Period
to 13 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 13 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
13 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 5 4 4
Rank change year-on-year -1 0 0
Permanent jobs citing SQL 14,984 21,150 29,388
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 18.04% 18.58% 19.74%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.69% 34.08% 36.17%
Number of salaries quoted 12,359 17,677 24,784
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,000 £30,000
25th Percentile £38,750 £37,500 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £52,500 £50,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +8.70%
75th Percentile £67,500 £66,250 £65,000
90th Percentile £83,150 £81,250 £78,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £46,250 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year +2.78% +5.88% -

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 45,831 62,061 81,257
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 55.19% 54.52% 54.58%
Number of salaries quoted 37,185 51,686 67,404
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £40,000 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £70,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £46,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +8.70% +2.22% +2.27%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Salary trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Salary histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 13 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 13,422 £52,500 +5.00% 2,779
UK excluding London -2 8,608 £46,250 +2.78% 1,900
London -4 5,492 £65,000 +4.00% 1,047
Work from Home +4 3,008 £50,000 - 599
North of England -1 2,401 £47,500 +5.56% 527
South East -2 2,246 £50,000 +11.11% 429
Midlands -1 1,477 £44,000 +3.53% 369
North West 0 1,177 £47,500 +5.56% 278
South West +1 1,049 £45,000 +5.88% 201
Yorkshire -1 1,005 £47,500 +11.76% 195
West Midlands -1 917 £45,000 - 259
Scotland -2 571 £47,500 +5.56% 108
East of England 0 557 £47,500 +5.56% 193
East Midlands +4 554 £42,500 +3.66% 108
North East +3 221 £43,000 +10.26% 54
Wales -1 216 £42,500 +0.59% 55
Northern Ireland -2 87 £37,500 -6.25% 17
Isle of Man -1 29 £49,500 +4.21% 2

For the 6 months to 13 April 2021, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 4,792 (31.98%) Azure
2 4,602 (30.71%) Agile Software Development
3 4,573 (30.52%) C#
4 4,034 (26.92%) .NET
5 3,992 (26.64%) JavaScript
6 3,672 (24.51%) SQL Server
7 3,587 (23.94%) Python
8 3,324 (22.18%) Microsoft
9 3,067 (20.47%) Finance
10 2,785 (18.59%) Java
11 2,764 (18.45%) DevOps
12 2,713 (18.11%) AWS
13 2,636 (17.59%) Business Intelligence
14 2,339 (15.61%) HTML
15 2,254 (15.04%) Analytics
16 2,251 (15.02%) CSS
17 2,030 (13.55%) Software Engineering
18 1,932 (12.89%) Degree
19 1,858 (12.40%) Power Platform
20 1,833 (12.23%) Docker
21 1,793 (11.97%) Git (software)
22 1,735 (11.58%) Power BI
23 1,687 (11.26%) Problem-Solving
24 1,678 (11.20%) Microservices
25 1,668 (11.13%) Windows
26 1,653 (11.03%) Analytical Skills
27 1,627 (10.86%) Linux
28 1,619 (10.80%) T-SQL
29 1,616 (10.78%) .NET Core
30 1,556 (10.38%) AngularJS

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 604 (4.03%) SharePoint
2 501 (3.34%) Apache Spark
3 309 (2.06%) Apache
4 287 (1.92%) IIS
5 253 (1.69%) Confluence
6 221 (1.47%) SAS
7 220 (1.47%) Elasticsearch
8 200 (1.33%) Apache Airflow
