 241 (2.27%) IBM
5 187 (1.76%) Red Hat
6 174 (1.64%) SAP
7 149 (1.41%) MuleSoft
8 130 (1.23%) Splunk
9 129 (1.22%) Atlassian
10 115 (1.09%) Salesforce.com
11 93 (0.88%) Adobe
12 92 (0.87%) New Relic
12 92 (0.87%) VMware
13 83 (0.78%) ServiceNow
13 83 (0.78%) Talend
14 71 (0.67%) Apple
15 69 (0.65%) Sybase
16 64 (0.60%) TIBCO
17 57 (0.54%) Dell
17 57 (0.54%) Informatica