9 196 (1.31%) CMS
10 106 (0.71%) MS Exchange
11 102 (0.68%) Tomcat
12 93 (0.62%) nginx
13 65 (0.43%) WebSphere
14 64 (0.43%) Luigi
15 62 (0.41%) EPiServer
16 59 (0.39%) BizTalk Server
17 54 (0.36%) WordPress
18 52 (0.35%) JBoss
19 51 (0.34%) WebLogic
20 40 (0.27%) ColdFusion
Applications
1 832 (5.55%) Microsoft Excel
2 370 (2.47%) Microsoft Office
3 86 (0.57%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 74 (0.49%) MS Visio
5 65 (0.43%) Spreadsheet
6 25 (0.17%) SPSS
7 18 (0.12%) Sketch
8 14 (0.093%) Microsoft Project
8 14 (0.093%) Photoshop
9 10 (0.067%) AutoCAD
9 10 (0.067%) InVision
10 9 (0.060%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 9 (0.060%) Chatbot
11 7 (0.047%) Adobe Illustrator
11 7 (0.047%) Figma
12 6 (0.040%) InfoPath
13 5 (0.033%) Revit
13 5 (0.033%) Stata
14 4 (0.027%) Gliffy
15 3 (0.020%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 284 (1.90%) Dynamics CRM
2 85 (0.57%) Dynamics AX
3 77 (0.51%) NetSuite
4 64 (0.43%) Dynamics NAV
5 43 (0.29%) Oracle EBS
6 38 (0.25%) SAP Business One
7 34 (0.23%) Oracle ERP
8 33 (0.22%) Magento
9 22 (0.15%) SAP S/4HANA
10 20 (0.13%) Elite 3E
11 18 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
12 17 (0.11%) Oracle Payables
12 17 (0.11%) Oracle Receivables
12 17 (0.11%) Summit
13 16 (0.11%) Oracle Applications
13 16 (0.11%) Oracle EBS R12
13 16 (0.11%) Oracle Financials
14 15 (0.10%) Oracle Assets
15 14 (0.093%) Adobe Campaign
15 14 (0.093%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
Cloud Services
1 4,792 (31.98%) Azure
2 2,713 (18.11%) AWS
3 1,858 (12.40%) Power Platform
4 822 (5.49%) GCP
5 717 (4.79%) SaaS
6 665 (4.44%) Serverless
7 586 (3.91%) Microsoft 365
8 520 (3.47%) PaaS
9 422 (2.82%) Azure Data Factory
10 319 (2.13%) Azure Active Directory
10 319 (2.13%) IaaS
11 292 (1.95%) AWS Lambda
12 287 (1.92%) Dynamics 365
13 256 (1.71%) Amazon S3
14 250 (1.67%) GitHub
15 238 (1.59%) Amazon EC2
16 181 (1.21%) Azure Functions
17 170 (1.13%) PowerApps
18 158 (1.05%) Cloud Computing
19 145 (0.97%) Logic Apps
Communications & Networking
1 297 (1.98%) Firewall
2 198 (1.32%) DNS
3 174 (1.16%) HTTP
4 143 (0.95%) TCP/IP
5 127 (0.85%) DHCP
6 126 (0.84%) SAN
7 118 (0.79%) Internet
8 110 (0.73%) WAN
9 96 (0.64%) VPN
10 88 (0.59%) LAN
11 72 (0.48%) VoIP
12 70 (0.47%) SSH
13 56 (0.37%) Network Security
14 52 (0.35%) Skype
15 50 (0.33%) FTP
16 44 (0.29%) Intranet
17 43 (0.29%) Wireless
18 39 (0.26%) NAS
19 37 (0.25%) SSL
19 37 (0.25%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 3,672 (24.51%) SQL Server
2 1,735 (11.58%) Power BI
3 1,552 (10.36%) Data Warehouse
4 1,481 (9.88%) NoSQL
5 1,322 (8.82%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 1,297 (8.66%) SQL Server Reporting Services
7 1,010 (6.74%) Relational Database
8 967 (6.45%) PostgreSQL
9 934 (6.23%) MySQL
10 838 (5.59%) Tableau
11 772 (5.15%) Azure SQL Database
12 759 (5.07%) Big Data
13 611 (4.08%) MongoDB
14 608 (4.06%) SQL Server Analysis Services
15 440 (2.94%) Hadoop
16 426 (2.84%) Data Lake
17 352 (2.35%) Amazon Redshift
18 349 (2.33%) Redis
19 266 (1.78%) Oracle Database
20 253 (1.69%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 1,793 (11.97%) Git (software)
2 928 (6.19%) Jenkins
3 718 (4.79%) JIRA
4 530 (3.54%) Selenium
5 518 (3.46%) Visual Studio
6 437 (2.92%) Team Foundation Server
7 270 (1.80%) Maven
8 260 (1.74%) JUnit
9 252 (1.68%) Subversion
10 217 (1.45%) Cucumber
11 209 (1.39%) TeamCity
12 197 (1.31%) Visual Studio Team System
13 174 (1.16%) Bitbucket
14 157 (1.05%) Octopus Deploy
15 137 (0.91%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 133 (0.89%) GitLab
16 133 (0.89%) SpecFlow
17 127 (0.85%) Gradle
18 126 (0.84%) NUnit
19 125 (0.83%) Postman
General
1 3,067 (20.47%) Finance
2 651 (4.34%) Marketing
3 639 (4.26%) Banking
4 460 (3.07%) Retail
5 361 (2.41%) Public Sector
6 330 (2.20%) Manufacturing
7 309 (2.06%) Law
8 276 (1.84%) Front Office
9 241 (1.61%) Back Office
10 217 (1.45%) Games
11 202 (1.35%) Telecoms
12 182 (1.21%) Legal
13 180 (1.20%) Advertising
14 113 (0.75%) Financial Institution
15 100 (0.67%) Electronics
15 100 (0.67%) Multimedia
16 96 (0.64%) Investment Banking
17 67 (0.45%) Billing
18 57 (0.38%) Aerospace
19 51 (0.34%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 6,467 (43.16%) Developer
2 2,075 (13.85%) Analyst
3 1,409 (9.40%) Senior Developer
4 1,401 (9.35%) .NET Developer
5 1,204 (8.04%) C# Developer
6 1,021 (6.81%) Software Developer
7 982 (6.55%) Software Engineer
8 920 (6.14%) Data Engineer
9 768 (5.13%) SQL Developer
10 754 (5.03%) Full Stack Developer
11 666 (4.44%) Java Developer
12 639 (4.26%) C# .NET Developer
13 585 (3.90%) Data Analyst
14 576 (3.84%) Applications Support
15 545 (3.64%) Azure Engineer
16 483 (3.22%) Architect
17 445 (2.97%) Business Intelligence Developer
18 414 (2.76%) Support Analyst
19 401 (2.68%) Consultant
20 388 (2.59%) Senior .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,034 (26.92%) .NET
2 2,339 (15.61%) HTML
3 2,251 (15.02%) CSS
4 1,616 (10.78%) .NET Core
5 1,556 (10.38%) AngularJS
6 1,485 (9.91%) React
7 1,336 (8.92%) ASP.NET
8 1,180 (7.88%) Web Services
9 1,089 (7.27%) REST
10 945 (6.31%) .NET Framework
11 792 (5.29%) Node.js
12 767 (5.12%) jQuery
13 764 (5.10%) RESTful
14 706 (4.71%) HTML5
15 701 (4.68%) Spring
16 692 (4.62%) XML
17 668 (4.46%) Vue.js
18 595 (3.97%) ASP.NET Web API
19 535 (3.57%) JSON
20 532 (3.55%) Kafka
Miscellaneous
1 1,653 (11.03%) Analytical Skills
2 583 (3.89%) Greenfield Project
3 425 (2.84%) Self-Motivation
4 396 (2.64%) User Experience
5 364 (2.43%) Mobile App
6 363 (2.42%) Data Structures
7 336 (2.24%) Hedge funds
8 325 (2.17%) Algorithms
9 320 (2.14%) Management Information System
10 246 (1.64%) Enterprise Software
11 217 (1.45%) Equities
12 199 (1.33%) Data Centre
13 190 (1.27%) Derivative
14 177 (1.18%) N-Tier
15 155 (1.03%) Fixed Income
15 155 (1.03%) Virtual Team
16 130 (0.87%) Linux Command Line
17 129 (0.86%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 129 (0.86%) Public Cloud
18 121 (0.81%) Clustering
Operating Systems
1 1,668 (11.13%) Windows
2 1,627 (10.86%) Linux
3 601 (4.01%) Windows Server
4 508 (3.39%) Unix
5 190 (1.27%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 178 (1.19%) Android
7 155 (1.03%) Apple iOS
8 126 (0.84%) Windows Server 2016
9 125 (0.83%) Windows 10
10 107 (0.71%) Windows Server 2012
11 95 (0.63%) Ubuntu
12 79 (0.53%) CentOS
12 79 (0.53%) Windows Server 2008
13 54 (0.36%) Windows 7
14 43 (0.29%) Solaris
14 43 (0.29%) Windows Server 2019
15 32 (0.21%) Alpine Linux
16 20 (0.13%) Debian
17 15 (0.10%) SUSE
17 15 (0.10%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,602 (30.71%) Agile Software Development
2 2,764 (18.45%) DevOps
3 2,636 (17.59%) Business Intelligence
4 2,254 (15.04%) Analytics
5 2,030 (13.55%) Software Engineering
6 1,687 (11.26%) Problem-Solving
7 1,678 (11.20%) Microservices
8 1,530 (10.21%) MVC
9 1,513 (10.10%) ETL
10 1,363 (9.10%) Scrum
11 1,351 (9.02%) TDD
12 1,331 (8.88%) Test Automation
13 1,173 (7.83%) Computer Science
14 1,103 (7.36%) Continuous Integration
15 1,088 (7.26%) Data Modelling
16 1,051 (7.01%) OO
17 1,039 (6.93%) Visualisation
18 1,036 (6.91%) Mentoring
19 963 (6.43%) Migration
20 923 (6.16%) Data Science
Programming Languages
1 4,573 (30.52%) C#
2 3,992 (26.64%) JavaScript
3 3,587 (23.94%) Python
4 2,785 (18.59%) Java
5 1,619 (10.80%) T-SQL
6 948 (6.33%) PowerShell
7 848 (5.66%) PHP
8 833 (5.56%) TypeScript
9 557 (3.72%) C++
10 507 (3.38%) PL/SQL
11 506 (3.38%) R
12 379 (2.53%) Bash Shell
13 341 (2.28%) C
14 326 (2.18%) Scala
15 296 (1.98%) Go
16 277 (1.85%) Ruby
17 253 (1.69%) VB.NET
18 241 (1.61%) VB
19 227 (1.51%) VBA
20 206 (1.37%) Java 8
Qualifications
1 1,932 (12.89%) Degree
2 563 (3.76%) Computer Science Degree
3 479 (3.20%) Security Cleared
4 363 (2.42%) SC Cleared
5 223 (1.49%) Microsoft Certification
6 175 (1.17%) Numerate Degree
7 98 (0.65%) PhD
8 94 (0.63%) ISTQB
9 72 (0.48%) MCSE
10 71 (0.47%) DV Cleared
10 71 (0.47%) ISEB
11 57 (0.38%) Master's Degree
12 49 (0.33%) CCNA
12 49 (0.33%) Cisco Certification
13 44 (0.29%) ITIL Certification
14 42 (0.28%) BPSS Clearance
15 40 (0.27%) MCSA
16 37 (0.25%) AWS Certification
16 37 (0.25%) DBS Check
16 37 (0.25%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 803 (5.36%) QA
2 440 (2.94%) Data Quality
3 187 (1.25%) SLA
4 157 (1.05%) GDPR
5 71 (0.47%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 35 (0.23%) PCI DSS
7 28 (0.19%) NIST
8 25 (0.17%) GRC
9 18 (0.12%) CDISC
10 15 (0.10%) Good Clinical Practice
10 15 (0.10%) ISO 9001
11 11 (0.073%) COBIT
11 11 (0.073%) PMO
12 10 (0.067%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 9 (0.060%) 21 CFR Part 11
14 8 (0.053%) PSD2
15 7 (0.047%) GAMP
15 7 (0.047%) ISO 13485
15 7 (0.047%) MiFID
16 6 (0.040%) EMIR
System Software
1 1,833 (12.23%) Docker
2 721 (4.81%) Active Directory
3 343 (2.29%) VMware Infrastructure
4 210 (1.40%) Hyper-V
5 63 (0.42%) vSphere
6 61 (0.41%) Virtual Machines
7 52 (0.35%) VirtualBox
8 51 (0.34%) HDFS
9 48 (0.32%) XenApp
10 47 (0.31%) VMware ESXi
11 40 (0.27%) XenDesktop
12 28 (0.19%) Oracle RAC
13 27 (0.18%) Virtual Desktop
14 19 (0.13%) Virtual Servers
15 17 (0.11%) Firmware
15 17 (0.11%) Terminal Services
16 11 (0.073%) Postfix
17 8 (0.053%) Microsoft App-V
17 8 (0.053%) Microsoft Virtual Server
18 7 (0.047%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 1,397 (9.32%) Kubernetes
2 816 (5.45%) Terraform
3 499 (3.33%) Ansible
4 224 (1.49%) Opscode Chef
5 223 (1.49%) Puppet
6 177 (1.18%) SCCM
7 127 (0.85%) Prometheus
8 126 (0.84%) Grafana
9 101 (0.67%) Microsoft Intune
10 81 (0.54%) Docker Swarm
11 64 (0.43%) Packer
12 49 (0.33%) Failover Clustering
13 43 (0.29%) SCOM
14 29 (0.19%) WSUS
15 28 (0.19%) Single Sign-On
16 26 (0.17%) Consul
16 26 (0.17%) Oracle RMAN
17 23 (0.15%) MIIS
17 23 (0.15%) Nessus
18 22 (0.15%) Microsoft Clustering
Vendors
1 3,324 (22.18%) Microsoft
2 1,538 (10.26%) Oracle
3 631 (4.21%) Google
4 521 (3.48%) VMware
5 310 (2.07%) Databricks
6 301 (2.01%) SAP
7 264 (1.76%) Salesforce.com
8 203 (1.35%) IBM
9 185 (1.23%) Citrix
10 178 (1.19%) Red Hat
11 159 (1.06%) Cisco
12 155 (1.03%) Informatica
13 154 (1.03%) Talend
14 138 (0.92%) EnterpriseDB
15 116 (0.77%) Sybase
16 114 (0.76%) Xamarin
17 103 (0.69%) Alteryx
17 103 (0.69%) Atlassian
18 101 (0.67%) Cloudera
19 100 (0.67%) Nintex